History of Healthcare Spates

  • Period: 4000 BCE to 3000 BCE

    Early beginnings

  • 3900 BCE

    Disease Caused by?

    Disease Caused by?
    Supernatural spirits
  • 3600 BCE

    Treatment For Sick?

    Treatment For Sick?
    -Ceremonies to exorcise evil spirits like removing part of the cranium and praying
  • 3100 BCE

    Medicines used today

    Medicines used today
    Digitalis from foxglove plant used as a pill, treats heart conditions. Quinine from a cinchona tree, controls fever, muscle spasms and prevents malaria. Belladonna and atrophine from nightshade plant, receive muscle spams and GI pain. Morphine from opium poppy, treats severe pain.
  • Period: 2999 BCE to 399 BCE

    Ancient Times

  • 2900 BCE

    Ancient Egyptians

    Ancient Egyptians
    First people to keep accurate health records. Priests were physicians. They used medicine, splints and leaches to collect blood so it wouldn’t pool around a wound
  • 1900 BCE

    Ancient Chinese

    Ancient Chinese
    First to use acupuncture. Started with therapies with stone tools and developed into acupuncture today.
  • 900 BCE

    Ancient Greeks

    Ancient Greeks
    They were the first ones who studied the disease and started to think it came from natural causes rather than spirits. Their religion did not allow people to be dissected. Hippocrates studied and kept records discovering disease was not supernatural forces. He wrote Oath of Hippocrates which is the standard basis for todays medical ethics. And they started to realize disease was being caused by lack of sanitation.
  • 100

    Ancient Romans

    Ancient Romans
    First to organize medical care. Developed a sanitation system. Got clean water through waterways. Built sewers and bathrooms with a water system. Beginning of public health. Sent medical equipment with armies, rooms in houses for ill, care for the sick was established like hospitals.
  • Period: 400 to 800

    Dark Age

  • 500

    Stopped the study of medicine why?

    Stopped the study of medicine why?
    The church believed life and death was in Gods hands and they had no interest in how the body functioned.
  • 700

    How do they treat disease?

    How do they treat disease?
    Prayer, herbal mixtures and custodial care.
  • Period: 800 to 1400

    Middle Age

  • 1100

    Epidemics

    Epidemics
    Caused millions of people death. Bubonic Plague killed 60 million. Smallpox, diphtheria, syphilis, and tuberculosis. We now have vaccines.
  • Period: 1350 to

    Renaissance

  • 1450

    Rebirth?

    Rebirth?
    They built universities and school for medical research. Accepted dissection of body for studies. Published books to teach more people about the research they discovered.
  • Period: 1501 to

    16th and 17th Centuries

  • 1515

    Leonardo da Vincli

    Leonardo da Vincli
    He studied anatomy and created his own deception of the body.
  • 1550

    Gabriele Fallopuis

    Gabriele Fallopuis
    Discovered Fallopian tubes
  • 1563

    Bartolommeo Eustachio

    Bartolommeo Eustachio
    Discovered Eustachian tube (leads from ear to throat)
  • William Harvey

    William Harvey
    Understood physiology and describe circulation of blood and the heart pumping
  • Antonie von Leeuwenhoek

    Antonie von Leeuwenhoek
    Invented the microscope. Life smaller than we can see. Found bacteria causes tooth decay.
  • Apothecaries

    Apothecaries
    early pharmacy’s started to develope. Started trade in drugs and spices from the East.
  • Period: to

    18th Century

  • Benjamin Franklin

    Benjamin Franklin
    Discovered bifocals. Discovered colds are contagious
  • Medical Students Learning

    Medical Students Learning
    Students attended lectures in class, labs and at bedside. Dissected bodies and observed diseases. Medicine studies continued and expanded.
  • Joseph Priestley

    Joseph Priestley
    Discovered element oxygen. Discovered plants refreshing air and restoring oxygen for us to breathe again.
  • Edward Jenner

    Edward Jenner
    Discovered a vaccination for smallpox. His discovery led to other preventative medicine in public health.
  • Rene Laennec

    Rene Laennec
    Invented stethoscope. allowed doctors to hear disease.
  • Period: to

    19th and 20th Centuries

  • Ignaz Semmelweis

    Ignaz Semmelweis
    Identified cause of childbed fever. Discovered in births with midwives vs physicians there were less cases. Found out it was because physicians weren’t washing their hands after dissections. Was proved correct and now we wash hands all the time.
  • Florence Nightingale

    Florence Nightingale
    Attracted women to Nightingale school of Nursing for them to learn and work in a respectable proffesion.
  • Louis Pasteur

    Louis Pasteur
    “Father of Microbiology,” discovered microorganisms everywhere. Proved they cause disease rather than being created by disease. Discovered heating milk prevented disease, still use this method today.
  • Dmitri Ivanovski

    Dmitri Ivanovski
    Discovered some diseases are from microorganisms you cant see with a microscope called viruses.
  • Joseph Lister

    Joseph Lister
    Learned micro organisms cause infection. He used acids to kill germs on wounds. Became first doctor to use antiseptic during surgery.
  • Ernst von Bergmann

    Ernst von Bergmann
    Developed asepsis. Developed method to keep areas germ free before surgery.
  • Robert Koch

    Robert Koch
    Discovered disease-causing organisms. Developed method to identify pathogens and isolate the bacteria causing tuberculosis. Introduced importance of cleanliness and sanitation.
  • Paul Ehrlich

    Paul Ehrlich
    Discovered effect of medicine on micro organisms that cause disease. Treatment was effective in some and not in others. Brought use of chemicals to fight disease. Completed 606 expire ends to find a cure for syphilis before it worked.
  • Wilhelmina Roentgen

    Wilhelmina Roentgen
    Discovered X-rays. Took the first x-ray of his wife’s hand. Allowed doctors to see inside the body.
  • Anesthesia

    Anesthesia
    Nitrous Oxide, enter, and chloroform were discovered for putting people to sleep during surgery instead of chocking them out.
  • Sir Alexander Fleming

    Sir Alexander Fleming
    Penicillin killed life-threatening-bacteria. Considered most important discovery because people were dying of curable disease before that.
  • Sigmund Freud

    Sigmund Freud
    Discovered conscious and unconscious parts of the mind. Determined mind and body work together. Led to understanding of psychosomatic illness.
  • Gerard Gomagk

    Gerard Gomagk
    Discovered sulfonamide compounds. First medications that worked in killing bacteria.
  • Jonas Salk

    Jonas Salk
    Discovered dead polio viruses caused immunity to poliomyelitis.
  • Albert Sabin

    Albert Sabin
    Used a live polio virus vaccine. Vaccine is used today on babies against this disease.
  • Francis Crick and James Watson

    Francis Crick and James Watson
    Discovered molecular structure of DNA based on double helix. Model explained how it replicates and codes hereditary information. Set stage for rapid advances in molecular biology. They won Nobel Prize in Medicine for this.
  • Christian Barnard

    Christian Barnard
    Performed the first successful heart transplant
  • Ben Carson

    Ben Carson
    Pioneer in separating Siamese twins and performing hemispherectomies to stop seizures.
  • Period: to

    21st Century

  • Stem cells used to study heart condition

    Stem cells used to study heart condition
    Researchers made stem cell lines by programming skin cells from patients with a developmental disorder called LEOPARD. the scientist made the cells heart cells that feature LEOPARD syndrome helping researchers find compounds that can reverse this syndrome.
  • Migraines

    Migraines
    Scientists discovered light exposure made migraines worse. They discovered even if you cant see images light can cause headaches and this sparked studies for new approaches to calming non-image-forming, light-sensing, eye cells.
  • Preventing Bacterial Infections

    Preventing Bacterial Infections
    Scientists identified a protein that breaks away bacteria from medical devices. They can now prevent disease from a catheter from spreading to other organs. Opened insight to how biofilms cause disease.
  • “Genetic Garbage”

    “Genetic Garbage”
    98% of the human genome was discovered to play a major role in the creation of DNA. It gives the genetic code meaning. Scientists are now looking at how to cure disease with just changing this part of the genetic creation.
  • Lab Grown Body Parts

    Lab Grown Body Parts
    Stem cells are allowing people in need of a new trachea to grow one! Scientists discovered they can create body parts with bone marrow and skin cells. This can significantly lower the amount of organ donors needed.