Hannah Williams French Revolution

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    Deficit Spending 1

    Louis XVIRiots broke out becasue people were left hungry, unemployed, and poor at the time that the prices of bread, their main food, soared. At this time France was split up into three social classes, or estates. The First Estate was the clergy's. The Second Estates was the nobles, and the Third estate was everyone else. The middle class people, the peasants, and the unemployed. France was in a financial crisis, mainly because of deficit spending.
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    Deficit Spending 2

    Deficit Spending is where the government is spending more money thatn they are making. Louis XVI chose a finacial expert, as an advisor by the name of Jacques Necker Necker urged the king to reduce extravagant court spending, reform goovernment, and abolish burdensome tariffs on internal trade. However, Necker was fired because he proposed the idea of taxing the first and second estates.
  • Parisians storm the Bastille

    Parisians attacking the BastilleMore than 800 Parisians assembled outside Bastille, demanding weapons. The commander of Bastille refused to open the gates, and opened fire on the crowd. Many people were killed, which mad the mob extremely mad. The enraged mob broke through the defenses. They killed the commander, five guards, and released the handful of prisoners who were being held there, but they found no weapons. The Bastille was a symbol to the people of France representing years of abuse by the monarchy.
  • National Assembly Act (The Rights of Man)

    Women's MarchThe French Declaration announced that "all men were born and remain free and equal in rights." THey enjoyed natural rights to "liberty, property, security, and resistance o oppresion." The constitution insisted that governments exist to protect the natural rights of citizens, like the writings of John Locke and the philosophes.
  • National Assembly Act: Women's March

    October 5th, 1789, six thousand women marched 13 miles from Paris to Versailles. The crowd's anger was directed at the Austrian-born queen, Marie Antoinette. She lived a life of extravagance, and this led to further public unrest. The women refused to leave Versailles until the king met their most important demand, to return to Paris. Not too happily, the king agreed, and the queen and her son followed, and were held a virtial prisoner.
  • National Assembly Act: Church Under State Control

    ChurchThe National Assembly put the French Catholic Church under state control. Under the Civil Constitution of the Clergy., bishops and priests became elected, salaried officials. Many bishops and priests refused to accept the Civil Constitution. The pope condemned it. When the government punished clergy who refused to support the Civil Constitution, a huge gulf opened between revolutionaries in Paris and the peasantry in the provinces.
  • Threats From Abroad

    PrussiaThe failed escape from Louis XVI brought on the threats from abrouad. In August, the king of Prussia and emperor of Austria- Marie Antoinette's brother- issued the Declaration of Pilnitz. The document stated that the two monarchs threatened to intervene to protect the French Monarchy. Revolutionaries in France took the threat seriously and prepared for war.
  • National Assembly Act: Constitution

    Constitution of 1791The Constitution of 1791 set up a limited monarchy in place of the absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries. A new legislative Assembly had the power to collet taxes, make laws, and make decisions on waw and peace. Lawmakers would be elected by tax-paying male citizens over the age of 25. This Constitution seemed to complete the revolution.
  • Radicals Declare War

    JacobinsThe newly elected Legislative Assembly took office, but faced many crises at home and abroad, and only lasted for less than a year. Economic problems fed renewed turmoil. Assignats, the revolutionary currency, dropped in value, causing prices to rise rapidly. Sans-culottes, which means "without breeches" were working-class men and women that demanded a republic govermnment. Jacobins also agreed with the sans-culottes who faced moderate reformers and political officials.
  • Radicals Declare War

    French National AssemblyThe war of words between French revolutionaries and European monarchs moved onto the battlefield. Eager to spread the revolution and destroy tyranny abroad, the Legislative Assembly declared war first on Austria and then on Prussia, Britain, and the other states. The great powers expected to win an easy victory against France, a land divided by revolution. But the fighting that began in 1792 lasted on and off until 1815.
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    Monarchy is Abolished

    Attacks from ordinary citizens were fired to fury by real and imagined grievances. In January 1793, King Louis XVI was executed. The king was seen as a traitor to France.
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    Robespierre and the Reign of Terror

    Robespierre was one of the chief architects of the Reign of Terror. Revolutionary courts conducted hasty trials. Spectators greeted death sentences with cries of "Hail the Republic!" or "Death to the traitors." Robespierre thought the only way to get the point across was to scare the people. His famous quote was "Liberty cannot be secured, unless criminals lose their heads." During this time the guillotine was invented. It was a "humane" way to behead someone.
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    Robespierre and the Reign of Terror (2)

    300,000 people were arrested at this time, and 17,000 people were executerd. Most of them were victims of a mistaken identity or were falsely accused by their neighbors. The new system of beheading people quickly became a symbol of horror. The Terror consumed those who initiated it. On the night of July 27, 1794, Robespierre was arrested, and was executed the next day. After he was killed, executioins slowed drastically.
  • Third Stage of the Revolution

    Sans-cullotesA third constitution in reaction to the Terror was written. THe Constitution set up a five-man Directory and a two-house legislature elected by male citizens of property. The Directory held power from 1795-1799. Peace was made with Prussia and Spain, but war with Austria and Great Britain continued. Hungry san-culottes started rioting becasue bread prices were high. The Directory quickly suppressed them.
  • Third Stage of the Revolution (2)

    Napoleon BonaparteIn the election, supporters of a constitutional monarchy won the majority of seats in the legislature. As chaos threatened, politicians turned to Napolean Bonaparte, a popular military hero who had won a series of brilliant victories against the Austrians in Italy. The politicians planned to use him to advance their ouwn goals. However, Napolean outwitted them all to become the ruler of France
  • Spread Of Nationalism

    NationalismRevolution and war gave the French people a stong sense of national identity. At this time gobernment rullied sons and daughters of declaration to defend nation. Nationalism then spread through France. French people attended festivals that celebrated the nation and revolution. From the port city of Marseilles troops marched to a new song. It urged children of fatherland to march against bloody banner of tyranny. The song was called "la Marsailles" and soon became Frances National Anthem.
  • Monarchy is Abolished

    Monarchy is AbolishedA crowd of Parisians stormed the royal palace of the Tuileries and slaughtered the king's guards. The royal family fled to the Legislatice Assembly, escaping before the mob arrived.