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Indo-American Relations

  • Harry Truman becomes the President of the US

  • World War 2 ends in Europe

    After the War, USA and USSR, became the super powers while Britain, France etc. though on the winning side, became wrecked nations.The superpowers put diplomatic pressures on European countries to free their colonies to:
    a) Reduce European influence in the world affairs.
    b)Gain new allies through proxies for their fight against each other.
    c) Maintaining economic & political dominance over newly independent nations through their proxies without incurring extravagant expenses.
  • Cold War starts

    It was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others). Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period between 1947, the year the Truman Doctrine (a U.S. foreign policy pledging to aid nations threatened by Soviet expansionism) was announced, and 1991, the year the Soviet Union collapsed.
  • India gains Independence

  • Jawaharlal Nehru becomes the Prime Minister of India

  • PM Jawaharlal Nehru visits the US

    The first prime minister of independent India went to the U.S. in 1949 and then in 1956 at which time he visited Washington D.C. and Pennsylvania.
  • India recognises the People's Republic of China as a legitimate government

    India established diplomatic and bilateral relations with the PRC. It ended formal ties with the Republic of China (Taiwan). India refused to follow American diktat not to recognise the 'Communist China', hurting Indo-American relations.
  • Dwight Eisenhower becomes the President of the US

  • A US President visits India for the first time

    A US President visits India for the first time
    Dwight D Eisenhower became the first US President to visit India, in 1959, to take bilateral ties forward. He, among other things, assured India that the US would stand by the South Asian nation against Chinese Communist aggression. Part of the US strategy to protect India against China was to counter the rise of China as a third superpower.
  • Non Aligned Movement (NAM) is founded

    India played an important role in the multilateral movements of colonies and newly independent countries that wanted into the Non-Aligned Movement. India's policy was neither negative nor positive.
    There was a thorny relationship between India and America at this point as though India was in the NAM, it was still closer to the Soviet Union.
  • John F Kennedy becomes the President of the US

    John F Kennedy becomes the President of the US
    The US saw in India a strategic partner during the regime of John F Kennedy. He famously said, "Chinese Communists have been moving ahead the last 10 years. India has been making
    some progress, but if India does not succeed with her 450 million people, if she can't make freedom work, then people around the world are going to determine, particularly in the
    underdeveloped world, that the only way they can develop their resources is through the Communist system."
  • Sino-India War

    The US stood by India during the 1962 India-China war. The US dubbed China's action as "blatant Chinese Communist aggression against India" and helped the country with arms and ammunition, and civilian supplies. However, the help wasn't enough as the US was engaged in the Cuban Missile Crisis at that time.
  • Lyndon Johnson becomes the President of the US

  • U.S. Agronomist brings about the Green Revolution

    U.S. Agronomist brings about the Green Revolution
    Norman Borlaug travels to India to begin testing high-yield wheat varieties. His collaboration with Indian scientist Dr M.S. Swaminathan results in the “Green Revolution,” and India goes from food scarcity to self-sufficiency within a decade.
  • Gulzarilal Nanda becomes the Prime Minister of India

    He was a acting Prime Minister.
  • Lal Bahadur Shastri becomes the Prime Minister of India

  • President Johnson signs the Immigration and Nationality Act

    The law ended an immigration-admissions policy based on race and ethnicity and gave rise to large-scale immigration, both legal and unauthorized. replaced a national-origins quota system
    that governed immigration in the United States with a preference based on skills and family relationships. The 12000 or so India-born immigrants a year arriving in this group were unusually well educated, with numbers favoring doctors, engineers, and scientists.
  • Gulzarilal Nanda becomes the Prime Minister of India

    He was an acting Prime Minister
  • Indira Gandhi becomes the Prime Minister of India

    She was the first woman to become the Prime Minister of India.
    When Indira came to power in 1966, Lyndon Johnson was the US President. At that time, India was reliant on USA for food aid. Indira resented the US policy of food aid as a tool in forcing India to adopt policies favored by the US. She also resolutely refused to sign the NPT.
  • PM Indira Gandhi visits the US

    Indira Gandhi visited the U.S. three times during her years in office. Her first visit was in 1966 when Lyndon B. Johnson was the president. Her second visit came in 1971 and her final visit was in 1982.
  • Richard Nixon becomes the President of the US

    Nixon and Indira Gandhi had a mutual dislike for each other. Due to this, the relationship between the 2 nations deteriorated until the point that the US began seeing China and Pakistan as allies. Nixon even sent military equipment to Pakistan during the Indo-Pak war of 1971.
  • President Richard Nixon visits India

    President Richard Nixon visits India
    Richard Nixon became the 2nd Head of the State of US to visit India.
    He said 'The first principle of the relationship between India and the United States is that our two countries share fully the basic objective of peace in Asia and peace in the world...We stand ready to help because of our friendship and human concern for the people of Asia and because we have our own interest in helping ... India will be a leader in that Asian future.'
  • Indo-Pak War

    It was a military confrontation between India and Pakistan that occurred during the liberation war in East Pakistan.
    The Soviet Union supported India, thinking that independent Bangladesh would weaken the position of the US and China. The US stood with Pakistan. Nixon feared that an Indian invasion of Pakistan would mean total Soviet domination of the region and encouraged Jordan and Iran to send military supplies to Pakistan while also encouraging China to increase its arms supplies.
  • Indo–Soviet Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Cooperation was signed

    It was a treaty signed between India and the Soviet Union that specified mutual strategic cooperation. This closeness of India with the Soviet Union irritated the US government.
  • Simla Agreement is signed

    The Simla Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan. The agreement was the result of the resolve of both the countries to "put an end to the conflict and confrontation that have hitherto marred their relations".
    India had maintained that Kashmir dispute is a bilateral issue and must be settled through bilateral negotiations and denied any third party intervention. Therefore, India rejected American mediation in resolving the Kashmir dispute, hurting their relationship.
  • Gerald Ford becomes the President of the US

  • Pokhran-I

    It was India's first successful nuclear bomb test. It was also the first confirmed nuclear weapons test by a nation outside the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.
  • Jimmy Carter becomes the President of the US

  • Morarji Desai becomes the Prime Minister of India

    His was the first non-Congress government of India.
  • President Jimmy Carter visits India

    His visit was the first when a non-Congress government, the Morarji Desai-led Janata Party government, was in power in New Delhi. The Janata government was anti-Soviet Union. However, Carter later banned the export of nuclear material to India due to the latter's nonproliferation record.
  • PM Morarji Desai visits the US

    Mr Desai went to the U.S. in 1978 visiting New York, San Francisco and Omaha.
  • U.S. Enacts Nonproliferation Act

    The Carter administration enacts the Nuclear Nonproliferation Act, which requires countries not included in the Nonproliferation Treaty—which includes India—to allow inspections of all nuclear facilities by the International Atomic Energy Agency. India refuses, and Washington ends all nuclear assistance to Delhi.
  • Charn Singh becomes the Prime Minister of India

  • The 'Family Cohort' Begins

    Family unification became the dominant mode of entry under the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
  • Indira Gandhi comes back to power

    Relations improved further when Indira Gandhi came back to power in 1980. The Soviet Union had invaded and occupied Afghanistan, and this tilted India towards the United States. Under PM Indira Gandhi and President Ronald Reagan, India and the US increased cooperation in the field of defence technology and military equipment and they formed a close working relationship.
  • Ronald Reagan becomes the President of the US

  • Technology transfer between India and the US

    India placed orders for F-5 aircraft, super computers etc, and the US, in 1984, agreed to share technology to help India build naval frigates and an indigenous light combat aircraft. This was a substantial American effort undertaken for the promotion of defence and defence related technological cooperation between the 2 countries.
  • Rajiv Gandhi becomes the Prime Minister of India

  • Bhopal Gas Tragedy occurs

    It occurred at the Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide plant in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. Over 500,000 people were exposed to methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas and other chemicals.
    Since a US based plant was involved, India's effort to seek extradition of the firm's chief executive proved futile.
    This hurt the bilateral ties to an extent.
  • PM Rajiv Gandhi visits the US

    Mr Gandhi visited the U.S. two times in 1985 and once in 1987.
  • George H. W. Bush becomes the President of the US

  • V. P. Singh becomes the Prime Minister of India

  • U.S. Crisis Mission to India-Pak

    Deputy National Security Advisor Robert Gates travels to India and Pakistan to defuse tensions over the rapidly escalating insurgency in Kashmir. The trip comes amid fears of potential nuclear warfare between Pakistan and India.
  • Chandra Shekhar becomes the Prime Minister of India

  • The Cold War ends

    The Cold war is generally said to have ended with the fall of the Soviet Union.
    The Indo-American relations were mostly cold until the end of the Cold War.
  • P. V. Narasimha Rao becomes the Prime Minister of India

    Under the prime ministership of PV Narasimha Rao, India unleashed sweeping economic reforms with Finance Minister Manmohan Singh in driver's seat. The measures, in the years to come, transformed the Indian economy while opening it to globalisation benefits.The reforms also helped strengthen the economic cooperation with the US and the rest of the world. Till 1998, both the countries made mutual efforts to improve bilateral relations.
  • PM P.V. Narasimha Rao visits the US

    PM Rao–who is credited for starting to open India’s economy– visited the U.S. twice during his four years in office. He met President George H.W. Bush during a U.N. Security Council Summit in New York in 1992. He visited again two years later to address a joint meeting of the U.S. Congress.
  • Bill Clinton becomes the President of the US

  • The IT Generation Wave begins

    The most recent period, from 1995 to 2014-15 saw the arrival of what we call The IT Generation, a group selected specifically for its specialized skills in the information technology sector or other science and technology (STEM) fields. They also arrived in much larger numbers – at five times the rate of the Early Movers and twice the rate of The Families initially, three times that rate.
  • Atal Bihari Vajpayee becomes the Prime Minister of India

  • H. D. Deve Gowda becomes the Prime Minister of India

  • Inder Kumar Gujral becomes the Prime Minister of India

  • PM Inder Kumar Gujral visits the US

    Though PM Gujral served as India’s prime minister for less than a year, he found time to visit New York where he met President Bill Clinton at the U.N. General Assembly in 1997.
  • Atal Bihari Vajpayee is re-elected as Prime Minister of India

    The decision of Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee's government to conduct nuclear tests at Pokhran saw the ties with the US return to a new low. Pakistan responded with its own nuke tests in the same month. And, amid fears of a regional nuclear arms race, the US and other western countries, including Japan, slapped wide-ranging sanctions against India. President Bill Clinton even recalled the US ambassador to India.
  • Pokhran-II

    Pokhran-II was the series of five nuclear bomb test explosions conducted by India.
    The United States imposed economic sanctions on India upon hearing about the test.The sanctions on India consisted of cutting off all assistance to India except humanitarian aid, banning the export of certain defence material and technologies, ending American credit and credit guarantees to India, and requiring the US to oppose lending by international financial institutions to India.
  • Kargil War starts

    It was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan. When Pakistan asked for help from the US, Clinton rebuked Sharif and asked him to use his contacts to rein in the militants and withdraw Pakistani soldiers from Indian territory. Clinton felt that Pak's moves were confusing since the Indian Prime Minister had travelled to Lahore to promote bilateral talks aimed at resolving the Kashmir problem. He applauded Indian restraint for not escalating the conflict into an all-out war.
  • President Bill Clinton visits India

    He was the 4th US Head of the State to visit India. His visit showed that the bilateral relations between the two countries were improving. The visit saw many agreements being signed, including on the establishment of an Indo-US Science & Technology Forum.
  • George W. Bush becomes the President of the US

  • PM Atal Bihari Vajpayee visits the US

    PM Vajpayee visited the U.S. four times during his five years in office, twice in 2001 and once each in 2002 and 2003.
  • Attack on the Twin Towers

    Post the attacks in the US and December 13 terror strike on the Indian Parliament in the same year, the two countries
    decided to collaborate closely in the global war against terror. Though, America's greater reliance on Pakistan to counter terrorist forces in neighbouring Afghanistan continued to remain a sticking point.
  • U.S. Lifts India Sanctions

    The George W. Bush administration lifts all remaining U.S. sanctions that were imposed on India after its 1998 nuclear test. Most economic sanctions had been eased within a few months of their imposition, and Congress authorized the president to remove all remaining restrictions in 1999.
  • Indian Parliament Attack

    It was an attack on the Parliament of India in New Delhi The perpetrators were Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed terrorists. Post this attack and the 9/11 attack in the US, the two countries decided to collaborate closely in the global war against terror. Though, America's greater reliance on Pakistan to counter terrorist forces in neighbouring Afghanistan continued to remain a sticking point.
  • Manmohan Singh becomes the Prime Minister of India

    He served 2 terms as Prime Minister.
  • Energy Security Dialogue between India and the US

    U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice visits New Delhi, where she and Indian officials agree to start a dialogue on energy security. The visit underscores an upswing in relations despite tensions over India’s possible energy cooperation with Iran and the U.S. sale of fighter jets to Pakistan.
  • Open Skies Agreement between India and the US is signed

    More flights, lower fares and stronger economic ties were a part of the agreement. The US Secretary of Transportation Norman Y. Mineta said today during the signing ceremony “ ... the Bush Administration’s position is clear: America is committed to helping India to become a major world power in the 21st Century. A strong Indian aviation system is a core component of reaching that goal. This agreement will stimulate new passenger & cargo services, new partnerships, innovation & lower prices...”
  • New Framework for the US-India Defence Relationship is signed

    The two countries inked the New Framework for the US-India Defence Relationship identifying priorities for cooperation in
    maritime security, humanitarian assistance and counter-terrorism. Conducting joint exercises and exchanges; collaborating in multinational operations, strengthening the militaries' capabilities to defeat terrorism; enhancing the capabilities to combat proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; and expanding collaboration in missile defence are envisaged in the framework.
  • Civil Nuclear Cooperation Initiative is signed

    This deal lifted the US halt on nuclear trade with India and ended the nuclear apartheid against India. India agreed to separate its civil and military nuclear facilities while allowing IAEA inspection of the power-generation facilities. India is the only country in the world which is not part of the NPT-CTBT regime but is allowed to participate in nuclear trade. It is another matter though that India's nuclear liability bill has held up progress on bilateral cooperation in the field.
  • President George W. Bush visits India

    George W Bush was the fifth US president to visit India. Bush was here at a time when America was being condemned worldwide for its 2003 invasion of Iraq. He and PM Manmohan Singh were the key movers leading to the Indo-US civilian nuclear deal ending India's isolation from the nuclear equipment suppliers market.
  • United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act is signed

    This act is an important step that will help allow us to share civilian nuclear technology and bring India's civilian nuclear program under the safeguards of the international atomic energy agency. The US and India are working together to expand economic opportunities in both countries. It will help strengthen cooperation between India and the US on energy. This act will help promote economic growth. This act will help make it possible for India to reduce emissions and improve its environment.
  • Terrorists Attack Taj Mahal Palace Hotel

    Lashkar-e-Taiba terrorists from Pakistan attack the Taj Mahal Palace Hotel in Mumbai. More than three hundred citizens die in the three-day conflagration, including six Americans. The United States cooperates closely with Indian authorities, sending FBI investigators and forensics experts.
  • Barack Obama becomes the President of the US

    The Indo-American ties witnessed a dip after Barack Obama came to power in the United States in November 2009.
  • President Barack Obama visits India

    President Obama visited India, he supported India's bid for a seat on the UN Security Council and signed trade deals worth US $15 billion.
    He was the second US president to address a joint Parliament session in India.
  • U.S.-India Strategic and Commercial Dialogue is launched

    The U.S.-India Strategic and Commercial Dialogue is the signature mechanism for advancing the United States’ and India’s shared priorities of generating sustainable economic growth, creating jobs, improving the business and investment climate, enhancing livelihoods, and sustaining the rules-based global order.
  • Economic and Financial Partnership between India and the US

    U.S. Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner makes his first official trip to India to launch the new U.S.-India Economic and Financial Partnership with Indian Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee. The ministerial-level meetings kick off an effort to institutionalize deeper bilateral relations on economic and financial sector issues.
  • U.S., India Ink Cyber security Memorandum

    The United States and India sign a Memorandum of Understanding in New Delhi to promote closer cyber security cooperation. The agreement is designed to fulfill one of the pillars of the U.S.-India Strategic Dialogue.
  • Secretary of Defense boosts Military Ties

    Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta visits India to bolster military ties in the wake of the Obama administration’s announced “pivot” to Asia. The trip marks the first such visit since former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates met with Indian counterparts in January 2010.
  • PM Manmohan Singh visits the US

    He visited the U.S. on no less than seven occasions. The ties failed to get the much-needed boost under Obama's regime, unlike President Bush's tenure.
  • Devyani Khobragade incident

    Devyani Khobragade, then the Deputy Consul General of India in New York City, was charged by U.S. authorities with committing visa fraud and providing false statements in order to gain entry to the United States for a woman for employment as a domestic worker for her. She was additionally charged with failing to pay the domestic worker a minimum wage. Her arrest and treatment have received much media attention and have led to a major diplomatic standoff between India and the United States.
  • Narendra Modi becomes the Prime Minister of India

  • PM Modi visits the US for the first time

    Narendra Modi makes his first visit as prime minister to the United States, aiming to attract investment and firm up the U.S.-India strategic partnership. In Washington, Modi and President Obama reach agreement on a memorandum of understanding between the Export-Import Bank and an Indian energy agency, which provides up to $1 billion to help India develop low-carbon energy alternatives and aid U.S. renewable energy exports to India.
  • India-US Economic and Financial Partnership is launched

    The deal stated that the United States and India will work together to expand trade and investment links between the two economies and develop and strengthen their financial systems. India and the United States will also work together in the G-20 on an effective mutual assessment process to bring about strong, sustained, and balanced global growth.
  • President Obama visits India the 2nd time

    U.S. President Barack Obama makes his second visit to India as head of state for India's Republic Day celebrations. Obama and PM Modi announce a breakthrough on nuclear-related issues that could help implement the U.S.-India civil nuclear deal. Six months later, U.S. Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter and India’s defence minister, Manohar Parrikar, sign documents to renew the ten-year U.S.-India Defense Framework Agreement.
  • PM Modi visits the US again

  • India and the US Sign the Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA)

    It is a facilitating agreement that establishes basic terms, conditions, and procedures for reciprocal provision of Logistic Support, Supplies, and Services between the armed forces of India and the United States. Logistic Support, Supplies, and Services include food, water, billeting, transportation, petroleum, oils, lubricants, clothing, communication services, medical services, storage services, training services, spare parts and components, repair and maintenance services etc.
  • Donald Trump becomes the President of the US

  • President Trump introduces H1B reforms

    “Right now H1B visas are awarded in a totally random lottery and that’s wrong. Instead, they should be given to the most skilled and highest paid applicants and they should never, ever be used to replace Americans,” Trump said.
  • PM Modi visits the US to meet President Trump for the first time

    The Indo-US joint statement was blunt and harsh on Pakistan, showing solidarity with Indian concerns on Pakistan-sponsored terrorism in India. President Trump said he wants to create a trading relationship that is fair and reciprocal with India. The US cleared the sale of 22 predator Guardian drones to India, reinforcing India's position as a major defence partner of the United States. Indian travelers will now get a speedy entry into the US as India joined the Global Entry program.
  • The US declares Pakistan a Safe Haven for terrorists

    The US has directly termed Pakistan a safe haven for terrorists The report analysing terror activities in 2016 says various terrorist groups continue to operate from Pakistan-based safe havens.
    It a clear extension of the joint statement issued after the summit between US President Donald Trump and Prime Minister Narendra Modi. In the joint statement, Modi and Trump had asserted that the terrorist safe havens should be rooted out from every part of the world.