india from mughals to the british east india company to the british

By fister
  • Feb 9, 1526

    Mughal conqueror rule

    Mughal conqueror Babur (1483-1530) defeats the Sultan of Delhi and captures the Koh-i-noor diamond. Occupying Delhi, by 1529 he founds the Indian Mughal Empire (1526-1761), consolidated by his grandson Akbar.
  • Feb 9, 1542


    Portuguese Jesuit priest Francis Xavier (1506-1552), most successful Catholic missionary, lands in Goa. First to train and employ native clergy in conversion efforts, he brings Christianity to India, Malay Archipelago and Japan.
  • Feb 9, 1556


    Akbar (1542-1605), grandson of Babur, becomes third Mughal Emperor at age 13. Disestablishes Islam as state religion and declares himself impartial ruler of Hindus and Muslims; encourages art, culture, religious tolerance.
  • Feb 9, 1565


    Muslim forces defeat and completely destroy the city of Vijayanagara. Empire's final collapse comes in 1646.
  • Feb 9, 1569


    Akbar captures fortress of Ranthambor, ending Rajput independence. Soon controls nearly all of Rajasthan.
  • Defeat

    British ships defeat the Spanish Armada off the coast of Calais, France, to become rulers of the high seas.
  • Rule

    Akbar rules half of India, shows tolerance for all faiths.
  • Temple

    Construction is begun on Chidambaram Temple's Hall of a Thousand Pillars in South India, completed in 1685.
  • Innovation and subjugation

    "Persian wheel" to lift water by oxen is adopted, one of few farming innovations since Indus Valley civilization.Royal Charter forms the East India Company, setting in motion a process that ultimately results in the subjugation of India under British rule.
  • succeeds

    Akbar the Great dies at age 63. His son Jahangir succeeds him as fourth Mughal Emperor.
  • trade

    British East India Company sets up trading post at Surat.
  • exchange

    Mughals grant Britain right to trade and establish factories in exchange for English navy's protection of the Mughal Empire, which faces Portuguese sea power.
  • Jaffna kingdom

    Jaffna kingdom is annexed and Sri Lanka's ruling dynasty deposed by Portuguese Catholics who, between 1505 and 1658, destroy most of the island's Hindu temples.
  • Life of Sivaji

    Life of Sivaji, valiant general and tolerant founder of Hindu Maratha Empire (1674-1818). Emancipates large areas confiscated by Muslims, returning them to Hindu control. First Indian ruler to build a major naval force.
  • Shah Jahan

    Over the next two years, millions starve to death as Shah Jahan (1592-1666), fifth Mughal Emperor, empties the royal treasury to buy jewels for his "Peacock Throne."
  • Taj Mahal

    Shah Jahan completes Taj Mahal in Agra beside Yamuna River. Its construction has taken 20,000 laborers 15 years, at a total cost equivalence of US$25 million.
  • Arrival

    Robert de Nobili (1577-1656), Portuguese Jesuit missionary noted for fervor and intolerance, arrives in Madurai, declares himself a brahmin, dresses like a Hindu monk and composes Veda-like scripture extolling Jesus.
  • Mughal Emperor

    Zealous Muslim Aurangzeb (1618-1707) becomes Mughal Emperor. His discriminatory policies toward Hindus, Marathas and the Deccan kingdoms contribute to the dissolution of the Mughal Empire by 1750.
  • Mughal rule

    Frenchman Francois Bernier reports India's peasantry is living in misery under Mughal rule.
  • Sikh-Muslim feud

    Aurangzeb executes Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur, beginning the Sikh-Muslim feud that continues to this day.
  • Jizya tax

    Aurangzeb levies Jizya tax on non-believers, Hindus.
  • Demolishes

    Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb demolishes all temples in Mathura, said to number 1,000. (During their reign, Muslim rulers destroy roughly 60,000 Hindu temples throughout India, constructing mosques on 3,000 sites.)
  • compiles

    Jesuit Father Hanxleden compiles first Sanskrit grammar in a European language.
  • control

    Robert Clive, age 26, seizes Arcot in modern Tamil Nadu as French and British fight for control of South India.
  • ending Maratha hegemony

    Afghan army of Ahmad Shah Durrani routs Hindu Maratha forces at Panipat, ending Maratha hegemony in North India. As many as 200,000 Hindus are said to have died in the strategic eight-hour battle.
  • Mughal Emperor defeat

    British defeat the weak Mughal Emperor to become rulers of Bengal, richest province of India.
  • Nepal conquers

    Prithivi Narayan Shah, ruler of Gorkha principality, conquers Nepal Valley; moves capital to Kathmandu, establishing present-day Hindu nation of Nepal.
  • obtains

    British East India Company obtains monopoly on the production and sale of opium in Bengal.
  • Calcutta's Royal Asiatic Society

    Judge and linguist Sir William Jones founds Calcutta's Royal Asiatic Society. First such scholastic institution.
  • "noble"

    Sir William Jones uses the Rig Veda term Aryan ("noble") to name the parent language (now termed Indo-European) of Sanskrit, Greek, Latin and Germanic tongues.
  • Warren Hastings impeachment

    British Parliament impeaches Warren Hastings, Governor General of Bengal (1774-85) for misconduct.
  • Slave Trade

    British Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade is formed, marking the beginning of the end of slavery.
  • Britain's Cornwallis victory

    Britain's Cornwallis defeats Tipu Sahib, Sultan of Mysore and most powerful ruler in South India, main bulwark of resistance to British expansion in India.
  • Sultan Tipu death

    Sultan Tipu is killed in battle against 5,000 British soldiers who storm and raze his capital, Srirangapattinam.
  • capture of Delhi

    Second Anglo-Maratha war results in British Christian capture of Delhi and control of large parts of India. 1803: India's population is 200 million.
  • strike a bargain

    British strike a bargain with Ranjit Singh for exclusive areas of influence.
  • FIrst

    First Indian immigrants arrive in the US.
  • Madras is to Reunion and Mauritius

    First massive immigration of Indian workers from Madras is to Reunion and Mauritius. This immigrant Hindu community builds their first temple in 1854.
  • Adi Brahmo Samaj

    Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833) founds Adi Brahmo Samaj in Calcutta, first movement to initiate religio-social reform. Influenced by Islam and Christianity, he denounces polytheism, idol worship; repudiates the Vedas, avataras, karma and reincarnation, caste and more.
  • Balakot

    British Christians defeat Ranjit Singh's forces at Balakot, in Sikh attempt to establish a homeland in N.W. India.
  • abolish of slavery

    Slavery is abolished in British Commonwealth countries, giving impetus to abolitionists in United States.
  • Civil service jobs

    Civil service jobs in India are opened to Indians.
  • education in India

    Macaulay's Minute furthers Western education in India. English is made official government and court language.
  • immigrant laborers

    Mauritius receives 19,000 immigrant indentured laborers from India. Last ship carrying workers arrives in 1922.
  • cheap labor system

    Britain formalizes emigration of Indian indentured laborers to supply cheap labor under a system more morally acceptable to British Christian society than slavery, illegal in the British Empire since 1833.
  • suppressed

    Kali-worshiping Thugees are suppressed by British.
  • receives

    British Guyana receives its first 250 Indian laborers.
  • declaration of superiority

    Joseph de Goubineau (1816-1882), French scholar, writes The Inequality of Human Races. Proclaims the "Aryan race" superior to other great strains and lays down the aristocratic class-doctrine of Aryanism that later provides the basis for Adolf Hitler's Aryan racism.
  • Sind region conqueror

    British conquer the Sind region (present-day Pakistan). 1845: Trinidad receives its first 197 Indian immigrant laborers.
  • seperation

    British forcibly separate Kashmir from the Sikhs and sell it to the Maharaja of Jammu for pounds1,000,000.
  • Sikh army defeat

    Sikh army is defeated by the British at Amritsar.
  • First enable

    First English translation of the Rig Veda by H.H. Wilson, first holder of Oxford's Boden Chair, founded "to promote the translation of the Scriptures into English, so as to enable his countrymen to proceed in the conversion of the natives of India to the Christian religion."
  • Dictionary

    Sir M. Monier-Williams (1819-99) publishes English-Sanskrit Dictionary. His completed Sanskrit-English Dictionary is released in 1899 after three decades of work.
  • naming

    Max Muller (1823-1900), German Christian philologist and Orientalist, advocates the term Aryan to name a hypothetical primitive people of Central Asia, the common ancestors of Hindus, Persians and Greeks. Muller speculates that this "Aryan race" divided and marched west to Europe and east to India and China around 1500 bce. Their language, Muller contends, developed into Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, German, etc., and all ancient civilizations descended from this Aryan race.
  • Dravidian

    Catholic missionary Bishop Caldwell coins the term Dravidian to refer to South Indian Caucasian peoples.
  • Indian Revolution

    First Indian Revolution, called the Sepoy Mutiny, ends in a few months with the fall of Delhi and Lucknow. 1858: India has 200 miles of railroad track. By 1869 5,000 miles of steel track have been completed by British railroad companies. In 1900, total track is 25,000 miles, and by World War I, 35,000 miles. By 1970, at 62,136 miles, it has become the world's greatest train system. Unfortunately, this development depletes India's forest lands.
  • sugar plantations

    S.S. Truro and S.S. Belvedere dock in Durban, S. Africa, carrying first indentured servants (from Madras and Calcutta) to work sugar plantations. With contracts of five years and up, thousands emigrate over next 51 years.
  • independence to India

    Lifetime of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Indian nationalist and Hindu political activist who develops the strategy of nonviolent disobedience that forces Christian Great Britain to grant independence to India (1947).
  • proclaimed

    British Queen Victoria (1819-1901), head of Church of England, is proclaimed Empress of India (1876-1901).
  • Sacred Books of the East

    Max Muller, pioneer of comparative religion as a scholarly discipline, publishes 50-volume Sacred Books of the East, English translations of Indian-Oriental scriptures.
  • Lifetime

    Lifetime of Sri Lanka's Ananda Coomaraswamy, foremost interpreter of Indian art and culture to the West.
  • "Leonidas"

    The "Leonidas," first emigrant ship to Fiji, adds 498 Indian indentured laborers to the nearly 340,000 already working in other British Empire colonies.
  • voice of Indian opinion

    A group of middle-class intellectuals in India, some of them British, found the Indian National Congress to be a voice of Indian opinion to the British government. This was the origin of the later Congress Party.
  • Aryan

    Max Muller, revising his stance, writes, "Aryan, in scientific language, is utterly inapplicable to race. If I say Aryas, I mean neither blood nor bones, nor hair nor skull; I mean simply those who spoke the Aryan language."
  • Swami Vivekananda

    Swami Vivekananda represents Hinduism at Chicago's Parliament of the World's Religions, first ever interfaith gathering, dramatically enlightening Western opinion as to the profundity of Hindu philosophy and culture.
  • protest

    Gandhi drafts first petition protesting the indentured servant system. Less than six months later, British announce the halt of indentured emigration from India.
  • demand complete independence

    Nationalist leader, Marathi scholar Bal Bangadhar Tilak (1857-1920) initiates Ganesha Visarjana and Sivaji festivals to fan Indian nationalism. He is first to demand complete independence, Purna Svaraj, from Britain.
  • tea exports

    India's tea exports to Britain reach 137 million pounds.
  • arrogant

    Lord Curzon, arrogant British Viceroy of India, resigns.
  • political party is form

    Muslim League political party is formed in India.
  • overtake Bali

    Dutch Christians overtake Bali after Puputan massacres in which Hindu Balinese royal families are murdered.
  • better

    Gandhi and assistant Maganlal agitate for better working conditions and abolition of indentured servitude in S. Africa. Maganlal continues Gandhi's work in Fiji.
  • racial riots

    Anti-Indian racial riots on the US West Coast expel large Hindu immigrant population.
  • New law

    New law prohibits Indian immigration to S. Africa, primarily in answer to white colonists' alarm at competition of Indian merchants and expired labor contracts.
  • excludes

    US government excludes Indian citizens from immigration. Restriction stands until 1965.