British Imperialism of India

  • 1453

    Fall of Constantinople

    Fall of Constantinople
    Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks in May 1453. The city’s fall sent shock waves throughout Christendom. It is widely quoted as the event that marked the end of the European Middle Ages. On 29 May, there were simultaneous assaults from the sea and land sides of the city that overcame the defenders. Pouring into the city through one of the gates that were forced, the Ottomans killed the emperor as he attempted a counterattack with his remaining defenders.
  • 1475

    Marco Polo

    Marco Polo
    One of the greatest voyagers of all time, whose writings have influenced other travelers for centuries. At the time that Polo embarked on his journey, Western Europeans knew very little about the countries Polo visited. Marco Polo's travels on the Silk Road and other ancient trade routes, which took him farther than any European before him.
  • 1498

    Vasco De Gama

    Vasco De Gama
    He sailed from Lisbon in 1497 on a mission to reach India and open a sea route from Europe to the East.
  • The Dutch broke into Portuguese Trade Monopoly

    The Dutch broke into Portuguese Trade Monopoly
    The Spanish and Portuguese were able to establish their large empires in Asia because they encountered virtually no resistance. The Portuguese and Spanish established themselves by building forts and trading out of them. The Dutch later moved in and took possession of many of the Portuguese forts by force, which in turn were taken away from them by the English.
  • England set up the East India Company

    England set up the East India Company
    The British won rights to build trading posts and forts at Madras, Bombay, Calcutta. The english traded gold and silver for Indian goods such as cotton, silk, and tea. Textiles were the most important goods and were carried to England by the East India company. The British completely destroyed the Indian textile companies so that they could build their company.
  • British and French were Fighting for Land and Part of Trade

    British and French were Fighting for Land and Part of Trade
    At the beginning of the 18th century, incessant pirate attacks led to a crisis for the British Empire and threatened the stability of international trade.
  • More information about the East India Company

  • Mughal Empire Officially Enters its Long Period of Decline

    Mughal Empire Officially Enters its Long Period of Decline
    William Irvine and Jadunath Sarkar gave the argument that Aurangzeb's religious policy and weak characters of tge Mughal emperor were the main reasons behind the decline of the Mughal Empire.
    1. Crisis in Jagirdari System
    2. Weak Successors of Aurangzeb
    3. Degeneration of Mughal Army
    4. Failure of Aurangzeb's Deccan Policy
    5. Rise of Regional powers precisely the rise of Marathas
  • Forming of the United Kingdom of Great Britain

    Forming of the United Kingdom of Great Britain
    The official joining of the English and Scotland is the reason why the title "United Kingdom of Great Britain" is used after the year 1707.
  • British Forces Overcome the French

    British Forces Overcome the French
    Was planned to take place in 1759 during the Seven Years' War. The invasion was one of several failed and defeated French attempts during the 18th century to invade Britain.
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    Seven years war

    The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved every European great power of the time and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines. The conflict split Europe into two coalitions, led by the Kingdom of Great Britain on one side and the Kingdom of France, the Russian Empire (until 1762), the Kingdom of Spain, and the Swedish Empire on the other.
  • The Battle of Valmy

    The Battle of Valmy
    Prussian troops attempted to march on Paris but was stopped, ultimately saving the French Revolution. It was the first major victory by the army of France during the Revolutionary Wars that followed the French Revolution. If not for this win, the French Monarchy would have been restored and the French Revolution would have been over.
  • Indians vs British Rule

    Indians vs British Rule
    Indians had grievances against British rule. Hindus outrage when their practices were outlawed with high taxes angered farmers
  • The Sepoy Rebellion

    The Sepoy Rebellion
    When sepoys (Indian troops who served in the British army) heard that the new rifles were greased with beef or pork fat they were outrages bc cows are sacred and they are not allowed to touch pork. Also, they were upset that the British forced them to fight in foreign lands. Hindus believed that they would lose caste if they traveled overseas. broke out in 1857 near Delhi.
  • Indian Independence

    Indian Independence
    The British company had landed in India in the early seventeenth century as traders but began interfering in Indian affairs around the 1750s. As the British began to spread their tentacles over a large part of India, the exploitation of local resources and people began in full force. The British were concerned just about consolidating their rule and power.
  • British Government taking India as a Colony

    British Government taking India as a Colony
    They sent the last Mughal emperor into exile.
  • End of the East India Company

    End of the East India Company
    The rise of the Indian rebellion caused the British government to abolish the East Indian Company. All of the powers and possessions were passed over to the crown. This is the event that started the reign of the British Raj.
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    Indian Civil Service

    Its members ruled more than 300 million people and were also responsible for overseeing all government activity in the 250 districts that made up British India. They trained locals to fight because they did not have enough people to rule over the empire.
  • Queen Victoria took the title of empress of India

    Queen Victoria took the title of empress of India
    Queen Victoria opened Parliament in person, the first time since the death of Prince Albert, to announce the change in royal title. Celebrations were held in Delhi, in what is known as the Delhi Durbar, on 1 January 1877, led by the Viceroy, Lord Lytton.
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    Anglo-Zulu War

    The decisive six-month war in 1879 in Southern Africa, resulting in the British victory over the Zulus. On January 22 Chelmsford advanced, left a third of his force at Isandlwana, and the Zulu army attacked. They annihilated the central British column at Isandlwana, killed 800 British soldiers and took nearly 1,000 rifles and ammunition. Later that day a second Zulu force, led by Cetshwayo’s brother, Dabulamanzi kaMpande, attempted to overrun the British depot at Rorke’s Drift.
  • INC (Indian national congress) was set up

    INC (Indian national congress) was set up
    Most congress members were Hindus who lived in the cities. They urged the British to open more government jobs to Indians.
  • Creation of Muslim League

    Creation of Muslim League
    Muslims founded the Muslim league under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
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    World War 1

    During the conflict, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire (the Central Powers) fought against Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, Romania, Japan and the United States (the Allied Powers). Thanks to new military technologies and the horrors of trench warfare, World War I saw unprecedented levels of carnage and destruction.
  • Massacre at Amritsar

    Massacre at Amritsar
    During this massacre, General Dyer fired into a large crowd of unarmed citizens. He stopped killing innocent Indians not because he thought was he was doing was wrong, but rather because he ran out of ammo. After this horrendous incident, the British starts to actually contemplate leaving India.
  • Mohandas Gandhi

    Mohandas Gandhi
    Mohandas Gandhi took over the leadership of the Congress movement. He used nonviolent resistance in order to end injustice. His ideas were based off of both Hindu beliefs and Christian traditions.
  • Jinnah

    Jinnah came to believe that the subcontinent must be divided into two separate nations- one for Hindus, one for Muslims.
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    Salt March

    British law claimed that the British had sole right to produce and sell salt in India. Then, Gandhi wrote to Viceroy stating his intent to break the law. With 78 followers, he marched 240 miles to the sea. By the time he reached the sea, thousands of people had joined the march.
  • Gandhi and the Spinning Wheel

    Gandhi and the Spinning Wheel
    Boycotts British goods.
    Goes on Hunger strikes in prison and to stop violent protests.
    Gandhi spins his own clothing.
    Protesting by not buying British stuff.
  • Live footage of Gandhi and his spinning wheel

  • Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi

    Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi
    A man in his thirties, Nathuram Godse, was a radical Hindu that believed Gandhi was responsible for the partition of India. He emerged from the crowd, bowed to him, and shot three times at point-blank range in the stomach and head.