Xacobe de la Fuente López_G&H_4ºF

Timeline created by Xacobe de la Fuente López
In History
  • Period: 1492 to

    Modern History

    It is the third of the historical periods into which universal history is divided. The values of modernity stand out: progress, communication and reason. This period of time is characterized by the passage from theocentrism to anthropocentrism.
  • John Kay's flying shuttle

    It increased the speed of production and made it possible to weave wider fabrics and spinning machines, which significantly increased productivity.
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    First industrial Revolution

    It began in Great Britain in the mid-18th century and spread across Europe, the USA and Japan in the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution interconnected changes (parallel revolutions) driven by innovation. This Revolution led to an increase in food production and in population. It also created new machinery and energy sources for industry and new systems for financing companies and facilitating payments. Markets were bigger.
  • James Watt's steam engine

    James Watt adapted the steam engine to power industrial machinery. Its role in the mechanisation of the textile industry led to a rise in productivity and total production. This made it possible to lower costs and reduce the sale price of the product. Steam engines were also used in agriculture, mills, flour mills, etc. and were very important in mines, where they were used to remove water from the galleries.
  • Adam Smith publishes ''The Wealth of Nations''

    Adam Smith was one of the liberal British authors of the Manchester School. He wrote The Wealth of Nations, probably the most influential book on market economics ever written, in which he explains his economic theories.
  • Invention of the power loom

    It was created by Edmund Cartwright. It's a mechanized loom system driven by a transmission shaft. It dramatically increased fabric production and lowered its cost.
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    Constitutional Monarchy

    It was driven by the moderate bourgueoisie who establish a moderate liberal monarchy. They aspired to abolish the Ancien Régime, elect a parliament by selective suffrage and establish a constitution. The clergy and nobility opposed this monarchy and there was a financial crise. The invasion of France and the fled of the kings were the main causes of why it ended.
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    French Revolution

    It is one of the most significant events in the history of humanity, and marked the beginning of the late modern period. It started an era in which western society began the construction of a future based on respect for fundamental and basic human rights, and on the principle that all citizens had the same rights and should choose representatives to govern their nation.
  • Estates-General meeting

    The Estates-General met in Versailles. The meeting was chaired by the king and made up of representatives of the nobility, clergy and the Third Estate. The Third Estate representatives decided to leave the meeting when the privileged classes refused to allow them greater representation and insisted on one vote per estate rather than one per representative.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    The members of the French Third Estate met in a pavilion in Versailles and took the Jeu de Paume, vowing "not to separate and to reassemble wherever require, until the Constitution of the kingdom is established". It was a pivotal event in the French Revolution.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    The people of Paris supported the Assembly's proposals and they stormed the Bastille. The revolution spread to the countryside, where the nobles' homes were burnt (The Great Fear). Louis XVI was frightened by the situation and, in the autumn of 1789, accepted the National Assembly, which made France a constitutional monarchy and ended the Ancien Régime.
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    Contemporany History

    It is a stage in history that has suffered two World Wars and the consolidation of a capitalist system that continues to this day. It is characterized by the Enlightenment that was one of the triggers for the change of thought of a society represented mainly by the bourgeoisie class.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    It recognised the rights, individual freedoms and equality of all citizens in law and taxation.
  • Women’s March on Versailles

    From Paris’ markets, thousands of angry women (due to high prices of food), marched to Versailles. They forced the king to abandon his palace and move to the Tuileries Palace in Paris.
  • First French constitution

    The National Assembly drew up a constitution in 1791 based on the separation of powers, national sovereignty and legal equality, though the king reserved the right of veto. Census suffrage was also introduced, giving the vote to people with a certain level of wealth.
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    Social Republic

    The Social republic was the second phase of the French Revolution. The radical bourgeoisie, encouraged by the working classes, proclaimed the Republic and began a transformation into a democratic and equal society with universal male suffrage and social laws.
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    Girondin Convention

    Between 1792 and 1793, the Girondins, the more moderate bourgeoisie, controlled the Republic. A new assembly, the National Convention, was elected by universal male suffrage. Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette were convicted of treason and exeuted. In response to the king's death, monarchies in Europe formed an absolutist coalition against France. Inside the country, counter-revolutionary revolts broke out and the former privileged classes organised royalist plots.
  • War of the First Coalition

    The War of the First Coalition is a set of wars that several European powers fought between 1792 and 1797 against initially the constitutional Kingdom of France and then the French Republic that succeeded it. They were only loosely allied and fought without much apparent coordination or agreement; each power had its eye on a different part of France it wanted to appropriate after a French defeat, which never occurred.
  • Storm of Tulleries Palace

    The betrayal by the king and the military invasion led to the revolt by the common people (sans-culottes). They stormed Tuileries Palace and imprisoned the royal family. A republic was declared and the second phase of the Revolution began.
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    Jacobin Convention

    The Jacobins, the most radical sector of the bourgeoisie, endorsed the demands of the popular sectors and seized power. The Revolution had now entered its most extreme phase. A new constitution that recognised popular soveregnity (universal male suffrage) and the right to social equality was enacted. The executive was led by a Committee of Public Safety, which gave power to the Jacobin leader Robespierre.
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    Reign of Terror

    It was imposed to stop conspirators. Freedoms were suspended and people opposed to the government were either imprisoned or revolutionary courts ordered their execution by guillotine (Law of Suspects).
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    King Louis XVI was convicted of treason and executed. In response to the king's death, monarchies in Europe formed an absolutist coalition against France. Inside the country, counter-revolutionary revolts broke out and the reformer privileged classes organised royalists plots.
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    Conservative Republic

    Despite the radicalisation of the French Revolution, the moderate bourgeoisie took power and implemented a new moderate liberalism. The aristocracy opposed this republic and it ended by the Coup d'état by Napoleon.
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    The Consulate

    Napoleon was named consul, and the Consulate's rule began. This was a period of autocratic and authoritarian rule. Napoleon aspired to put an end to the political instability of the Revolution, consolidate some of the revolutionary principles and promote economic recovery through a government that represented the interests of the bourgeoisie.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    The general Napoleon Bonaparte organised this coup that ended the Directory in this context of crisis and war against the absolutist powers. The Directory was permanently unestable because it faced opposition from the aristocracy, which sought to re-establish the monrchy and recover its privileges, and the common people, who supported the return of the Jacobins.
  • Constitution of 1800

    It established a form of government known as the Consulate, which had 95 articles regulating the right to universal suffrage. It didn't include the separation of powers or a declaration of rights. Liberties were very limited and public opinion was censured.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    Napoleon began his conquest of Europe in 1803. After France's victory over Austria and Russia at Austerlitz, in 1806, the French troops seemed unstoppable, so in 1808, the French invaded Spain and Joseph Bonaparte, one of the emperor's brother, was made king. In 1811, the Napoleonic Empire had reached its zenith: it extended from Germany to Spain. France now controlled most of Europe. The invasion of Russia and the revolt in Spain against the king marked the decline of the Napoleonic Empire.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon is crowned emperor by the Pope at Notre Dame in Paris. Napoleon centralized all power in his hands and established a new social order based on the defense of order and property.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    In 1808, the French invaded Spain and Joseph Bonaparte, one of the emperor's brothers, was made king . In 1811, the Napoleonic Empire had reached its zenith: it extended from Germany to Spain. France now controlled most of Europe.
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    Luditte movement

    The difficult working conditions under the industrial system and the poverty of the workers caused social unrest. The first workers to protest against industrialisation were the Luddites. This Luddite movement started in England in the early 19th century. It consisted of the violent destruction of machinery in the belief that it was responsible for low wages and unemployment.
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    The Restoration of absolutism

    The Congress of Vienna established the ideological principles of the Restoration such as the legitimacy of the absolute monarchs and the denial of national soveregnity. It also called for a balance of power between the victors trough periodic meetings and the right of intervention. In 1815, the Holy Alliance Treaty was signed. This stipulated that the absolute monarchs would unite against any threat of liberal revolution.
  • Battle o Waterloo

    The imperial armies were finally defeated in Waterloo by Great Britain and Prussia. Napoleon abdicated after the defeat and was sent into exile on the island of Saint Helena, where he died in 1821.
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    The Holy Alliance Treaty was signed at the Congress of Vienna by the crowned heads of Russia, Prussia, and Austria. Its purpose was to re-establish the principle of hereditary rule and to suppress democratic and nationalist movements, which sprung up in the wake of the French Revolution.
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    Greek War of Independence

    In 1822, The Greeks declared independence in Epidaurus, but it was not recognised by the Turks, and resulted in the beginning of a war. The European liberals supported the Greeks. They wanted to help the region they considered the cardle of European culture. In 1827, with the help of French and British military intervention, T¡the Greeks defeated the Ottoman Empire. Greece gained its independence in 1830.
  • Abolishment of the Combination Acts

    The Combination Acts or Combination Laws were English laws that initially prohibited and later regulated workers' associations and strikes. They were promulgated in 1799 and 1800 before the boom that the labor movement was taking and declared the Trade Unions illegal. la presión popular y obrera, y la intensa actividad de un lobby dirigido por Francis Place, hizo que el Parlamento derogara estas leyes en 1824. Popular and labor pressure, caused Parliament to repeal these laws in 1824.
  • Stephenson's Steam locomotive

    It used a steam engine to generate continuous motion of the wheels. This new transport system could carry more passangers and goods in less time and at a lower cost. This improvement boosted trade and helped create a large domestic market.
  • Revolutions in 1830

    The Revolutions of 1830 were a revolutionary wave in Europe. It included two romantic nationalist revolutions, the Belgian Revolution in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the July Revolution in France along with revolutions in Congress Poland, Italian states, Portugal and Switzerland. Ended the restoration of absolutism.
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    The Age of revolutions

    Liberalism and nationalism became the two main opposition forces, prompting the revolutions of 1830 and 1848 that ended de restoration of absolutism. When the insurrections were successful, absolutism was replaced by liberal political systems governed by a constitution in which the bourgeoisie held power. This movement began in France.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    The spread of liberal ideas helped the Belgian Revolution, and Belgium became a liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I. An armed conflict followed Belgium's declaration of independence. It finally endend when the Netherlands recognised Belgium's independence in 1839.
  • Zollverrein

    It was a customs union created by Prussia that united the majority of Germanic states. In 1848, Germany's first freely elected parliament met and offered the crown of Germay to the king of Prussia, who refused it because its parliament was liberal.
  • Grand National consolidated Trades Unions

    The Grand National Consolidated Trade Unions, which brought together different types of workers, was founded in 1834. Its first tasks were to defend the right of association, to reduce the working day, to improve wages and to regulate child labour.
  • Revolutions in 1848

    The revolutions of 1848 were characterized by the importance of nationalist demonstrations and by the beginning of the first organized demonstrations of the labor movement. Initiated in France, they spread rapidly throughout almost all of central Europe and Italy. Ended the restoration of absolutism and represented democratic ideas and the political importance of workers.
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    French Second Republic

    In France, a popular uprising proclaimed the Second Republic, which adopted a number of democratic measures, such as universal male suffrage, press freedom, abolition of the death penalty and recognition of certain rights for workers.
  • Invention of the Bessemer converter

    It made possible to manufacture steel. This was a more flexible material, ideal for constructing machinery, tools, buildings and public works. The key principle is the removal of impurities from the iron through oxidation produced by blowing air into the cast iron. Oxidation causes the temperature of the mass of iron to rise and keeps it molten.
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    Italian Unification process

    In 1859, Piedmont started a unification process. They declared war on Austria and annexed Lombardy. At the same time, a popular uprising led by Garibaldi overthrew the absolute monarchies in central and southern Italy. In 1861, Victor Manuel II of Savoy was proclaimed king of Italy. In 1866, Austria left Venetia, and in 1870, the Papal States were anexed by Italy. The newly unified state established its capital in Rome
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    German Unification process

    In 1861, the first moves towards a united Germany were made as Wilhelm I became king of `Prussia and made Otto von Bismarck chancellor. Prussia declared war on Denmark in 1864, on Austria in 1866, and on France in 1870. Prussia was victorious in all three wars, making the unification of Germany possible: in 1871, Wilhelm I was proclaimed Kaiser (emperor) of the Second German Empire (Reich).
  • First International

    The First International was an international organisation which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing socialist, communist and anarchist groups and trade unions that were based on the working class and class struggle. It was founded in 1864 in a workmen's meeting held in St. Martin's Hall, London.
  • Karl Marx publishes ''Das Kapital''

    Das Kapital is a foundational theoretical text in materialist philosophy, economics and politics published by Karl Marx in 1867. Marx aimed to reveal the economic patterns underpinning the capitalist mode of production in contrast to classical political economists.
  • Second International

    The Second International (1889–1916) was an organisation of socialist and labour parties, formed on 14 July 1889 at a Paris meeting in which delegations from twenty countries participated. The Second International continued the work of the dissolved First International, though excluding the powerful anarcho-syndicalist movement and trade unions.