Life of Mahatma Gandhi

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    British Empire

    An overview of the history of the British Empire.
  • The New World

    The New World
    During June, 1585, the first British attempt to colonize North America occured, when a landing party planned and partially funded by Sir Walter Raleigh landed on a stretch of beach at Roanoke, on the Queen's orders. This would be the first British American colony.
  • The Slave Trade Act

    The Slave Trade Act
    During the 16-18th centuries, Britain, along with every other major European country participated in th Atlantic Slave trade. Slave ships would travel to Africa, to exchange confectioneries with slaves, then travel on to the Americas to exchange slaves with cash crops. These would then be traded for money back in Europe. William Wilberforce abolished this middle part of the passage during 1807, marking an economic decline in the British Empire.
  • Birth

    Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born in Porbandar, a town in British occupied India. His parents were Karamchand Gandhi (paternal) and Putlibai Gandhi (maternal).
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    The Life & Achievements of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

    This Timetoast briefly showcases the life and publicly major achievements of Mahatma (common title) Gandhi.
  • Marriage

    While the exact date of Gandhi's marriage is unknown, it is probable that he was (arranged by ancestors) married to Kasturbai Makhanji. He was 13 then. Subsequently, Kasturbai gave birth to four sons, Harilal, Manilal, Ramdas and Devdas, in 1888, 1892, 1897 and 1900 respectively.
  • Travel to England

    Travel to England
    In 1888 (exact date unknown), Gandhi travelled to England to train as a barrister, a type of lawyer. He returned sometime after 1891, after the death of his mother. In 1893, he accepted a post from a company, to travel to South Africa.
  • The Scramble for Africa

    The Scramble for Africa
    During the 'Scramble for Africa', many European powers rushed to colonize different parts of the African mainland. This resulted in a large increase in the Brtish Empire's territory.
  • Beginnings of Satyagraha

    Beginnings of Satyagraha
    In 1906, Gandhi held a meeting with protestors about a policy adopted by the occupying forces during his prolonged visit in South Africa which required regristration of the country's Indian population. Satyagraha (devotion to the truth) was a method of peaceful protest. This famous method of defying the British was the first of Gandhi's triumphs, as the British were compelled after several years to negotiate a compromise between the and the Indians.
  • Peasants Protest

    Peasants Protest
    During 1918, Gandhi's focus was brought to the peasantry in Bihar (a state of India). British landlords and government had forced the peasant farmers to grow certain crops. The peasants received little payment for the cash crops. Gandhi then went to court with the government, and won a series of arguments to eradicate some of the tight policies.
  • Amritsar Massacre

    Amritsar Massacre
    On the 13th of April, 1919, Brigadier General Reginald Dyer ordered fifty riflemen or so to aim at a gathering of around fifteen-thousand non-armed Indians. Firing at an almost point-blank range with high-powered rifles for ten minutes, Dyer's men caused at least 379 fatalities. This incident practically started the end of British rule in colonial India.
  • Salt March (satyagraha)

    Salt March (satyagraha)
    In 1882, the British estabilished a 'Salt Tax'. This tax was not fair, as it forced the salt market into monopoly; the Indian traders had to pay the tax, while the British were excluded. In 1930, Gandhi launched a campaign against this unfair policy. On the 12th of March, he started a march from Ahmedabad to Dandi, which culminated in Gandhi making salt. The march took until the 6th of April, during which he marched 388 kilometres, After freely selling his salt, he was imprisoned by the British.
  • Gandhi-Irwin Pact

    Gandhi-Irwin Pact
    Then the viceroy of India, Lord Irwin (E.F.L. Wood) decided to sign a pact with the leaders of the satyagraha; naturally led by Gandhi. The overall conclusion was thus; the Indian people would discontinue any protests, and receive the removal of taxes on essential items such as salt, liquor and cloth, as well as the release of all non-guilty prisoners.
  • Fast Against Untouchable Discrimination

    Fast Against Untouchable Discrimination
    Untouchables was a general term used to describe the religious minority, cultural minority as well as other groups of people unlike the civil mainstream. On the 8th of May, 1933, Gandhi begun a 21 day fast in order to protests for rights for these people (Gandhi named them Harijans, or children of God).
  • Second World War

    Second World War
    When Germany invaded Poland in 1939, the Commonwealth countries soon declared war. India was plunged into war, after the British agreed to grant independence to her immediately after the war. Though the British were concerned that India would fall into religious war soon after, Gandhi was determined to have his way.
  • Final imprisonment

    Final imprisonment
    During 1942, Gandhi and many close members of the Congress as well as his assistants and family were imprisoned, when India started to rebel against the British, which were suggesting conscripment to swell the ranks of the Allied forces. Gandhi's wife subsequently died in February 1944. The British released Gandhi after he contracted malaria; they did not wish to arouse public enragement.
  • Partition of India

    Partition of India
    Gandhi was adamant against a partition of colonial India once independence was achieved. He believed that a united India would be stronger. However, the Muslim leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the winner in this struggle; India would be partitioned into two separate sovereign states. On the 15th of August, 1947, blood painted the streets red as millions of Hindus and Muslims flocked to the correct side of the new border between India and Pakistan. Despite Gandhi's efforts, blood was still shed.
  • Independent India

    Independent India
    On the 15th of August, 1947, the British conceded the colony of India to the control of the population itself. The British viceroy general of India then, Lord Mountbatten of Burma, decided that the tense situation developed by religious hatred between Hindus and Muslims could not be contained after 1947. India was then partitioned into the 'Republic of India' and the 'Islamic Republic of Pakistan.'
  • Death

    Gandhi died in New Delhi, by assasination. His assasin was Nathuram Godse, aliased with a political party against Gandhi. Gandhi lived to the age of 78 years.
  • End of Empire

    End of Empire
    After India's achieved independence in 1947, many of Britain's colonies followed (America achieved independence in 1783). Colonies such as Cyprus, Nigeria, Sudan, the Bahamas (and many more) broke away from British rule. Hong Kong's sovereignity was returned to China in 1997, effectively marking the end of the British Empire.