Unit 2

By karimr
  • Period: 224 to Apr 8, 651

    Sasanid Empire

    Last pre-Islamic Persian Empire, recognized as main power in Western Asia and Roman Empire in Europe, succeeded by Byzantine Empire, lost control to invading Arab Caliphates, adoption of Islam
  • Period: 250 to

    Maya Civilization

    Classic period, urbanism, recording of monumental inscriptions, intellectual and artistic development, agricultural city-states, steppe pyramids constructed, collapse- overpopulation, foreign invasion, peasant revolt, disruption of trade routes
  • Period: 306 to Apr 11, 1453

    Byzantine Empire

    One of the most powerful economic, cultural, and military forces in Europe, lost lots of territory to Seljuk Turks and during other wars, Komnenian restoration reestablished dominance, Fall of empire to the hands of the Ottomans
  • Period: 330 to Apr 11, 1453

    Constantinople

    Europe's largest and wealthiest city, founded by Constantine, restored unity of empire
  • Apr 8, 610

    Foundation of Islam

    Revelations came to Prophet Muhammad from Allah through the archangel Gabriel
  • Apr 8, 632

    Split between Sunni and Shi'ite

    This split occured because of an ongoing conflict over whom would lead the faithful after Prophet Muhammmad had passed away
  • Period: Apr 8, 661 to Apr 8, 750

    Umayyad Caliphate

    Capital was damascus, headed by Abu Sufyan, overthrown by Abbasids, strength in Syrian army
  • Period: Apr 8, 711 to Apr 8, 1492

    Muslims conquer Spain

    Ruled by Arabs and moors, during Uthamn's caliphate, established colonies on coastland, entered trade with Europe
  • Period: Apr 8, 750 to Apr 8, 1258

    Abbasid Caliphate

    capital at Baghdad, Mamluks(turkish army) caused a decline, Mongols ended rule in 1258, continued religious ruling from Egypt until 1519, caliphs forced to give power to emirs(local princes)
  • Period: Apr 8, 1000 to Apr 8, 1300

    Seljuk Turks

    Turco-Persian Sunni Muslim dynasty, adopted Persian culture, empire stretched from Anatolia to Persia, target of First Crusade
  • Period: Apr 11, 1095 to Apr 11, 1291

    Crusades

    Series of religiously sanctioned military campaigns, wanting to restore Christian control of Holy Land
  • Period: Apr 8, 1138 to Mar 4, 1193

    Saladin

    Kurdish Muslim, became Sultan, led Muslims against Crusaders to regain Palestine, strict adherent of Sunni Islam, disciple of Qadiri Sufi order
  • Period: Apr 8, 1162 to Apr 8, 1227

    Genghis Khan

    Came to power by uniting nomadic tribes of northeast Asia, created Mongol Empire, led mongol invasions controlling most of Eurasia, promoted religious tolerance, adopted Uyghur script as official writing system
  • Period: Apr 8, 1200 to

    Ghana->Mali->Songhai Kingdoms

    Ghana- main imports were brocades, cloth, salt, and copper, main export was gold, King of Ghana taxed traders to control trading, invaded by Almoravids
    Mali- famous for weaving, mining, and architecture, larger then Ghana, civil war attacks from Songhai and arrival of Portuguese led to decline
    Songhai- progressed in education, system of weights and measures, banking and credit improvements, internal conflicts lead to decline, riches of gold encouraged invasion, Morrocans capture timbuktu
  • Period: Apr 8, 1206 to Apr 8, 1324

    Mongol Invasions

    Invasions through Central Asia, Western Asia, and Eastern Europe, Persia, India, and Russia, Genghis Khan led most successful invasions of territories
  • Period: Apr 11, 1206 to Apr 11, 1527

    Delhi Sultanate

    Five short lived Turkic kingdoms-Mamluk, Khilji, Tughlaq, Sayyid, Lodi, replaced by Mughal Dynasty, period of indian cultural renaissance, language of Urdu born around this time
  • Apr 11, 1215

    Magna Carta

    English charter, challenges monarch's authority, created by fuedal barons to limit King's powers and protect their privileges
  • Period: Apr 8, 1250 to Apr 8, 1517

    Mamluks

    Slave soldiers that won political control of several Muslim states, ruled Egypt and Syria under empire
  • Period: Apr 8, 1312 to Apr 8, 1337

    Mansa Musa

    Grand pilgrimage to Mecca involved him handing out large amounts of gold to all peoples, Muslim, enclosed large part of Western Sudan with a single system of law and order
  • Period: Apr 8, 1336 to Feb 18, 1405

    Timur

    Conqueror of Asia, founder of Timurid dynasty, sought to restore Mongol Empire, conducted wars that affected Muslim states, heaviest blow against Golden Horde
  • Period: Apr 11, 1337 to Apr 11, 1453

    Hundred Years War

    Fought between House of Valois and House of Plantagenet for control of French throne, victory by House of Valois and uxulsion of House of Plantagenets from France
  • Period: Apr 8, 1368 to

    Ming Empire

    Followed after collapse of Yuan under Mongols, vast navy and standing army, established Forbidden City, silver replaced currency during Colombian Exchange, society of self-suffiecient rural communities, scholar-officials
  • Period: Apr 8, 1371 to Apr 8, 1435

    Zheng He

    Commanded voyages around Asia, Middle East, and Africa, spoke Arabic and Chinese, Goal was to find capital of Mongol Empire
  • Period: Apr 11, 1400 to

    Renaissance

    Cultural movement beginning in Florence and spreading throughout Europe, painting, educational reforms
  • Period: Apr 11, 1428 to Aug 13, 1521

    Aztec Civilization

    Human sacrifices, polytheism, cloth designing, abundance in gold, agricultural ceremonies, sunstone calendar
  • Period: Apr 11, 1438 to Apr 11, 1533

    Inca Civilization

    Largest empire in Pre-Columbian America, Cuzco- administrative, political and military center, conquest and peaceful assimiliation, Quechua- official language, worship of several gods
  • Apr 11, 1439

    Gutenburg Press

    Concept of movable type printing, made publications available to the masses by making production cheaper
  • Period: Jan 22, 1440 to Oct 27, 1505

    Ivan III

    Grand Prince of Moscow, tripled state territory, ended Rus dominance of Golden Horde, laid down foundations of Russian state
  • Period: to

    Sui Empire

    Imperial dynasty unifying China in the 6th century, reunification of North and South China, construction of Grand Canal, Equal Field System(reduced rich-poor gap), 3 departments and 6 ministries system instituted, standardized coinage, improved defense by expansion of Great Wall, Buddhism united peoples
  • Period: to

    Tang dynasty

    Period of progress and stability after Sui decline, 5 dynasties and ten kingdoms period, founded by Li family, civil service system, greatest age for chinese poetry, woodblock printing, government withdrawal from economic matters
  • Period: to Apr 8, 1279

    Song Empire

    First government to issue banknotes/currency, permanent navy, use of gunpowder and compass, conquered by Kublai Khan and Mongols, movable type printing, rise of Neo-Confucianism, aristrocratic to bureaucratic
  • Period: to Apr 11, 1349

    Kievan Russia

    Midieval Slavic state, present day Ukraine and Belarus, weakened by internal disputes, fell to the Mongols, Vladimir the Great- acceptance of Christianity and written legal code
  • Period: to

    Charlemagne

    King of the Franks, Emperor of Romans, conquered Italy, Carolingian Renaissance- revival of art, religion, and culture through Catholic Church, defined Western Europe and Middle ages through conquests and reforms
  • Period: to

    Establishment of Holy Roman Empire

    Carolingian imperial crown disputes, death of Charles the Fat led to decline and was never restored, power weakened in favor of Princes, loose union of territories later on