Middle east political

Timeline of the Modern Middle East - G Block

By mjune
  • World War I ends / Western mandate system begins [JD]

    The Western mandate system split the Middle East into mandates that were distributed between the bigger Western Powers such as Britain and France. These borders of these mandates were drawn in order to benefit the Western powers who would control them. This meant taking oil into consideration while ignoring the cultural dynamics of the region, which meant countries were created where the population was majorly divided, usually religiously, causing conflict within as well as between mandates.
  • 1932: Saudi Arabia is Founded [JS]

    On September 23, 1932, Saudi Arabia was founded by Abd-al-Aziz after a very large effort to unify the Arabian Peninsula, at this time the country reached full independence. This is significant because the country that has the most oil in the Middle East was founded.
  • Saudi Arabia begins diplomatic relationship with the United States [MH]

    Saudi Arabia begins diplomatic relationship with the United States [MH]
    The discovery of oil in Saudi Arabia immediately captured the United States attention. The United States and Saudi Arabia then began a strategic allyship. Today, this allyship has lasted, and Saudi Arabia provides oil to the United States in exchange for payment, and the United States is an arms dealer to Saudi Arabia.
  • Massive Oil Reserves Found in Saudi Arabia [N.P.]

    The discovery of oil in Saudi Arabia let the country become an economic power. The money that they gained from the oil helped them become an economic power in the Middle East, and Saudi Arabia used it as a strategy to reduce tensions with other states.
  • End of Saudi Arabia-Yemen War [MH]

    The Saudi Arabia-Yemen war was fought during 1934 over border disputes. The war ended with the Taif Treaty, and established a common border between the two countries; however, the border has been largely contested and remains at the center of issues between the two countries today.
  • Period: to

    WWII [NRC]

    The second world war broke out, affecting everywhere on the planet including the Middle East. The mechanical strain of war lead to increased demand for oil, making the surplus in the Middle East in high demand.
  • Period: to

    1947 Cold war begins → Western vs. Eastern Blocs [TC]

    The cold war begins between the two world powers, the U.S and the U.S.S.R. Both powers fought for control and sphere of influence, starting proxy wars and heightening tensions in the middle east as the U.S.S.R supported the Eastern Bloc by funding Arab attacks on the Western Bloc of the U.S backed Jewish state. The Cold war ended with the collapse of the Soviet​ Union in 1990
  • Creation of Israel [EBE]

    The creation was a result of the Balfour declaration, which was Britain giving the Jewish people a home in Palestine. The result of this has created years of conflict between Middle Eastern states and Israel and has resulted in anti-semitism in the region as a whole.
  • Period: to

    Israeli War of Independence (BH)

    The War of Independence was fought between Israel and surrounding Arab countries. Israel won the war, and they gained an independent state that was controlled by the Jewish people
  • Iranian Coup [QK]

    The coup was orchestrated by US and British intelligence services. The coup overthrew elected Prime Minister Mossadegh and instated a pro-Western Shah. This caused significant distrust between Iranians and western powers, later sparking a revolution.
  • Suez Crisis [JD]

    The Egyptian President Gamal Abdul Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal so that it was owned solely by Egypt instead of by the Suez Canal Company. This angered many Western powers as they had access to the canal due to the shares they owned in Canal Company. Their was already conflict over a dam that Egypt wanted to build in the region so this development sparked enough anger to get Western and Israeli military involved. Egypt came out on top, Israel lost use of the Canal, and West loses influence
  • Abdul Nasser Comes to Power (PB)

    Abdul Nasser Comes to Power (PB)
    Abdel Nasser is voted into power after a military coup, and establishes a new constitution which deems Egypy a one-party socialist country who has Islam as the official religion. Nasser begins an alliance with the Soviets, which is part of the reason the six day war started.
  • US tries to overthrow Syrian government [CG]

    In march of 1957 the US named international communism as the greatest threat to their region and agreed to help any countries that were willing to resist it. By the end of august when the US was convinced that Syria was no longer a non-aligned camp, they felt the need to attack. This event event emphasizes the the fear that communism and and the Soviet Union puts on the US.
  • Period: to

    Water War 1964-1975 [TC]

    Israel had been drawing water from the Jordan River. When Jordan and Syria attempted it to divert about 35% of Isreali water for their own uses the IDF was sent to stop construction efforts with force. This led to escalating tensions between Isreal and Syria, who later backed Palestinian attacks on Israel. TC
  • PLO was created [CG]

    The PLO was first founded during the Arab League Summit in order to create one central form of organization during the Palestinians revolt. Their initial goal consisted of liberating Palestines in Israel. The PLO heightened tensions between Palestinians and Israel because at times it was used as a stepping stone into terrorism, while they claim that they promote a peaceful revolt.
  • Six Day War-[TC]

    Six Day War-[TC]
    A 6-day war between Isreal, Syria, Egypt, and Jordan. While outgunned and outmanned, Isreal ended up winning and changing the power structure of the middle east. The territory that they had gained later let Israel barter for peace between them and Egypt/Jordan. TC
  • 1970 Hafez al-Assad becomes new leader (BD)

    In 1970, Hafez al-Assad overthrows the government in a coup. This started a military regime that goes till this day, because his son inherited his position.
  • Period: to

    Black September [N.P.]

    Palestinians started militant guerilla factions, like Fatah, to start controlling their future. They took place in Jordan, as they were close to Israel, their main target, and the government was too weak to stop them from launching offensives from it. Jordan then put its military in the streets to calm the guerillas, but it didn't work. This led to unrest in the country, and between the neighbors, creating an even more tense relationship than before.
  • Anwar al-Sadat Comes to Power (PB)

    Sadat came to power after Abdel Nasser died, and he focused on expanding foreign relations, but his attempt to liberalize the economy lead to inflation. Sadat launched an attack on Israel leading to the Yom Kipur War to retake the Sinai peninsula, which they won back. He received the Nobel Peace Prize for establishing peace with Israel, an agreement that was orchestrated by Jimmy Carter.
  • 1971 Iranian legislative election (CD)

    The 1971 legislative election was won by the New Iran Party. They gained a whopping 230 seats out of the 268 seats. The leader of the party during this time was Amir-Abbas Hoveyda, an Iranian economist who also served as the prime minister of Iran from January 27th, 1966 to August 7th, 1977.
  • Period: to

    October War [TS]

    While Israeli soldiers were away from their posts because of Yom Kippur, the October war had already began. The Arabs had upgraded their weapons, getting ready to make an attack against Israel. A few days later, Israel was prepared for the war and attacked the Arabs, winning the war. This has had a lasting impact on the Middle East because Israel was able to claim lots of territory throughout the Middle East.
  • Period: to

    1975 Lebanese Civil War (BD)

    On April 13 1975, a civil war in Lebanon was started. This was ended in 1989 because an agreement was signed for the peoples civil rights, which put an end to the war.
  • Period: to

    Iranian Revolution [QK]

    The Iranian Revolution successfully overthrew the current leader, the Shah, and installed a religious government in Iran. The Shah was supported by the US, so when he was overthrown by Iranians for poor performance, the US was not happy. This has impacted US-Iranian relations to this day, creating bad blood from both nations.
  • Camp David Accords (BH)

    The Camp David Accords happened on September 17, 1978 between Israel, Palestine and the U.S. It was a treaty that was aimed to resolve the Israel-Palestine conflict in the Middle East. The U.S was mediating the agreement in one of their camps called Camp David.
  • Period: to

    Iranian Hostage Crisis (ENE)

    The Iranian Revolution occured when the western-backed Shah of Iran was replaced with Islamic rule. As a response, American diplomats in the Iranian embassay were taken hostage by Iranian students. The situation was accompanied by anti-American demonstrations. Jimmy Carter attempted to free the hostages. They were eventually released after 444 days by Reagan. The hostages were also released thanks to an economic deal that benefited Iran. (EE)
  • Period: to

    1980: Iran - Iraq war [JS]

    This war began when the Iraqi military invaded western Iran, although Iraq claimed that Iran had started this war a month earlier by shelling a number of border posts. The battle ended with a cease-fire and is significant because it intensified the sunni and shiite divide.
  • Israel Invades Lebanon (ENE)

    In 1982, Israel invaded Lebanon to fight the PLO. The PLO had recently been exiled from Jordan, but continued to resist Israel through armed struggle and terrorism. The PLO was forced to retreat and a ceasefire occured to preserve civilian lives. Israel would use Lebanon to influence the region after they left the region.
  • Period: to

    First Intifada [MB]

    The first intifada was a Palestinian rebellion against Israel. It was unorganized and was enacted by ordinary Palestinians. It was one of the first Palestinian uprisings by regular people, not by soldiers.
  • Taif Accord [ZS]

    The US and Syria worked closely to draw up the Taif Accord, ending the civil war in Lebanon.
  • Period: to

    Persian Gulf War [TS]

    The U.N. Security council made a threat towards Iraq stating that if the didn’t withdraw from Kuwait by January 15, they would attack Iraq. The U.S. led the U.N. in an air attack against Iraq’s air forces. Later on, they made an attack on Iraq’s ground forces in Kuwait and Southern Iraq. This event is significant to the Middle East because all the attacks made on Iraq and Kuwait created a lot of damage, as it would affect the Persian Gulf area and the Middle East for many years after.
  • 1993 Bombing at the World Trade Center (CD)

    In 1993 there was a terror attack in the basement of the world trade center. Five men in a truck drove into the basement with a heavy amount of explosives within the truck. It was a suicide bombing and the five men who did this attack were convicted in 1994. These men were eventually linked to the Al- Queda terror group. In 1997 the 'masterminds' behind the attack were convicted as well.
  • Oslo Accords [MB]

    The Oslo Accords was an agreement signed by the PLO and Israel (orchestrated by the US) to stop fighting and work to find a solution. They both agreed to put in an effort to make peace. The accords recognized both Israel and the PLO, and it divided the region into A, B, and C zones. This was a huge attempt at peace, but the complexity of the zones contributed to its failure.
  • Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan signed [NRC]

    This treaty between Jordan and Israel ended a conflict lasting decades. This was the first time Jordan recognized Israel as a country, a huge step towards peace in the region.
  • ISIS is founded [QK]

    Originally founded by al-Zarqawi as an affiliate of Al-Qaeda, it participated in the Iraqi Insurgency after the US invasion of Iraq in 2003. The US later made a connection between 9/11 and Sadam Hussein through Zarqawi as justification for the Iraq war, increasing his popularity significantly.
  • Period: to

    Second Intifada [EJP]

    The Second Intifada was a series of massive protests by Palestinians after Ariel Sharon visited the Temple Mount. It ended when Sharon and Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas met in February of 2005 and agreed that Palestinians would stop violence against Israelis if Israel stopped military action against Palestinians. 3000 Palestinians and 1000 Israelis, as well as 64 foreigners, died in the conflict.
  • 9/11 Terrorist Attacks [MH]

    9/11 Terrorist Attacks [MH]
    During the New York and D.C. attacks on September 11th, 2001, 15 of the 19 plane hijackers were Saudi nationals. These hijackers belonged to a terrorist group, Al-Qaeda, led by ex-Saudi Osama bin Laden. The attacks intensified relations between the United States and Iraq, as President Bush believed the attackers were from there and was the ultimate event leading to the Iraqi war.
  • Period: to

    Iraq War [JD]

    The US Invaded Iraq in order to overthrow a government they believed was responsible for creating weapons of mass destruction, harboring terrorist groups and committed crimes against human rights. They did not, however, take into account how dismantling the government would further the conflict between the opposing religious groups in the country. The US also unintentionally "created" ISIS by naming a supposed leader, one they had no proof of, as a reason for the invasion giving him more power.
  • 2006 Israel-Hezbollah War (BD)

    On July 12 2006, a war broke out between Lebanon and Northern Israel. 1,200 Lebanese, most of them civilians, and at least 159 Israelis, about 40 of them civilians, were killed.
  • Bombing of US Embassy in Damascus [ZS]

    Four assailants armed with guns and bombs attacked the US Embassy in Damascus, killing a security guard and a passerby. After Syrian Security Forces had subdued the attackers, the Syrian government never gave a full report to the US on the incident and blamed US Foreign policy for contributing to the incident.
  • Period: to

    Arab Spring [EJP]

    The Arab Spring was an anti-corruption movement for democracy and human rights that started in Tunisia and spread all over the Middle East. It eventually led to the overthrow of the governments of Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen, with large protests also occuring in Iraq, Algeria, Sudan, and Lebanon. It caused civil wars in Syria, Libya, and Yemen that continue to this day. Morocco, Palestine, Jordan, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Oman also made democratic reforms.
  • Period: to

    2011 Syrian Civil War (BD)

    In 2011, the Syria civil war was started. It was in response to the Arab Spring and the Assad government cracked down violently. 13.5 million civilians have been counted from the UN seeking assistance and support.
  • Bin Laden is Killed (CD)

    On May 2nd, 2011, US Navy Seals kill Osama Bin Laden. He was hiding in a compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan.
  • Morsi Takes Power [EJP]

    After the Arab Spring caused the overthrow of longtime president Hosni Mubarak in February 2011, Mohamed Morsi, a Muslim Brotherhood member, was elected the fifth President of Egypt. He previously served as a member of Parliament from 2000-2005, and was thrown in jail during the Arab Spring for being a member of the Muslim Brotherhood. He escaped two days later. His election was one of the most pivotal moments in the Arab Spring, as it was the first true Egyptian election since its independence.
  • Period: to

    ISIS becomes a significant power [EBE]

    During 2014, ISIS controlled significant of Syria and Iraq and began to become a serious terrorist threat. Up until now, ISIS has conducted several terrorist attacks of ranging degree and were in several different parts of the world; this was the case up until the end of 2017 when they began to lose power.
  • Muslim Immigration Ban [N.P.]

    Trump passed the Executive Order 13769, which protected against terrorism, but was aimed only at Muslim Immigrants. This increased islamophobia in America as it generalized Muslims to be terrorists, creating a more hostile environment for Muslim-Americans.
  • Israeli/Palestinian Airstrikes (ENE)

    Militants in Gaza flew rockets into Israel. Israel relalitated with an airstike and moved troops to the Gaza border. The act by Palestine has been classfied as an act of terrorism. The United States has promised to support Israel.