French Revolution: Radical Phase

By 7murray
  • Mirabeau elected President of the Assembly

    Mirabeau elected President of the Assembly
  • The ‘Day of Daggers’ or ‘Poignard conspiracy’

    The ‘Day of Daggers’ or ‘Poignard conspiracy’
    a group of 400 armed nobles invade the Tuileries to protect the king. The nobles were disarmed by Lafayette and the National Guard.
  • Trade guilds and monopolies abolished

    The National Constituent Assembly suppresses all guilds and trade monopolies. - See more at: http://alphahistory.com/frenchrevolution/french-revolution-timeline-1790-91/#sthash.Fhza1Z9K.dpuf
  • Pope Pius condemns both the Civil Constitution of the Clergy and the Declaration of the Rights of Man.

    Pope Pius condemns both the Civil Constitution of the Clergy and the Declaration of the Rights of Man.
    The government later suspends diplomatic relations with the Vatican.
  • Death of Mirabeau

    first person to be buried in the Pantheon, formerly the Abbey of St Genevieve
  • Royal travel prohibited

    Royal travel prohibited
    Louis and Marie-Antoinette prevented from travelling to Saint-Cloud for Easter
  • King prohibited from attending Mass

    The National Guard disobeyed Lafayette and stopped the king from leaving for Saint-Cloud, where he planned to attend Mass.
  • Trade Laws Banned

    Le Chapelier Law 1791 banning trade unions is passed by National Assembly
  • National Assembly Reinstates King

    National Assembly declares the king to be inviolable and he is reinstated.
  • Period: to

    Royal family's flight to Varennes

    during the night of 20–21 June 1791 was a significant episode in the French Revolution in which King Louis XVI of France, his queen Marie Antoinette, and their immediate family attempted unsuccessfully to escape from Paris in order to initiate a counter-revolution at the head of loyal troops under royalist officers concentrated at Montmédy near the frontier. They escaped only as far as the small town of Varennes, where they were arrested after having been recognized at their previous stop.
  • Louis XVI forced to return to Paris

    Louis XVI forced to return to Paris
    King Louis XVI of France, his queen Marie Antoinette, and their immediate family attempted unsuccessfully to escape from Paris in order to initiate a counter-revolution at the head of loyal troops under royalist officers concentrated at Montmédy near the Austrian border. They escaped only as far as the small town of Varennes, where they were arrested after having been recognized at their previous stop.
  • Lafayette promoted to Lieutenant General.

    Lafayette promoted to Lieutenant General.
  • Prussian King Responds

    Leopold II issues the Padua Circular calling on the royal houses of Europe to come to his brother-in-law, Louis XVI's aid.
  • Desmoulins appears before the Paris Commune at the head of a group petitioning for the deposition of the king.

  • Champ de Mars

    Anti-Royalist demonstration at the Champ de Mars; National Guard kills fifty people. Arrest warrants issued for Desmoulins and Danton, the latter fleeing to England.
  • Declaration of Pillnitz

    Declaration of Pillnitz
    was a statement issued on 27 August 1791 at Pillnitz Castle near Dresden (Saxony) by Frederick William II of Prussia and the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II who was Marie Antoinette's brother. It declared the joint support of the Holy Roman Empire and of Prussia for King Louis XVI of France against the French Revolution.
  • Louis XVI accepts the Constitution formally

  • Dissolution of the National Constituent Assembly

    The National Assembly is dissolved.
  • Legislative Assembly meets - many young, inexperienced, radical deputies.

    The Legislative Assembly was the legislature of France from 1 October 1791 to 20 September 1792 during the years of the French Revolution. It provided the focus of political debate and revolutionary law-making between the periods of the National Constituent Assembly and of the National Convention.
  • All émigrés are ordered by the Assembly to return under threat of death

    émigrés; These were nobles who fled to live in other countries during the Great Fear.
  • Louis vetoes the ruling of the Assembly on émigrés and priests.

  • Lafayette received command of one of the three armies, the Army of the Centre, based at Metz

  • Period: to

    Food riots in Paris

  • Guillotine adopted as official means of execution.

     Guillotine adopted as official means of execution.
    A guillotine (/ˈɡɪlətiːn/; French: [ɡijɔtin]) is an apparatus designed for efficiently carrying out executions by beheading. The device consists of a tall, upright frame in which a weighted and angled blade is raised to the top and suspended. The condemned person is secured with stocks at the bottom of the frame, positioning the neck directly below the blade. The blade is then released, to fall swiftly and forcefully severing the head of the victim from the body with a single pass.
  • France declares war against Austria

  • France invades Austrian Netherlands (Belgium)

  • The people storm the Tuileries and confront the king.

    The people storm the Tuileries and confront the king.
  • Lafayette speaks out

    Lafayette delivered a fiery speech before the Assembly denouncing the Jacobins and other radical groups and attempted to raise an armed mob. He was instead accused of deserting his troops, denounced by Robespierre, burned in effigy by mob.
  • Cockade Wear Made Mandatory

    Cockade Wear Made Mandatory
    The tricolor cockade made compulsory for men to wear. La Marseillaise sung by volunteers from Marseilles on their arrival in Paris.
  • Brunswick Manifesto

    warns that should the royal family be harmed by the popular movement, an "exemplary and eternally memorable revenge" will follow.
  • Austria and Prussia begin invasion of France

  • Revolutionary commune takes possession of the hôtel de ville.

  • Period: to

    Storming of the Tuileries Palace

    Swiss Guard massacred. Louis XVI of France is arrested and taken into custody, along with his family. Georges Danton becomes Minister of Justice.
  • Danton puts warrant out for the arrest of Lafayette.

  • Paris commune presents petition to the Legislative Assembly demanding the establishment of a Revolutionary Tribunal and summoning of a National Convention.

  • Lafayette flees to Austria.

    Invasion of France by Coalition troops led by Duke of Brunswick
  • Robespierre was elected First Deputy for Paris to the National Convention.

    Robespierre was elected First Deputy for Paris to the National Convention.
    Robespierre and his allies took the benches high at the back of the hall, giving them the label 'the Montagnards', or 'the Mountain'; below them were the 'Manège' of the Girondists and then 'the Plain' of the independents. The Girondists at the Convention accused Robespierre of failing to stop the September Massacres.
  • Period: to

    The September Massacres of prisoners in the Paris prisons.

    The September Massacres[1] were a wave of killings in Paris (2–7 September 1792) and other cities in late summer 1792, during the French Revolution. There was a fear that foreign and royalist armies would attack Paris and that the inmates of the city's prisons would be freed and join them. Radicals called for preemptive action, especially journalist Jean-Paul Marat, who called on draftees to kill the prisoners before they could be freed.[2] The action was undertaken by mobs of National Guardsmen
  • Dissolution of Legislative Assembly.

    This marks the third failed and ended government since the revolution began (after the Estates-General and National Assembly)
  • Abolition of royalty and proclamation of the First French Republic.

    First Republic, officially the French Republic, was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution. The First Republic lasted until the declaration of the First Empire in 1804 under Napoleon I, although the form of the government changed several times. This period was characterized by the fall of the monarchy, the establishment of the National Convention and the Reign of Terror, the Thermidorian Reaction and the founding of the Directory, and, finally, the creation of the Consulate
  • First day of the French Revolutionary Calendar

    French Revolutionary Calendar (calendrier révolutionnaire français) was a calendar created and implemented during the French Revolution, and used by the French government for about 12 years from late 1793 to 1805, and for 18 days by the Paris Commune in 1871. The revolutionary system was designed in part to remove all religious and royalist influences from the calendar, and was part of a larger attempt at decimalisation in France
  • Loius' Trial

    Loius' Trial
    Louis XVI brought to trial, appears before the National Convention (11 & 23 December). Robespierre argues that "Louis must die, so that the country may live".
  • Louis' Execution

    Louis' Execution
    Citizen Louis Capet (formerly known as Louis XVI) guillotined.
  • Outbreak of rebellion against the Revolution: War in the Vendée.

    The War in the Vendée (1793 to 1796; French: Guerre de Vendée) was an uprising in the Vendée region of France during the French Revolution. The Vendée is a coastal region, located immediately south of the Loire River in western France. Initially, the war was similar to the 14th-century Jacquerie peasant uprising, but quickly acquired themes considered by the government in Paris to be counterrevolutionary, and Royalist.
  • Revolutionary Tribunal established in Paris.

    The Revolutionary Tribunal (French: Tribunal révolutionnaire) was a court which was instituted in Paris by the Convention during the French Revolution for the trial of political offenders, and eventually became one of the most powerful engines of the Reign of Terror.
  • Committee of Public Safety established

    Committee of Public Safety established
    The Committee of Public Safety (French: Comité de salut public), created in April 1793 by the National Convention and then restructured in July 1793, formed the de facto executive government in France during the Reign of Terror (1793–94). The power of the Committee peaked between August 1793 and July 1794, under the leadership of Robespierre. In December 1793, the Convention formally conferred executive power upon the Committee, and Robespierre established a virtual dictatorship.
  • Marat Vindicated

    Marat Vindicated
    Marat was brought before the Tribunal on the charges that he had printed in his paper statements calling for widespread murder as well as the suspension of the Convention. He was acquitted of all charges to the riotous celebrations of his supporters.
  • Robespierre calls for insurrection.

  • Period: to

    Insurrection of 31 May – 2 June 1793

    The Insurrection of 31 May – 2 June 1793 marks a significant milestone in the history of the French Revolution. The days of 31 May – 2 June resulted in the fall of the Girondin party under pressure of the Parisian sans-culottes, Jacobins of the clubs, and Montagnards in the National Convention. By its impact and importance, the insurrection of 31 May – 2 June stands as one of the three great popular insurrections of the French Revolution, following those of 14 July 1789 and 10 August 1792
  • Arrest of Girondist deputies to National Convention by Jacobins.

  • Jacobins gain control of the Committee of Public Safety.

  • Ratification of new Constitution by National Convention,

    but not yet proclaimed. Slavery is abolished in France until 1802 (Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte).
  • Prince taken, trial looms

    Prince taken, trial looms
    Louis XVII of France was carried away from Marie Antoinette and was given to the treatment of a cobbler named Antoine Simon as a demand from the National Convention
  • Assassination of Jean-Paul Marat by Charlotte Corday.

    Assassination of Jean-Paul Marat by Charlotte Corday.
    In 1793, she was executed by guillotine for the assassination of Jacobin leader Jean-Paul Marat, who was in part responsible, through his role as a politician and journalist, for the more radical course the Revolution had taken. More specifically, he played a substantial role in the political purge of the Girondins, with whom Corday sympathized. His murder was memorialized in a celebrated painting by Jacques-Louis David which shows Marat after Corday had stabbed him to death in his bathtub.
  • Robespierre elected to Committee of Public Safety.

  • Levée en masse (conscription) order.

    The concept originated as a French term for mass-conscription during the French Revolutionary Wars, particularly for the period after 16 August 1793.[3] It formed an integral part of the creation of national identity, making it unique from forms of conscription which had existed before this date.
  • Start of Reign of Terror.

    a period of violence that occurred after the onset of the French Revolution, incited by conflict between two rival political factions, the Girondins and The Mountain, and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution". The death toll ranged in the tens of thousands, with 16,594 executed by guillotine (2,639 in Paris),[2] and another 25,000 in summary executions across France.
  • Establishment of sans-culottes paramilitary forces - revolutionary armies.

    Establishment of sans-culottes paramilitary forces - revolutionary armies.
    The sans-culottes (French: [sɑ̃kyˈlɔt], "without culottes") were the common people of the lower classes in late 18th century France, a great many of whom became radical and militant partisans of the French Revolution in response to their poor quality of life under the Ancien Régime. The term sans-culottes refers to their lower class status; culottes were the fashionable silk knee-breeches of the nobility and bourgeoisie, as distinguished from the working class sans-culottes.
  • Law of Suspects passed.

    The law ordered the arrest of all avowed enemies and likely enemies of the Revolution, which included nobles, relatives of émigrés, officials removed from office, officers suspected of treason, and hoarders of goods. The following year, it was expanded and became more strict. Implementation of the law and arrests were entrusted to oversight committees, and not to the legal authorities.[2] It also introduced the maxim that subjects had to prove their innocence, which was later extended by the Law
  • New Calendar

    A new calendar is introduced, denoting September 22, 1792 as being the start of year I.
  • Convention passes the General Maximum, fixing the prices of many goods and services.

  • 1793 Constitution put on hold; decree that the government must be "revolutionary until the peace".

  • Marie's Trial

    Marie's Trial
    Queen Marie Antoinette is impeached and convicted for treachery against the country, and for treason, originally they claimed that Marie had an incestuous relation with her child, it was at this remark she stood up before the jury and told them no mother would do such a thing, and at that the people agreed they had gone too far on accusations. (so satisfied with treason)
    The Dauphin (Louis XVII) is condemned to be executed in the Place de la Revolution.
  • Marie Antoinette guillotined.

    Marie Antoinette guillotined.
  • 21 Girondist deputies are guillotined.

  • The Cathedral of Notre Dame is re-dedicated to the civic religion of the Cult of Reason.

  • Law of 14 Frimaire (Law of Revolutionary Government) passed; power becomes centralised on the Committee of Public Safety.

    This gives the committee of public saftey unlimited power to continue farce trials and guillotinings
  • Hébert and leaders of the Cordeliers guillotined.

    Hébert and leaders of the Cordeliers guillotined.
  • Danton and Desmoulins guillotined.

    Danton and Desmoulins guillotined.
  • National Convention, led by Robespierre, passes decree to establish the Cult of the Supreme Being.

    National Convention, led by Robespierre, passes decree to establish the Cult of the Supreme Being.
    The Cult of the Supreme Being (French: Culte de l'Être suprême)a was a form of deism established in France by Maximilien Robespierre during the French Revolution.[1] It was intended to become the state religion of the new French Republic
  • Antoine Lavoisier, chemist, guillotined as traitor.

  • Festival of the Supreme Being.

    Festival of the Supreme Being.
    To inaugurate the new state religion, Robespierre declared that 20 Prairial Year II (8 June 1794) would be the first day of national celebration of the Supreme Being, and future republican holidays were to be held every tenth day—the days of rest (décadi) in the new French Republican Calendar.[6] Every locality was mandated to hold a commemorative event, but the event in Paris was designed on a massive scale. The festival was organized by the artist Jacques-Louis David
  • Law of 22 Prairial - the Revolutionary Tribunal became a court of condemnation without the need for witnesses.

    The Law of 22 Prairial, also known as the loi de la Grande Terreur, the law of the Great Terror, was enacted on June 10, 1794 (22 Prairial of the Year II under the French Revolutionary Calendar). It was proposed by Georges Auguste Couthon and lent support by Robespierre. It was one of the ordinances passed during this stage of the French Revolution, by means of which the Committee of Public Safety simplified the judicial process to one of indictment and prosecution.
  • André Chenier, poet, guillotined for conspiring against the Revolution.

    André Chenier, poet, guillotined for conspiring against the Revolution.
  • Period: to

    Night of 9-10 Thermidor - Robespierre arrested, guillotined without trial, along with other members of the Committee of Public Safety. Commune of Paris abolished. End of the Reign of Terror. Also called The Thermidorian Reaction.

    The Thermidorian Reaction was a coup d'état within the French Revolution against the leaders of the Jacobin Club who had dominated the Committee of Public Safety. It was triggered by a vote of the National Convention to execute Maximilien Robespierre, Louis Antoine de Saint-Just, and several other leading members of the revolutionary government. This ended the most radical phase of the French Revolution.
  • Period: to

    The White Terror - reaction against remaining Jacobins.

    The White Terror took place in 1795, during the period known as the Thermidorian Reaction, in the aftermath of the Reign of Terror. It was organized by reactionary "Chouan" royalist forces, and was targeted at the radical Jacobins and anyone suspected of supporting them. Throughout France, both real and suspected Jacobins were attacked and often murdered. These "bands of Jesus" dragged suspected terrorists from prisons and murdered them much as alleged royalists had been murdered during the Sept
  • Closure of Jacobin Club

    Closure of Jacobin Club