The British in India

Timeline created by 20205097
  • 1275

    Marco Polo

    Marco Polo
    Marco Polo returned to Venice, again via the Silk Road routes, in 1295, just as the Mongolian Empire was in decline. His journeys across the Silk Road became the basis for his book, The Travels of Marco Polo, which gave Europeans a better understanding of Asian commerce and culture.
  • 1398

    Mongol Invasion

    Mongol Invasion
    After the death of Sultan Firuz Tughlak who reigned from 1351 to 1388, the Delhi sultanate declined. In 1398, Mongols from Central Asia descended into India. Under their leader, Tamerlane, they attacked and destroyed Dehli. The invaders killed and enslaved the entire population of the city and carried off its treasures. After the left, however, the Dehli sultans were restored.
  • 1453

    Fall of Constantinople

    The closing of the Silk Road forced merchants to take to the sea thus initiating the Age of Discovery which led to world-wide interaction and the beginnings of a global community. Its closure would propel Europeans across the ocean to explore, and eventually conquer, the so-called New World of the Americas. In this way, the Silk Road can be said to have established the groundwork for the development of the modern world.
  • 1526

    Mughal Empire

    Mughal Empire
    In 1526, another Mongol army invaded India. At its head was Babur (Bahbhur), who claimed to be Tamerlane's grandson Babur founded the Mughal Empire. Under the Mughals a brilliant culture emerged, blending both Hindu and Muslim traditions. The Mughal empire lasted for 300 years. Its golden age occurred during the reign of Akbar, grandson of Babur.
  • Mughal Empire Declines

    Mughal Empire Declines
    The Mughal empire entered a deep decline in 1707. It broke apart into small states in the mid-1700s. Wasteful spending hurt the empire. Civil wars among Muslim princes also broke out. At the same time, a new wave of intruders--the Europeans were arriving in growing number.
  • The Black Hole of Calcutta

    By the end of the 17th century, the Mogul empire had fallen into the hands of the nawabs, cause the British and French to take advantage and compete in building empires. The British had established a trading place in Calcutta in 1690s The nawab army arrived on June 16th. Siraj's final attack came on the morning of June 20th. He was forced to surrender. A total of 146 British prisoners were herded at sword-point for the night into the "black hole", a little lock up the British had built.
  • Battle of Plassey

    fought in Bengal between the army of Nawab Siraj ud- Daulah and the forces British East India Company. The battle was the climax of a carefully manipulated conspiracy to oust Siraj in favor of a Nawab more amenable to British interests and more acceptable to some of the courtiers and merchants of Bengal.
  • Sepoy mutiny

    Sepoy mutiny
    In 1857 these strained relations exploded into a rebellion. Sepoys were indian soldiers who fought the British army. The spark that set it off was the introduction of a new type of cartridge into the rifle, where the soldier had to bite off at the end of the ammunition. This was greased with beef and pork grease. This offended the muslims and hindus. This was what made the growing conflict explode. The violence of this rebellion was ferocious killing many British officers, women and children.
  • A British Colony

    The rebellion led to a number of political changes. In 1858, the British government took over India as a colony. They sent the last Mughal emperor to exile.
  • Mohandas Gandhi is Born

    He was born in Porbandar, a coastal town in present-day Gujarat, India. He absorbed in his early years many influences that would play an important role in his adult life. This included self -purification, and mutual tolerance, fasting, mutual tolerance between individuals of different creeds.
  • Queen Victoria of India

    In 1876, Queen Victoria of Britain took the title of Empress of India.
  • Mohandes Gandhi Marries Kasturbai in and Arranged Child Marriage

    13-year old Mohandas was married to 14-year lf Kasturbai Makhanji. When Gandhi was 15, the couple's first child was born, bbut only survived a few days.
  • Indian National Congress

    It was established by English speaking Indians, most of whom were Hindu. After WWI the INC took a more forceful stand. In 1920, Mohandas Gandhi took over the leadership of Congress movement. He united large sections of people in support for home rule.
  • Anglo-Zulu War

    Anglo-Zulu War
  • The Muslim League

    Many Muslim leaders feared that Hindus had opposed the partition of Bengal for political reasons--to preserve the power of Hindus at the expense of Muslims. As a result, the Mulsim league sought to protect the interests of Indian Muslims. In 1940 the Muslim league formally called for a partition or a division of India and the creation of separate Muslim and Hindu countries.
  • Railroad Industry in India

    By 1910 India had the fourth-largest railroad network in the world. British invested in transportation for two reasons: to move troops to trouble spots more easily and to help sell British products throughout india.
  • Mohandas Gandhi returns

    Mohandas Gandhi returned to India from South Africa in 1914. Within a few years he emerged as a key figure in the India struggle for independence. He united many groups within the nationalist movement.
  • Gandhi is Given Exclusive Authority over the Indian National Congress

    In December 1921, Gandhi was invested with executive authority on behalf of Indian National Congress.
  • Gandhi Begins 21 Day Fast in Attempt to reconcile Hindus and Muslims

    He went on this fast to purify himself and to recover the power to react on the people.
  • Gandhi Salt March

    An act of civil disobedience orchestrated by Mohandas Gandhi to protest British rule in India. British Salt Act prohibited Indians from collecting or selling salt. They were forced to buy the vital mineral from their British rulers. He thought it was an ingenious way for many Indians to break British law. He used satyagraha or "truth force" to protest the tax on salt. At the coast they broke the law by making salt from sea water.
  • Declaration of Independence of India

    It was established by the Indian National Congress. It resolved the Congress and Indian nationalists to fight for Purna Swaraj, or complete self rule apart from the British empire.
  • Conclusion of Salt March

    Gandhi and 78 male satyagrahis set out on foot for the coastal village of Dandi, Gujarat, 390 kilometres. When Gandhi broke the salt laws in Dandi at the conclusion of the march on April 6, 1930, it sparked large scale acts of civil disobedience against the British Raj salt laws by millions of Indians.
  • Gandhi arrested after Salt March

    He was arrested just days before his planned raid on the Dharasana
    Salt works. Over 80,000 indians were jailed as a result of the Salt Satyagraha. This happened just before he planned a more aggressive phase of his non violent rebellion by raiding and taking possession of salt depots at Dharasana.
  • Dividing of Hindus and Muslims

    As violence increased between the Muslims and Hindus increased during the early 1940s, British leaders came to believe that partition was the best way to ensure a safe and stable region. They decided to divide India into separate Hindu and Muslim nations.
  • The Partition of India

    The Partition of India was the partition of British india that led to the creation, on August 14, 1947 and August 15, 1947, of Pakistan and Bangladesh.
  • Gandhi's death

    Gandhi's death
    Gandhi was assassinated on January 30th, 1948. He was shot by the Hindu fanatic Nathuram Godse. Hindu fanatics detested Gandhi's calls for tolerance and peace. He was shot in the Gardens of Birla House, where Godse bowed to him and shot him three times in the stomach and chest. Despite the efforts of Nehra and other leaders, violence erupted in Bombay including attacks on Brahmins because the killer was Brahmin.
  • Mahatma Gandhi Death

    Mahatma Gandhi Death
    This murder came only 10 days after an previous attempt made on Gandhi's life. Thirty-nine year old Nathuram Godse shot the great leader three times as he made his way through a small crowd to attend a prayer meeting. The Hindu extremist did not like his tolerance and advocacy of unity between muslims and Hindus. The elderly Gandhi was weak from years of hunger strikes. Godse was executed a year later.
  • Period:
    -130 BCE

    Silk Road Trade

    The Silk Road was a network of trade routes connecting China and the Far East with the M.E. and Europe. Established when the Han Dynasty in China officially opened trade with the West in 130 B.C., the Routes remained in use until 1453 A.D., when the Ottoman Empire boycotted trade with China and closed them. Although it's been nearly 600 years since the Silk Road has been used for international trade, the routes had a lasting impact on commerce, culture and history that resonates even today.
  • Period: to

    British East India Company

    In 1600, England set up the East India Company. The company won rights to build trading posts and forts at Madras Bombay and Calcutta. Many Indian rulers fought hard to keep the British out of the ir territory. They gained enormous wealth from taxes and they set up their own law code and a court system. They outlawed ritual suicide by widows and other Hindu practices. Both Hindus and Muslims resented the effort of missionaries to convert them to Christian.
  • Period: to

    Indian Civil Service

  • Period: to

    Swadeshi 1905- 1908

    When the British announced that it would be breaking up Bengal into two provinces, nationalists thought this was an attempt to break up the hindu population. As a result, radicals in congress called for a boycott of all British goods. Participants vowed to nly make indian-made garments. A few militant nationalists attacked British officials. This movement convinced the British to make concessions to the Indian people.
  • Period: to

    World War I

    World War I was happening around this time between originating in Europe. During and after World War I Indian nationalists increased their demands for freedom. In 1919, Britain responded with harsh new laws limiting freedom of the press and other rights in India. The nationalist fought back hard.