• Period: Dec 11, 1474 to Nov 26, 1504

    King Ferdinand and Isabella

    Ruled over Spain
  • Period: Apr 22, 1509 to Jan 28, 1547

    King Henry VIII

    Ruled over England
  • Period: May 21, 1527 to

    Philip II

    Ruled over Spain
  • Period: Jan 16, 1547 to

    Ivan the Terrible

    Ruled over Russia
  • Period: Nov 17, 1558 to

    Elizabeth I

    Ruled over England
  • Period: to

    Thirty Years War

    17th-century religious conflict fought primarily in central Europe. It remains one of the longest and most brutal wars in human history, with more than 8 million casualties resulting from military battles as well as from the famine and disease caused by the conflict.
  • Period: to

    English Civil War

    The English Civil War was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists, mainly over the manner of England's governance and issues of religious freedom. It was part of the wider Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
  • Period: to

    Louis XIV

    Ruled over France
  • Period: to

    Peter the Great

    Ruled over Russia
  • Period: to

    The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution refers to the events of 1688–89 that led to Catholic King James II of England being deposed and replaced on the throne by his Protestant daughter Mary II and her husband William III, Prince of Orange.
  • Period: to

    War of the Spanish Succession

    A struggle to determine whether the vast possessions of the Spanish Empire should pass to the House of Bourbon or to the House of Habsburg, both of which had dynastic claims, or whether they should be partitioned to preserve the balance of power in Europe.
  • Period: to

    Seven Years War

    The French and Indian War began in 1754 and ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1763. The war provided Great Britain enormous territorial gains in North America, but disputes over subsequent frontier policy and paying the war's expenses led to colonial discontent, and ultimately to the American Revolution.
  • Period: to

    Louis XVI

    Ruled over France
  • Meeting with the Estates-General

    Meeting with the Estates-General
    A meeting of the three estates within French society which included the clergy, nobility and the peasant classes. The estate to which a person belonged was very important because it determined that person's rights, obligations and status.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    In the Tennis Court Oath, representatives of the non-clergy and non-nobles of France swore they would not disperse until a constitution was established for France. While the oath-makers were successful, the French Revolution soon tumbled out of control.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    Rising bread prices, the concentration of foreign soldiers around Paris, and counter-revolutionary measures by the king. Searching for weapons and gunpowder led the mob to the Bastille. The storming of the Bastille symbolically marked the beginning of the French Revolution.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man

    Declaration of the Rights of Man
    Emerged from the tenets of the Enlightenment, including individualism, the social contract as theorized by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and the separation of powers espoused by Montesquieu. Provided protection for numerous individual rights: liberty, property, freedom of speech and the press, freedom of religion and equal treatment before the law.
  • Women's March on Versailles

    Women's March on Versailles
    Concerned over the high price and scarcity of bread, women from the marketplaces of Paris led the March on Versailles. This became one of the most significant events of the French Revolution, eventually forcing the royals to return to Paris.
  • Execution of King Louis XVI

    Execution of King Louis XVI
    He was brought to trial for treason and executed by guillotine. His execution caused shock waves and condemnation around the world, most notably in Britain, which within a fortnight was at war with France.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Terror

    A conscripted army, which saved France from invasion by other countries, was meant to solidify the gains of the Revolution and to create a stable republic. Instead, it destabilized the country
  • Maximilien Robespierre's Execution

    Maximilien Robespierre's Execution
    Robespierre and a number of his followers were arrested at the Hôtel de Ville in Paris. The next day Robespierre and 21 of his followers were taken to the Place de la Révolution, where they were executed by guillotine before a cheering crowd.
  • Napoleon Crowns Himself Emperor

    Napoleon Crowns Himself Emperor
    Napoleon established the legitimacy of his position and hereditary rule. He secured the faith of his supporters, the compliance of his Royalist dissenters and did away with the last vestiges of the revolution to become the highest authority in France.
  • Period: to

    Peninsular War

    The British Army fought a war in the Iberian Peninsula against the invading forces of Napoleon's France. Aided by their Spanish and Portuguese allies, the British held off superior French numbers before winning a series of victories and driving them out.
  • French Invasion of Russia

    French Invasion of Russia
    Napoleon and his troops invade Russia. The campaign failed, however, because Napoleon and his men ran out of food, and could not survive the harsh weather conditions.
  • Napoleon is Exiled to Elba

    Napoleon is Exiled to Elba
  • Napoleon Dies

    Napoleon Dies
  • Period: to

    Nicholas II (Romanov)

    Nicholas II (Romanov) ruled Russia