Unit 4: 1750CE-1914CE mueggenborg

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    Industrial Revolution

    The transformation of the economy, the environment, and living conditions that resulted from the use of steam engines, the mechanization of manufacturing in factories, and innovations in transportation and communication.
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    Seven Years War

    The Seven Years' War was a global military conflict between 1756 and 1763, involving most of the great powers of the time affecting North and Central America, Europe, the West African coast, India and the Philippines
  • Britain Takes Over Africa

    Britain used the East India Company to get into India and slowly take over.
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    Watt's Steam Engine

    A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion. Steam power was later applied to moving machinery in factories and to powering ships and locomotives
  • Invention of Spinning Jenny

    The device reduced the amount of work needed to produce yarn, with a worker able to work eight or more spools at once. This grew to 120 as technology advanced.
  • Invention of Water Frame

    The water wheel was created by Richard Arkwright and it provided more power to the spinning frame than human operators, reducing the amount of human labor needed and increasing the spindle count dramatically.
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    Toussaint L'Ouverture

    Leader of the Haitian Revolution. He freed the slaves and gained effective independence for Haiti despite military interventions by the British and French.
  • Whitney's Cotton Gin

    Eli Whitney created the cotton gin in 1794 which made short staple cotton into a profitable crop, which strengthened the economic foundation of slavery in the United States and was a huge factor in the Industrial Revolution.
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    Invention of the Telegraph

    the telegraph was invented and went through many different developments but it became popular in 1835 when Samuel Morse created a way to send messages through wires called the "Morse code"
  • Britain Outlaws Slave Trade

    The Slave Trade Act was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom passed on 25 March 1807, with the long title "An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade".
  • Mexican Independence

    started as an idealistic peasants' rebellion against their colonial masters, but ended as an unlikely alliance between Mexican ex-royalists and Mexican guerrilla insurgents. Mexico gained independence from Spain.
  • Brazilian Independence

    disputes between Brazil and Portugal regarding the call for independence presented by the Brazilian Kingdom
  • Dissolution of the Janissaries

    The dissolution of the janissaries included the events of the Young Turk Revolution and the establishment of the second constitutional era.
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    Afrikaners' Great Trek

    The Great Trek was an eastward and north-eastward migration away from British control in the Cape Colony during the 1830s and 1840s by Boers.
  • Greek Independence

    was a successful war of independence waged by the Greek revolutionaries between 1821 and 1830, with later assistance from several European powers, against the Ottoman Empire
  • End of Atlantic Slave Trade

    The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 ended the atlantic slave trade.
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    First Opium War

    War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China
  • Revolutions in Austria, Germany, Hungary, and Italy

    Much of the revolutionary activity was of a nationalist character: the empires attempted in the course of the revolution to either achieve autonomy, independence, or even hegemony over other nationalities. The nationalist picture was further complicated by the simultaneous events in the German states, which moved toward greater German nationaltiy
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    Taiping Rebellion

    The most destructive civil war before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire.
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    Commodore Matthew Perry in Japan

    In advance of his voyage to the Far East, Commodore Perry read widely amongst available books about Tokugawa Japan. His research even included consultation with the increasingly well-known Japanologist Philipp Franz von Siebold, who had lived on the Dutch island of Dejima for eight years before retiring to Leiden in the Netherlands.
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    Crimean War

    Conflict between the Russian and Ottoman Empires fought primarily in the Crimean Peninsula. To prevent Russian expansion, Britain and France sent troops to support the Ottomans
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    Second Opium War

    War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China
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    Sepoy Rebellion

    The revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857 against certain practices that violated religious customs; also known as the Sepoy Mutiny.
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    Suez Canal

    Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt. Opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882
  • Emancipation of the Russian Serfs

    the first and most important of liberal reforms effected during the reign of Alexander II of Russia. The reform amounted to the liquidation of serf dependence previously suffered by peasants of the Russian Empire.
  • Meiji Restoration

    The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism
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    Imperialization of Africa

    Imperialization in Africa was a process of invasion, attack, occupation, and annexation of African territory by European powers during the New Imperialism period, between 1881 and World War I in 1914.
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    Boxer Rebellion

    was a proto-nationalist movement by the "Righteous Harmony Society" in China between 1898 and 1901, opposing foreign imperialism and Christianity.
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    Panama Canal

    Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America.
  • African National Congress

    An organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa. Though it was banned and its leaders were jailed for many years, it eventually helped bring majority rule to South Africa
  • Overthrow of Qing Dynasty

    By the early 20th century, mass civil disorder had begun and continuously grown. The Wuchang Uprising succeeded on October 10, 1911, which led to the creation of the new central government, the Republic of China
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    Aswan Dam

    an embankment dam situated across the Nile River in Aswan, Egypt. Construction of the dam became a key objective of the Egyptian Government following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, as the ability to control the flood waters, and harness the hydroelectric power that it could produce, were seen as pivotal to Egypt's industrialisation.