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History of Healthcare Friedman

  • Period: 4000 BCE to 3000 BCE

    Early Beginnings (4000 BC- 3000 BC)

  • 3900 BCE

    Disease Caused by? (3900 BC)

    Disease Caused by? (3900 BC)
    Evil supernatural spirits
  • 3600 BCE

    Treatments for sick? (3600 BC)

    Treatments for sick? (3600 BC)
    Praying or ceremonial practices such as trephining
  • 3100 BCE

    Medicines used today (3100 BC)

    Medicines used today (3100 BC)
    Digitalis: used for heart conditions
    Quinine: used to control fevers relieve muscle spasms, and helps prevent malaria
    Belladonna and atropine: used to relieve muscle spasms especially in gastrointestinal pain
    Morphine: used to treat severe pain when nothing else will help as it is addictive
  • Period: 2999 BCE to 399

    Ancient Times (2999 BC- 0399 AD)

  • 2900 BCE

    Ancient Egyptians (2900 BC)

    Ancient Egyptians (2900 BC)
    Health Records: The Egyptians were the first people to accurately keep health records.

    Who are physicians?: Physicians were the first (Greek) people to study what caused diseases. They were the people who realized that disease could have natural causes rather than supernatural.
    How did they heal?: Some cultures used leeches, others used stone tools, massages or herbal therapies.
  • 1900 BCE

    Ancient Chinese (1900 BC)

    Ancient Chinese (1900 BC)
    Development of acupuncture: From early on, the Chinese people were the first to develop methods using stone tools to treat diseases. This is known as acupuncture and is still used today.
  • 900 BCE

    Ancient Greeks (0900 BC)

    Ancient Greeks (0900 BC)
    Illness cause Nature vs. Spiritual: Ancient Greeks were the first people to determine that disease may not be caused by spiritual causes.
    Dissection: In ancient times, religiously people could not have their bodies dissected.
    Hippocrates: Hippocrates was one of the first people to take notes on the symptoms of different diseases. He wrote the standard of ethics otherwise known as the “Oath of Hippocrates.”
  • 100

    Ancient Romans (0100 AD)

    Ancient Romans (0100 AD)
    Sanitation Systems: This was the beginning of public health/sanitation. The Romans learned from the Greeks and decided to build waterways to bring in water and sewers to carry away the waste. They also built public baths to clean themselves.
    Organize medical care: The Romans were the first to have a organized medical care. This was the beginning of creating a hospital layout.
    Hospital development: This started as buildings were reserved for the sick and physicians were paid to help the sick.
  • Period: 400 to 800

    Dark Age (400 AD - 800 AD)

  • 500

    stopped the study of medicine, why?(0500AD)

    stopped the study of medicine, why?(0500AD)
    Because people of the Church believed that life and death was in the hands of God. They believed that the treatment answer was prayer.
  • 700

    How do they treat disease? (0700AD)

    How do they treat disease? (0700AD)
    By prayer or herbal mixtures and custodial care.
  • Period: 800 to 1400

    Middle Age (800 AD -1400AD)

  • 1100

    Epidemics (1100 AD)

    Epidemics (1100 AD)
    Terrible epidemics, as in, diseases affecting many people at the same time, caused millions of deaths during this time.
  • Period: 1350 to

    Renaissance (1350 AD -1650 AD)

  • 1450

    Rebirth? (1450 AD)

    Rebirth? (1450 AD)
    Universities: Universities started to be built for medical research.
    Dissection: In this time, dissection started to be accepted so we could better study the body.
    Books: Books and press started to be printed to create better access to knowledge about the body.
  • Period: 1501 to

    16th and 17th Centuries (1501 AD -1700AD)

  • 1515

    Leonardo da Vinci (1515 AD)

    Leonardo da Vinci (1515 AD)
    He studied the anatomy of the body.
  • 1550

    Gabriele Fallopius (1550 AD)

    Gabriele Fallopius (1550 AD)
    He discovered the Fallopian tubes of the female anatomy.
  • 1563

    Bartolommeo Eustachio (1563 AD)

    Bartolommeo Eustachio (1563 AD)
    He discovered the tube leading from the ear to the throat.
  • William Harvey (1628AD)

    William Harvey (1628AD)
    He used what knew to understand physiology and he could describe the circulation of blood and the pumping of the heart.
  • Antonie von Leeuwenhoek (1666 AD)

    Antonie von Leeuwenhoek (1666 AD)
    He invented the microscope. He also figured out the bacteria that causes tooth decay.
  • Apothecaries (1675AD)

    Apothecaries (1675AD)
    Apothecaries are the early pharmacies that started in this time.
  • Period: to

    18th Century (1701 AD- 1800 AD)

  • Benjamin Franklin (1730 AD)

    Benjamin Franklin (1730 AD)
    Benjamin Franklin invented the bifocals and he also found out that colds could be contagious.
  • Medical students learning (1750 AD)

    Medical students learning (1750 AD)
    Medical students not only attended lectures, but they also got to observe sick patients. After the patients would die, the students would be able to dissect and observe the disease process.
  • Joseph Priestley (1755 AD)

    Joseph Priestley (1755 AD)
    He discovered the element of oxygen. He also found out how plants could refresh air making it available for respiration.
  • Edward Jenner (1796 AD)

    Edward Jenner (1796 AD)
    He discovered a vaccination for smallpox.
  • Rene Laennec (1799 AD)

    Rene Laennec (1799 AD)
    He invented the stethoscope. The stethoscope allowed doctors to figure out if a disease was present in the patient.
  • Period: to

    19th and 20th Centuries (1801 AD -2000 AD)

  • Ignaz Semmelweis (1860 AD)

    Ignaz Semmelweis (1860 AD)
    He discovered the cause for child bed fever. He also helped us realize that hand washing is very important to stop the spread of disease.
  • Florence Nightingale (1860 AD)

    Florence Nightingale (1860 AD)
    She helped create nursing to be a respected profession.
  • Louis Pasteur (1885 AD)

    Louis Pasteur (1885 AD)
    Was known as the “Father of Microbiology” and he discovered that microorganisms were everywhere. He also helped us discover how to kill bacteria in milk. Also later on, he created a vaccine for rabies.
  • Dmitri Ivanovski (1892 AD)

    Dmitri Ivanovski (1892 AD)
    He discovered that some diseases are caused by microorganisms. And they cannot be seen with a microscope. These diseases are called viruses.
  • Joseph Lister (1895 AD)

    Joseph Lister (1895 AD)
    He was the first doctor to use an antiseptic during surgery. This helped prevent infection.
  • Ernst von Bergmann (1905 AD)

    Ernst von Bergmann (1905 AD)
    He developed asepsis. This helped keep surgery areas clean.
  • Robert Koch (1910 AD)

    Robert Koch (1910 AD)
    He found many organisms that cause diseases. He also discovered many ways to prevent the spread of diseases.
  • Paul Ehrlich (1912 AD)

    Paul Ehrlich (1912 AD)
    His discoveries brought about the use of chemicals to fight disease. He also discovered a treatment for syphilis after the 606th attempt.
  • Wilhelm Roentgen (1920 AD)

    Wilhelm Roentgen (1920 AD)
    He discovered x-rays in 1895. This helped doctors to discover what is wrong inside the patient.
  • Anesthesia (1925 AD)

    Anesthesia (1925 AD)
    Before the 19th century surgery was performed without anesthesia. In the 19th and 20th century however, anesthesia was performed before surgeries so patients wouldn’t feel pain during the procedure. This was done with drugs that have the ability to put people into a deep sleep while they are being operated on.
  • Sir Alexander Fleming (1928AD)

    Sir Alexander Fleming (1928AD)
    He found out that penicillin kills a life-threatening bacteria. Discovering penicillin was one of the most important things to have been discovered in the 20th century.
  • Sigmund Freud (1930 AD)

    Sigmund Freud (1930 AD)
    He studied the conscious and unconscious parts of the mind. And the effects a unconscious mind has on the body. He found out that the mind and body work together.
  • Gerhard Domagk (1945 AD)

    Gerhard Domagk (1945 AD)
    He discovered sulfonamide compounds. This was the first compounds to effectively kill bacteria.
  • Jonas Salk (1955 AD)

    Jonas Salk (1955 AD)
    He discovered that a dead polio virus would cause immunity to poliomyelitis. This saved many people from death or crippling.
  • Albert Sabin (1961 AD)

    Albert Sabin (1961 AD)
    He used a live polio virus vaccine which is more effective. This vaccine is still used today.
  • Francis Crick and James Watson (1962 AD)

    Francis Crick and James Watson (1962 AD)
    They won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for discovering how DNA is structured and how it is replicated.
  • Christian Barnard (1968 AD)

    Christian Barnard (1968 AD)
    He performed the first successful heart transplant.
  • Ben Carson (1987 AD)

    Ben Carson (1987 AD)
    He is able to separate Siamese twins and perform hemispherectomies.
  • Period: to

    21st Century (2001 AD - Present)

  • Smoke free laws

    Smoke free laws
    In 2003 many places banned smoking in indoor settings. This was a good decision as smoking was later found to be a leading cause of cancer.
  • Face and limb transplant

    Face and limb transplant
    There were many advances in face and limb transplants and amputations. These advances made them more comfortable and usable.
  • Wellness and self care

    Wellness and self care
    Many more people today are being taught how to take care of themselves properly. This includes eating healthy and basic self-care.
  • Mental care

    Mental care
    Many people now are becoming more aware of mental health diseases. But importantly, people are getting more help as they need it.
  • Staying fit

    Staying fit
    Many people discovered that some health related diseases could be linked to you physical state, as in your physical activity level. People are now becoming more aware that it is important to stay active and fit to maintain a healthy life.