Industrial RevolutionA period where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology occured.
Began in England, then spread to Europe, North America, and finally the rest of the world.
Brought massive stimulus to global income and population, which began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth.
For the first time in history, the living standards of the masses of ordinary people have begun to undergo sustained growth.
Watt's Steam Engine1st steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston helped by a partial vacuum.
Dramatic increase in fuel efficiency.
An improved version of the 1712 Newcomen engine by James Watt.
The SI unit (watt) is named after James Watt.
Invention of the Spinning JennyInvented in 1764 by James Hargreaves in Stanhill, Oswaldtwistle near Blackburn, Lancashire in England.
A multi-spool spinning frame.
The device reduced the amount of work needed to produce yarn.
Increased production capacity and speed of manufactured cotton materials by 240%.
Invention of the Water FrameSpinning frame which uses water power is used to drive it.
Richard Arkwright patented the technology in 1768.
Based on an invention by Thomas Highs.
Arkwright not the actual designer of the spinning frame, however, he was the first to make it work.
Whitney's Cotton GinA machine that quickly and easily separates the cotton fibers from the seeds, a job formerly performed by hand.
The invention of the cotton gin caused massive growth of the production of cotton in the United States, concentrated mostly in the South.
Invented by Eli Whitney.
Made short staple cotton into a profitable crop.
Slave Trade Act 1807An Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Abolished the slave trade in the British Empire, but not slavery itself.
Slavery had been abolished in England itself since 1772.
Slavery remained legal in most of the British Empire until the Slavery Abolition Act 1833.
Mexican IndependenceArmed conflict between the people of Mexico and the Spanish.
Started as an idealistic peasants' rebellion against their colonial masters.
Grito de Dolores, a battle cry given by Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, urged the independence movement.
Upon rebel victory, the viceroy resigned, and later the Treaty of Córdoba acknowledged the new Empire of Mexico.
Brazilian IndependenceA series of political events occurred involving disputes between Brazil and Portugal.
Brazilians had forced enlistment including foreign immigrants and slaves freeing slaves them to enlist in the army/navy.
There are no solid, reliable statistics about the conflict.
Greek RevolutionA successful war of independence waged by the Greek revolutionaries between 1821 and 1830, against the Ottoman Empire.
Russia, the United Kingdom and France provided the Greeks with support.
Egypt, and Tunisia provided support for the Ottomans.
Without the Great Powers support, the Greek Revoltion would've in all probability ended unsuccessfully.
The Auspicious IncidentThe forced disbandment of the centuries-old Janissary corps by Ottoman sultan Mahmud II.
The sultan informed the Janissaries, through a fatwa, that he was forming a new army, which incited them to revolt.
During their advance on the sultan's palace, the Janissary barracks were destroyed by Ottoman artillery.
Survivors either fled or were executed, and their possessions were confiscated by the Sultan, with the last of the Janissaries being put to death by decapitation.
The Great TrekAn north-eastward migration away from British control in Cape Colony during the 1830s and 1840s by Boers.
Migrants were descended from settlers from western mainland Europe, most notably from the Netherlands, northwest Germany and French Huguenots.
Led to the founding of numerous Boer republics.
Led to many conflicts between Voortrekkers and native Natal tribes, such as the Zulu.
End of the Atlantic Slave TradeThe banning of the Atlantic Slave Trade was done through a diffusion of social movements demanding the end of slavery.
Officially, the Trade ended in 1831, with the last country to ban the Atlantic slave trade, Brazil.
Despite this, a vibrant illegal trade continued to ship large numbers of enslaved people to Brazil and also to Cuba until the 1860s.
Only after British Naval enforcement did it truly end.
Electrical TelegraphA telegraph that uses electrical signals, usually conveyed via telecommunication lines or radio.
The first form of electrical telecommunications.
Telegraph developed in 1836 by Samuel Morse and Alfred Vail.
Morse also developed Morse Code, the code used in communication.
1st Opium WarThe Canton System restricted trade to one port and did not allow foreign entrance to China, soritish East India Company invested heavily in opium production to redress the trade imbalance.
Opium trade was made illegal, yet foreign nations refused to cooperate.As a result, all trade was stopped and all foreign residents were under siege.
In response, the British government sent military forces from India to the Chinese coast and dictated the terms of settlement. Resulted in the Treaty of Nanking.
Revolutions of 1848A series of political upheavals throughout Europe.
Began in France with the French Revolution of 1848, which then spread across Europe.
While the Revolutions were quick, they were very violent, leaving tens of thousands of people tortured or dead.
Did little to change the immediate political atmosphere, however. it did have many far reaching effects.
Taiping RebellionA widespread civil war in southern China against the ruling Qing Dynasty.
One of the deadliest military conflicts in history.
The rebels attempted social reforms and the replacement of Chinese religions with a variation of Christianity.
The Qing government defeated the rebellion with the eventual aid of French and British forces.
Crimean WarThe first major European conflict since the Napoleanic Wars.
Fought between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the French,British, and Ottoman Empire, withthe Kingdom of Sardinia.
Part of a contest for influence over territories of the declining Ottoman Empire.
Most of the conflict took place on the Crimean Peninsula, hence the name Crimean War.
Convention of KanagawaConvention between Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the U.S. Navy and the Tokugawa shogunate.
Opened Japanese ports, Shimoda and Hakodate, to U.S. trade and guaranteed the safety of shipwrecked U.S. sailors.
Establishished a foundation for the Americans to maintain a permanent consul in Shimoda.
Ended Japan's 200 year policy of seclusion.
2nd Opium WarMany refusals to appease the clauses of the Treaty of Nanking led to disputes between the Britich and Chinese.
The Chinese refused to accept foreign ambassadors and obstructed the trade clauses of the treaties.
These diputes resulted in the Second Opium War.
Resulted in the Treaty of Tientsin.
Sepoy RebellionBegan as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army.
Escalated into massive wide scale rebellion by civilians and sepoys (Indian soldiers in the service of a European power).
Led to the dissolution of the East India Company in 1858, and forced the British to reorganize the army, the financial system, and the administration in India.
India was thereafter directly governed by the Crown in the new British Raj.
Control of India shifts to the Britich CrownThe dissolution of the East India Company in forced the British to directly administer the Indian population through the Crown in the new British Raj.
Essentially bought the Mughal Dynasty to its end.
The end of the British East India Company's rule in India.
Quite literally placed India in a "out of the frying pan and into the fire" situation, as they were free of the corporations control, but were then politically enslaved.
Construction of the Suez CanalAn artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.
Allowed for water travel between Europe and Asia without having to go around Africa.
Under international treaty, it may be used "in time of war as in time of peace, by every vessel of commerce or of war, without distinction of flag."
Played an important role in increasing European colonisation of Africa.
Russian Abolition of SerfdomAll serfs were freed in a major agrarian reform.
Stimulated by fear of possible serf rebellion, so instead he freed them.
The abolition was achieved on terms unfavorable to the peasants and served to increase revolutionary pressures.
Was replaced with landless laborers and sharecropping.
Meiji RestorationChain of events that restored imperial rule to Japan in 1868.
Led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure.
The Tokugawa Shogunate ended on November 9, 1867.
Done in order to strengthen Japan against the threat represented by the colonial powers of the day.
Scramble for AfricaA process of invasion, attack, occupation, and annexation of African territory by multiple European powers.
Many African polities, states and rulers tried to resist this wave of European aggression, but failed due to technological disadvantages.
Europeans had formed a united front against the Africans, which was only countered by a Pan-African alliance later on.
Done in order to realize and maintain economic benefits.
Old Aswan DamIntended to reduce flooding and to support population growth in the lower Nile.
British began construction of the first dam across the Nile in 1898.
Provided inadequate flood protection.
Was the largest masonry dam in the world at the time of it's construction.
Boxer RebellionProto-nationalist movement by the Boxers opposing foreign imperialism and Christianity in China.
Took place in response to foreign "spheres of influence".
Resulted in violent revolts against foreign interests.
Foreigner's responded by decimating all resistance, going on massive looting, raping, and killing sprees, and forcing the Chinese government to pay substantially large amounts in reparations.
Construction of the Panama CanalJoins the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.
Replaced the via the Strait of Magellan or Cape Horn at the southernmost tip of South America.
Built with US Resources, but now belongs to Panama.
Provided a massive boost to International Trade.
Founding of the African National CongressCreated to unify the people of Africa into one democratic system.
Meant to resist passing of racist laws.
Had become very incative after it's intitial creation.
The ANC responded militarily to attacks on the rights of black South Africans, as well as calling for strikes, boycotts, and defiance.
Fall of the Qing DynastyDue to mass civil disorder.
The incompletion of many attempted reforms added to the social instability and dissatisfaction with the imperial government.
The Wuchang Uprising succeeded on October 10, 1911, leading to the creation of the Republic of China.
After it's fall, the country of China was left in sociol, economic, and political chaos, leading it to be taken advantage of by many countries before intitiating any form of effective recovery.