Gandhi mahatma

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

  • Birth and Parentage

    Birth and Parentage
    He was the youngest child of his parents, Karamchand and Putlibai.
  • Gandhi in England

    Gandhi in England
    Gandhi reached England by the end of September 1888. Everything was strange to him. He was shy and diffident, could not speak English fluently and was ignorant of British manners. Naturally, loneliness and homesickness gripped him. Gandhi became a vegetarian for life.
  • Gandhi becomes a Barrister

    Gandhi becomes a Barrister
    He therefore studied for and passed the London matriculation examination. Becoming a Barrister meant attending at least six dinners in each of the twelve terms and giving an easy examination. Gandhi, however, studied sincerely, read all the prescribed books, passed his examination and was called to the bar in June 1891. He then sailed for home.
  • Gandhi in South Africa

    Gandhi in South Africa
    Gandhi returned to India as a Barrister, but he knew nothing about the Indian law. Lawyers used to pay commissions to touts to get cases. Gandhi did not like this. Besides, he was shy and an occasion to argue in the Court unnerved him. He became a disappointed and dejected 'Bridles Barrister'. At that time, a South African firm Dada Abdulla and Co. asked for his assistance in a case.
  • Gandhi fights racial discrimination

    Gandhi fights racial discrimination
    Right since his arrival, Gandhi began to feel the pinch of racial discrimination in South Africa. Indian community was ignorant and divided and therefore unable to fight it.
  • The Boer War

    The Boer War
    Gandhi, however, remained a loyal citizen of the British Empire. In that spirit, he decided to help the British during the Boer War. The Boer were the Dutch colonizers who ruled some of the South African colonies. They were simple and sturdy people with strong racial prejudices. The British wanted to rule whole of the South Africa.
  • The Fight continues

    The Fight continues
    Gandhi returned to India. He travelled widely and worked closely with Gopal Krishna Gokhale, whom he considered his guru. He was about to settle down in Bombay, when he received an urgent telegram from South Africa to rush there. Gandhi again went to South Africa. He found that the condition of Indians had worsened.
  • The Phoenix Settlement

    The Phoenix Settlement
    Gandhi happened to read Ruskin's book 'Unto This Last.' He was deeply impressed by Ruskin's ideas and decided to put them in practice immediately. They were: (I) That the good of the individual is contained in the good of all. (ii) that all work has the same value and (iii) that the life of labour is the life worth-living.
  • The Zulu Rebellion

    The Zulu Rebellion
    It was not in fact a rebellion, but a man-hunt. The British wanted to crush the freedom-loving Zulu tribals. The operation to massacre them was, therefore, started under a flimsy pretext. Out of a sense of loyalty to the British empire, Gandhi offered the services of the Indian community, though his heart was with the Zulus. An ambulance corps of 24 persons was formed.
  • Birth of Satyagraha

    Birth of Satyagraha
    The White rulers were bent on keeping South Africa under their domination. They wanted as few Indians there as possible and that too as slave-labourers. In Transvaal, Indians were required to register themselves.
  • An attempt of Gandhi's life

    An attempt of Gandhi's life
    Gandhi fainted with the words 'He Ram' on his lips. It was 10th February 1908. His colleagues tried to save him otherwise it would have been the last day for him.
  • The last phase of Satyagraha

    The last phase of Satyagraha
    After many ups and downs, the last phase of Satyagraha began in September 1913. A Black Law imposing three pounds tax on Indians provided occasion for it. Satyagrahis crossed Transvaal border defying the law. Even the women were invited to join.
  • Gandhi in India: Rise of leadership

    Gandhi in India: Rise of leadership
    He was welcomed and honoured as a hero. He spent a year touring the country at the instance of Gokhale, his guru. He travelled mostly in third class railway compartments. He saw the conditions in the country first-hand.
  • Champaran Satyagraha

    Champaran Satyagraha
    Gandhi was invited to visit Champaran by Rajkumar Shukla, a peasant from the area.
  • Kheda Satyagraha

    Kheda Satyagraha
    The rules permitted suspension of revenue collection when the crops were less than four annas. According to the peasants' estimate, the crops were less than four annas. Gandhi's inquiries, as well as inquiries by independent observers, showed that the peasants were right.
  • Ahmedabad Satyagraha

    Ahmedabad Satyagraha
    A dispute between the textile mill-owners and the labourers at Ahmedabad arose in 1918, about the grant of bonus and dearness allowance. The labourers wanted 50% increase allowance due to steep rise in prices. The mill-owners were ready to give only 20% increase. Gandhi was approached to find a solution.
  • Amritsar Congress

    Amritsar Congress
    The annual session of the Indian National Congress was held at Amritsar in Punjab in December 1919. Most of the leaders in jails were released before or during the session. The session was attended by 8000 delegates including 1500 peasants.
  • Jallianwala Bagh

    Jallianwala Bagh
    Satyagraha in Punjab was also quite successful. Its leaders Dr. Satyapal and Dr. Kitchlew were arrested. People observed hartal and took out a procession in Amritsar to demand their release
  • The Khilafat question

    The Khilafat question
    Gandhi suggested the programme of Non-Cooperation with the British Government.
  • The Non Co-operation Movement

    The Non Co-operation Movement
    The redressal of injustice of Punjab and Khilafat and the attainment of Swaraj became the key issue. The masses were getting awakened.
  • The Life of Mahatma Gandhi (1922-1948)

    The Life of Mahatma Gandhi (1922-1948)
    Gandhi was freed from jail in 1924 on the ground of health. The country was witnessing a wave of communal riots. Gandhi fasted for 21 days in October 1924. He toured the entire country.
  • Bardoli Satyagraha

    Bardoli Satyagraha
    Bardoli was a tehsil in Gujarat. Government increased the land revenue assessment there by 30%. Protests brought it down to 22%.
  • Rising discontent

    Rising discontent
    The discontent against the British Government was increasing. The Government appointed Simon Commission to decide about the grant of political rights of India.
  • The Salt Satyagraha

    The Salt Satyagraha
    Gandhi then decided to start Civil Disobedience by breaking the Salt Law, which heavily taxed the salt, an article of daily consumption for the poorest of the poor.
  • A phase of repression

    A phase of repression
    Gandhi took part in the Round Table Conference in England in 1931 as the representative of the Congress. It was a frustrating experience for him.
  • Yeravda Pact

    Yeravda Pact
    While Gandhi was in Yeravda jail the British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald announced the provisional scheme of minority representation, known as the Communal Award.
  • Anti-untouchability Campaign

    Anti-untouchability Campaign
    The campaign destroyed the legitimacy of untouchability. It cleared the way for legal ban. In 1936, Gandhi settled down at Sevagram, a village near Wardha.
  • India and the War

    India and the War
    While Gandhi was busy in the constructive work, elections to the provincial assemblies were held in 1937. Congress Ministers were formed in several provinces.
  • Cripps Mission

    Cripps Mission
    The War was approaching India's borders with the advance of Japan. England was in difficulties. It could not afford any agitation in India. There were various other pressures on the British Government to make political concessions.
  • 'Quit India' Movement

    The country wanted nothing but Complete Independence. The Congress passed the historic 'Quit India' resolution on 8th August 1942. Gandhi and other leaders were arrested.
  • Cabinet Mission

    Cabinet Mission
    After an election, Labour Party's Government came to power in England. England had been extremely weakened financially and militarily.
  • The Noakhali massacre

    The Noakhali massacre
    In the Noakhali area of East Bengal, where Muslims formed 82% of the population, a reign of terror was let loose in a planned and systematic way in October 1946.
  • Gandhi's Noakhali March

    Gandhi's Noakhali March
    Gandhi was deeply shocked. He could not bear the defeat of his long-cherished principles.
  • India wins Independence

    India wins Independence
    While the country was celebrating the Independence. Day on 15th August 1947, Gandhi was in Bengal to fight communal madness.
  • Gandhi's death

    Gandhi's death
    Communal feelings were high due to the partition of the country. Hindu communalists thought that Gandhi was pro-Muslim. His fast for communal amity which resulted in the Government of India honouring its obligation of giving Rs.