Maharaja Hari Singh faces internal revolts and external invasion. He hands control of defense to the Indian Government.
Death and Displacement
Riots break out between Hindus and Muslims forced to move across borders simply based on religious lines. An estimate of 200,000 to 2 million lives were lost. A refugee crisis followed.
End of British rule and partition of sub-continent into mainly Hindu India and Muslim-majority state of Pakistan as part of independence. West and East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) get created.
Kashmir Partitioned for Practical Purposes
First India-Pakistan war over Kashmir is resolved by UN by announcing a ceasefire.
Eastern Side of Ceasefire: Jammu and Kashmir
Elections held in the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir retains its acquirement to India in 1951 and by 1957 it becomes an integral part of India.
1950s: Political Instability in Kashmir
The 1950s witnessed a time of political instability in Kashmir over conflicting questions of self-rule, independence, an undivided India, and the eventual legal accession of Kashmir by India.
The state of Jammu and Kashmir is recognized
Indian Government begins to refer to Jammu and Kashmir as an integral part of the Indian union.
Indo-China War Thickens the Plot
Kashmir's identity as a zone of conflict deepens as China gradually occupies eastern Kashmir (Aksai Chin) during the 1950s. A short war breaks out in 1962 in which China gets access to Aksai Chin.
A slice of Kashmir goes to China
Pakistan gives the Trans-Karakoram Tract of Kashmir to China.
Second war between India and Pakistan
A brief war between Indian and Pakistan over Kashmir ends in a ceasefire and a return to the previous positions.
Agreement signed at Tashkent
A brief agreement by the two countries follows in January 1966 to restore economic and diplomatic relations.
Third war between India and Pakistan
Another Indo-Pakistani war over East Pakistan, today known as Bangladesh, extends for 13 days.
Bangladesh gets created in 1971
East Pakistan becomes the independent country of Bangladesh.
An agreement is signed by Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi to settle any disputes "by peaceful means" and to mutually respect the new "Line-of-Control (LoC)."
Political Mistrust Grows in the 1980s
Tensions continue at the Line of Control continue over cross border terrorism and political outcomes are disputed for being religiously biased.
The Indian Army seizes control of the Siachen Glacier.
The problem of cross border terrorism and JKLF
India accuses Pakistan of giving 'moral and diplomatic support' to pro-independence insurgency around Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front and cross border terrorism, which Pakistan denies.
Non-Nuclear Aggression Agreement
India and Pakistan sign an agreement promising not to attack the other's nuclear installations or facilities.
Terrorism and Unrest
The insurgency continues, and the violence against civilians by both sides is widespread. Activist groups taking part in the fight in Kashmir continue grow in the 1990s, partly fueled by a large influx of "mujaheddin" who took part in the Afghan war against the Soviets in the 1980s.
A Massacre and the Exodus of the Kashmiri Hindus
The insurgency escalates after the Indian Army kills about 100
to 200 demonstrators at Gawakadal Bridge. Attacks and threats lead to the flight of almost all Hindus from the Kashmir Valley area of the state.
India and Pakistan are at war when militants cross from Pakistani-administered Kashmir into the Indian-administered Kargil district. India repulses the attack, accuses Pakistan of being behind it, and breaks off relations.
Buses of Hope
The Delhi-Lahore Bus, Calls of the Frontier, was introduced in February 1999 — not halted even after the Kargil War but was discontinued depending on tensions.
Militant attack on parliament of Indian-administered J and K in Srinagar
Tensions along the Line of Control remain high, with 38 people killed in an attack on the Kashmiri assembly in Srinagar.
Pakistan Government's Pledge Against Terrorism
President Musharraf pledges that Pakistan will combat extremism on its own soil, while continuing to affirm a right to Kashmir.
Improved relations while tensions exist
2004 marks the beginning of the Composite Dialogue Process. Bilateral meetings are held between officials at various levels of government. In 2006, both governments agree to implement an India-Pakistan institutional anti-terrorism mechanism.
Movies on Indo-Pakistanis in Love
Cultural similarities between the two sides is often recognized in the movies and media during the 2000s.
A Faceless Third Party: Terrorism
A central theme takes over: Efforts toward peace keep falling apart in a backdrop of terrorist presence in Pakistan and fight over religious lines in Jammu & Kashmir.
More Positive Steps, More Stabs Later
In September 2008, Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari and Indian Prime Minister Singh formally announce the opening of several trade routes between the two countries.
In the wake of the Mumbai attacks, India breaks off talks with Pakistan. Ajmal Kasab, a Pakistani national and the only attacker captured alive, says the attackers were members of Lashkar-e-Taiba.
A series of goodwill gestures take place.
(Examples: Meeting in New York at the sidelines of UN General Assembly; On May 25, 2014, Pakistan releases 151 Indian fishermen from its jails and Nawaz Sharif attends the swearing-in ceremony of Narendra Modi as prime minister; In 2015 Modi visits Lahore for Sharif's granddaughter's wedding.
India Launches Surgical Strikes
India launches "surgical strikes" on "terrorist units" in Pakistan-administered Kashmir in September. This happens less than 2 weeks after an attack on an Indian army base leaves 19 soldiers dead. Pakistan denies the attacks took place.
India Attacks a Pakistan Based Rebel Group
In the early hours of February 26, India conducts air attacks against what it calls Pakistan-based rebel group Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM)'s biggest training camp.
India Revokes Kashmir's Special Status
Fears of unrest takeover as India revokes disputed Kashmir of special status previously protected by Article 370. Kashmir is under a lock down but promises are made in October 2019 to ease mobile phone shutdown.
Pakistan Government Warns of Humanitarian Issues during UN speech
Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan expresses how possible violence, marginalization, and collective trauma of multiple decades in Kashmiri people can encourage extremist intent in those hurt, eventually defacing Islam’s progressive goals.
India intends to make Kashmir secure by the way of comparable opportunities
India's reasoning behind removing Article 370 is as follows: If Kashmir becomes more like other states of India, it will become more secure over time. A Delhi-like Union Territory model will be applied to restore Kashmir.