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Timeline of Israel/Palestine Conflict 1880 - 2000

  • Beginning of the Zionist Movement

    Beginning of the Zionist Movement
    Violent and worsening perscutions of European Jews led them to migrate and join the community of nation-states that defined Europe. One major target was the migration to Palestine, which was a part of the Ottoman Empire at the time (shown in image). An estimated 25,000 Jews arrived in the first wave of immigration. This movement of Jews became known as the Zionist Movement, which was also fueled by the Jewish religious desire to return to their ancient homeland.
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    The Zionist Movement

    Violent and worsening perscutions of European Jews led them to migrate and join the community of nation-states that defined Europe. One major target was the migration to Palestine, which was a part of the Ottoman Empire at the time (shown in image). An estimated 25,000 Jews arrived in the first wave of immigration. This movement of Jews became known as the Zionist Movement, which was also fueled by the Jewish religious desire to return to their ancient homeland.
  • The Hussein-McMahon Correspondence

    The Hussein-McMahon Correspondence
    Britian pledged to support Arab independence if Hussein's forces revolted against the Ottomans. Hussein wanted a unified Arab state that would stretch from Syria to Yemen. The Hussein-McMahon correspondence consisted of 10 letters exchanged between Sir Henry McMahon and Sharif Hussein bin Ali.
  • The Balfour Declaration

    The Balfour Declaration
    The Bristish government signed the Balfour Declaration which stated their support for the establishment in Palestine of a National Home for Jews. This was due in part by sympathy for the Zionists and also due to the British desire to rally Jews on the side of the Allies. The letter was addressed to Lord Rothschild, the leading British Zionist.
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    Britian gains control over Palestine

    Britian wins control over the area of Palestine as a result of World War I. This area becomes known as British-mandate Palestine. Britian's rule of Arabs and Jews continues until 1948.
  • The First Major Intercommunal Violence of the Mandate Period

    The First Major Intercommunal Violence of the Mandate Period
    Britian gives the area of Britain-mandate Palestine to the east of the Jordan River to Emir Abdullah. This area is now known as the country of Jordan. Scores of Jews and Arabs are left dead following an eurption of violence along the Jaffa-Tel Aviv border on May Day.
  • The Second Major Intercommunal Violence

    The Second Major Intercommunal Violence
    This time the violence erupts in Jerusalem, and spreads throughout the country (specifically in Hebron). 67 Jews are killed.
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    Riots/Revolts in Response to Killing of Sheikh Izz al-Din al-Qassam

    Arabs begin riot in Britian-mandate Palestine, which causes the seizure of shipment of illegal arms for Jewish defense force. This revolt lasted until 1939 when the British ban most land sales to Jews.
  • First Attempt to Create Two Separate States

    The General Assembly of the United Nations recommends splitting Britian-mandate Palestine into two separate states, one for the Jews and one for the Arabs. Zionist leaders support this partition while surrounding Arab states reject it. Fighting breaks out.
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    Conflict between Israel and Arabs continue

  • Zionists Leaders Proclaim Israel

    Zionists Leaders Proclaim Israel
    Fighting breaks out between the newly declared state of Israel and its Arab neighbors as British troops are leaving the country. Some 700,000 Palestinians flee what has been known as Britian-mandate Palestine. Israel gains control of large tracts of land and some 500 Palestinian villages. Control of Jerusalem is split between Israel and Jordan.
  • Resolution 194

    Resolution 194
    The UN General Assembly passes Resolution 194 which states that Palestinian refugees who want to return to their homes should be allowed to do so and those who do not wish to return should be compensated by the state of Israel.
  • 422 Palestinian National Leaders Meet in Jerusalem

    422 Palestinian National Leaders Meet in Jerusalem
    Laid down the structure of the Palestine National Council (PNC), the PLO Executive Committee, and the National Fund and the Palestine Liberation Army (PLA). The meeting also approved a Palestinian national covenant and basic law.
  • Resolution 242

    Resolution 242
    As a response to the six day war, UN Security Council passes Resolution 242. This calls for the "withdrawl of Israeli armed forces from territories occupied in the recent conflict, termination of all claims or states belligerency and respect for and acknowledgement of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of every state in the area and their right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force"
  • The Six Day War

    The Six Day War
    Israel attempts an attack against Egypt and gains control over territory formerly controlled by Egypt, Syria, and Jordan. Israel gains control of the Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip of Egypt, the Golan Heights from Syria, and the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan. Israel nearly triples the size of the territory under its control in only 6 days.
  • King Hussein declares war on PLO

    King Hussein declares war on PLO
    King Hussein feels threatened by the Palestinian Liberation Organization and their involvment in Jordanian politics and declares war on them and imposes martial law. 3,000 people die due to the fighting between the PLO and the Jordanian. PLO agrres to move headquarters to Lebanon.
  • Munich Olympics

    Munich Olympics
    Palestinian gunnman kills 11 Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympics
  • Resolution 338

    Resolution 338
    The UN Security Council passes Resolution 338 that calls for an immediate cease-fire and the immediate commencement of negotiations toward the implementation of UNSCR 242 with the goal of "establishing a just and durable peace in the Middle East"
  • Sinai Peninsula and Golan Heights Attack

    Sinai Peninsula and Golan Heights Attack
    Egypt and Syria plan a surpise attack on Israeli forces in the Sinai Peninsula and Golan Heights. This war lasted three weeks, ending on October 22nd on the Syrian front and October 26th on the Egyptian front.
  • Arab League Declares PLO spokeman of Palestinian Arabs

    Arab League Declares PLO spokeman of Palestinian Arabs
  • Land Day Protests

    Land Day Protests
    The first "Land Day' protest by Palestinian citizens of Israel protest government confiscations of Palestinian land and other discrimination in access to and land and housing. This is now an annual event.
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    The Camp David Accord

    Israel agrees to hand back the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt in return for peace and normalization. This was the first time an Arab country signed a peace treaty with Israel and thus accepted the state's existence. Egypt is then expelled from the Arab League as a result of the David Accord with Israel. Yet in 1980 Israel and Egypt establish diplomatic relations, which led to the assassination of the President of Egypt on October 6, 1981.
  • Israel invades Lebanon

    Israel invades Lebanon
    Israel invades Lebanon and establishes a security zone in order to block Hezbollah forces from staging attacks on Northern Israeli communities from Lebanon. Israeli army suceeds in driving out the PLO.
  • Massacre of Sabra and Shatila Refugee Camps

    Massacre of Sabra and Shatila Refugee Camps
    Israeli-Allied Christian militia enter Sabra and Shatila refugee camps in Beirut and murder 2,000 unarmed Palestinians after the PLO has been forced out of Lebanon.
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    Israel makes phased withdrawl from most of Lebanon

    except for security zones in the south
  • A Palestinian Uprising in the West Bank and Gaza

    A Palestinian Uprising in the West Bank and Gaza
    This uprising involved demonstrations, strikes, riots, and violence. There was stoning of the Israeli security forces and civilians. More than 20,000 people were killed between 1987-1993. This uprising had a very long duration and a lot of public support.
  • Resolution 53/196

    Resolution 53/196
    The UN General Assembly passed Resolution 53/196 which reaffirmed the inalienable rights of the Palestinians and Syrians in the Golan. It also called on Israel not to exploit natural resources in the occupied territories.
  • The Madrid Peace Conference

    Delegations from Israel, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Egypt, and Palestinians join. This marks the first time most of the Arab parties and Israel sat down at a table together.
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    Secret talks between Israeli and PLO negotiers

    On September 13 the Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin sign a Declaration of Principles in Washington on the basis of negotiations between Israeli and Palestinian teams in Oslo, Norway.
  • Events in 1994

    Events in 1994
    -Feb 1994: militant Jewish settler kills 29 Palestinians praying at the main mosque in Hebron, the West Bank.
    -May 1994: Israel and PLO reach Cairo Agreement
    -July 1994: Yassar Arafat makes return to Gaza to take on his new position as head of the new Palestinian self-rule Authority
    -October 1994: peace treaty between Israel and Jordan is signed. This ends conflict that has been going on since the war of 1967.
  • Taba Agreement

    Taba Agreement
    Arafat and Rabin sign the Taba agreement (Oslo II) in Washington to expand Palestinian self-rule in the West Bank and Gaza and to allow Palestinian elections to be held.
  • Rabin is assassinated

    Rabin is assassinated
    Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin is assassinated by a Jewish student opposed to Israeli withdrawals from the occupied West Bank. Shimon Peres becomes Prime Minister.
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    Series of Hamas suicide bomb attacks

    This kills 57 Israelis. Peres suspends negotiations with Syria.
  • Binyamin Netanyahu wins election for prime minister

    Binyamin Netanyahu wins election for prime minister
    Replaces Peres and says he will provide peace and security. Violence breaks out in September that leaves 61 Arab and 15 Israeli soldiers dead
  • Palestinian Rule Acquires 80% of West Bank

    Palestinian Rule Acquires 80% of West Bank
    Israel hands over 80% of the West Bank town of Hebron to Palestinian rule under the leadership of the new prime minister.
  • Wye River Memorandum

    Wye River Memorandum
    Israeli prime minister signs Wye River Memorandum which outlined further Israeli withdraws from West Bank. This was a result of 18 months of US pressure on Israel.
  • Ehud Barak elected Prime Minister of Israel

    Ehud Barak elected Prime Minister of Israel
    In september signed a revised deal based on the Wye River Memorandum which aimed at reviving the Middle East peace process.
  • Israel withdraws from Lebanon

    Israel withdraws from Lebanon
    Israel withdraws from area of Lebanon it has been occupying since 1982.
  • Ariel Sharon visits the Temple Mount

    Ariel Sharon visits the Temple Mount
    Ariel Sharon the leader of Likud visits the Temple Mount with 1,000 Israeli soliders. A Palestinian protest of Sharon's visit turns violent and sparks demonstrations and violence that continued for several years.