Middle east political

Timeline of the Modern Middle East - A Block

By mjune
  • Balfour Declaration [TS]

    A statement declared by the British government which supported the establishment of a home for the Jewish people in Palestine. At the time, the Jewish population did not have a homeland to them, they were stateless, and suffered a lot of discrimination from others. This sparked the ongoing Palestine-Israeli conflict.
  • US recognizes Egypt’s independence from UK [SG]

    In 1922, The US President Warren G. Harding sent a letter to Ahmed Fuad saying how he recognized Egypt's independence from the UK and the beginning of the United Arab Rebuplic. This event was significant because of the birth of the allyship of US.
  • End of World War II [TP]

    Germany surrendered on V-E Day to the Allies, changing the distribution of power among Western powers. This led to the end of mandates and increased independence in the Middle East, however, it also led to more competition for control over the region, especially by the United States and the Soviet Union.
  • The UN Resolution [Z.M]

    The UN recognized Palestine and voted to give Jewish state a small part of Western Palestine and it terminated the mandate for Palestine. Many Arab countries were against the resolution but still had to deal with the outcome of a recognized Palestine.
  • State of Israel Established [TS]

    David Ben-Gurion, head of the Jewish Agency on May 14th of 1948 established a Jewish state called ‘Israel’ in Palestine, a state that was recognized by the American President as a new nation that same day. The establishment of Israel solidified the conflict between Israel and the other Arab countries, leading to Arab invasions that same day, which fought fiercely for what they believed to be their land, while the Jewish enjoyed their newly established home.
  • Nationalization of Iran's Oil [AR]

    The nationalization of Iran's oil was when the Iranian parliament voted to nationalize the Anglo-American Oil company and its holdings. This was a precursor to the election of the nationalist Prime Minister Mosseddegh. This angered Britain and its ally America, as the oil industry in Iran was very profitable for them, and regaining control over oil in Iran was then one of the main motives for the 1953 Coup.
  • Mossadegh becomes prime minister (Shahab Kousheshi)

    Mossadegh was appointed to be the Prime Minister but he Shah, and he was a controversial figure in power because of his nationalist ideals. His appointment eventually leads to the first Iranian coup, because of his nationalization of the Iranian oil company which angered the British into removing him from power.
  • Iranian Coup [BL]

    The U.S. planned two coups to take the Iranian prime minister Mossedge out of power because they were afraid of Iran falling into communist hands. They also supported Britain’s hopes to take Mossedge out of power because he was the one who nationalized Iran's oil. After the U.S. took out Mossedege, they put a Shah in power who ruled autocratically and gave the U.S and Britain​ access​ to oil which created tension between the U.S. and the Iranian people.
  • Suez Canal Crisis [EB]

    Description: Israel entered Egyptian territory and tried to take over the Suez Canal for access from the Red Sea to Mediterranean Sea.
    Importance: The importance of the access to this canal was one of the contributors to the 6-Day war.
  • Nasser coming to power [TS]

    On June 23rd 1956, Gamal Abdel Nasser was elected to power becoming the first President of the Republic of Egypt. This marked a stage of independence of the Egyptian nation and led to many decisions which affected other nations such as the nationalizing of the Suez Canal.
  • Nationalization of Suez Canal [TP]

    Nationalization of Suez Canal [TP]
    On July 26 1956, Egyptian president Nasser decided no nationalize the Suez Canal. This created tensions with Britain and France, who were upset with losing their influence in Egypt as Nasser attempted to make his nation more independent.
  • Removal of King Saud [MM]

    In March of 1964, the Saudi Arabian royal family removed King Saud from power due to his inability to responsibly manage Saudi Arabia's finances and for fueling tensions between Saudia Arabia and other Arab states. After his removal, the monarchy continued to control the state, but the economy improved and Saudia Arabia gained much more international respect.
  • Creation of the PLO [JS]

    Creation of the PLO [JS]
    The Palestinian Liberation Organization was a group that coordinated different resistance groups, led by Yasir Arafat. The PLO brought attention to Palestinians discrimination and one of the only organizations to work towards a two-state solution.
  • Six Day War or Aggression of June the 5th [CB]

    This war was started by various conflicts revolving around: water, violence, sovereignty, and land. Israel destroyed the Arab countries' air forces fighting in the war and gained Jerusalem and the Golan Heights. This was a major win for the Israelis as they gained territories and power, as well as weakened its enemies. It was awful for Palestinians though, since they lost land and would not be living under Israeli sovereignty.
  • Yasser Arafat becomes Chairman of the PLO [SV]

    Yasser Arafat became Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization, the main governing body over the Palestinian people, allowing him to become the global face of the Palestinian liberation movement. His election provided organization within Palestine and created a sense of unity, leading to their inclusion in negotiations with Israel and the US.
  • Black September is Founded [TK]

    Black September was founded in resistance to King Hussein of Jordan’s erasure of a Palestinian National Identity, murdering or expelling thousands of Palestinians. The founding marked Palestine’s continual movement towards more and more violent protests for freedom, eventually culminating in several murders and assassinations, and also marked the strife between different Arab states—now Palestine felt that it could not rely on the other Middle Eastern countries to help it in its conquest.
  • Black September Kills Jordanian Prime Minister [Shahab Kousheshi]

    Black September assassinated the Jordanian Prime Minister, Wasfi al-Tal in an act of retaliation to the PLO being kicked out from Jordan. This was important because it was the first major act of violence from Black September, and set the precedent in their actions for the future.
  • Munich Assassinations [EB]

    Description: At the height of the Black September movement, members of the movement went into the Olympic Village and killed 2 Israeli athletes and kidnapped 11.
    Importance: This event and other Black September killings led to the Hostage crisis in Iran.
  • The October War [ZM]

    The October War of 1973 was fought between Egypt, Syria and Israel where Egypt and Syria launched missiles to Israel in an attempt to gain back lost land. The war ended with a cease fire arranged by the US which led to Egypt and Syria gaining back portions of the land they lost.
  • Yom Kippur War [OF]

    The Yom Kippur war was fought between Israel and Arab countries led by Syria and Egypt starting on the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur when Arab countries crossed over the cease-fire lines and the Suez Canal. This event is significant to the history of the Middle East because it shook the Israeli military's confidence since they were not prepared for attacks at first.
  • Suez Canal Reopened [OF]

    After peace talks with Israel Egyptian president, Anwar el-Sadat, reopened the Suez Canal which connects the Mediterranean and Red Seas, after it was closed for eight years. This is important to the history of the Middle East because it improved relations between Israel and Egypt and improved trade and the economy of both countries.
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    Iranian Revolution [AR]

    The Iranian revolution was an Islamic movement to overthrow the American backed Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, because Iranians opposed his modernization, and distrusted his close relationship with the US. The revolution began with strikes and protests, and eventually the Shah fled to the US and Ayatollah Khomeni returned and the country became the Islamic Republic of Iran. This event ruined US-Iran relations, as Iranians believed the US was responsible for their suffering under the Shah.
  • Camp David Accords[OS]

    Camp David Accords[OS]
    The Camp David Accord were an agreement proposed and signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, US President Jimmy Carter and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem after 12 days of secret negotiations at Camp David. They worked to establish peace between Israel and Egypt following their many years of conflict. Egypt became the first country in the Middle East to recognize Israel's sovereignty, which made relations between the two much more friendly, but angered its Arab allies.
  • Iran-Iraq War [Z.M]

    The Iran and Iraq war lasted 8 years after Iraq invaded Iran and Saddam Hussien siezed a disputed waterway that was shared between the two countries. The war ended in August 1988 with an agreed ceasefire that the UN organized.
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    Iran Hostage Crisis [SV]

    In November of 1979, a group of Iranian students stormed the US Embassy in Tehran, taking fifty-two Americans hostage in a culmination of the Iranian Revolution. They were held hostage for 444 days in protest of US involvement in Iran and asylum granted by the US to Shah Reza Pahlavi. This event captivated the world, focusing on the Iran Revolution that would soon follow, liberating the country from a US-sponsored dictator who had been in power since 1953.
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    Israeli War in Lebanon [HC]

    In 1982, the IDF invaded Lebanon in response to Palestinian aggressions on the Lebanon-Israel border. They made it to the capital of Beirut, and eventually forced the PLO leadership to flee the country and seek refuge in Libya. This event was significant because, although Israel secured a victory against its enemy of Palestine, the events of the war directly led to the creation of Hezbollah, a violent anti-Zionist organization which has been one of Israel's main foes since its inception.
  • Creation of Hamas [AK]

    Hamas is a nationalist movement in the West Bank and Gaza Strip that is dedicated to an independent Palestinian Islamic State. They strongly opposed the secular PLO and Israeli government which caused a lot of tension and violence, for example the first intifada.
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    First Intifada (BL)

    Palestinian rebellion against the Israeli occupation in West Bank and Gaza which began with an Israeli killing of four Palestinian people in Gaza. This led to many protests and violent revolts led by Palestinians with the Israeli soldiers fighting back. The First Intifada attracted international attention and brought the world's attention to the legitimacy of the Palestinian people. It led to further negotiations between Israel and Palestine​​e and ended with the signing of the Oslo Accords.
  • Persian Gulf War [CB]

    Iraq believed that Kuwait was pumping more than their share of oil. Iraq decided to invade Kuwait and claimed to have “annexed it”. The US along with other countries wanted Iraq to leave Kuwait, but Iraq refused. The US decided to take military action. Even after Iraq left Kuwait, the US stayed in Iraq and issued a trade embargo against Iraq to hurt their economy but mainly to hurt Saddam Hussein’s regime.
  • US and USSR Sponsored Arab Peace Talks in Madrid, Spain (MM)

    This was another attempt to try and get the Arab countries to come to an agreement surrounding the Isreal Palestine Conflict (Jordan, Isreal, Lebanon, and Syria all attended, and some Palestinian representatives). These talks lead to Jordon and Isreal eventually signing a peace treaty to recognize the Israeli state, and was a platform for these Arab countries to work through other conflicts they had in a civil way. (It is also interesting to note that the US and USSR worked together)
  • Oslo Peace Accords [AK]

    Israel Prime Minister Rabin and PLO leader Yasser Arafat met in Washington D.C. to sign the Oslo Accords which were based on​ UN resolutions 242 and 338 to achieve peace between Israel and Palestine. The accords were supposed to be a step towards peace, but Israel continued to settle in the West Bank and furthered their colonial expansion.
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    Second Intifada [TK]

    The second intifada was another period of violent Palestinian resistance against Israeli control. For a while beforehand, the Palestinians had been unhappy with the resolutions achieved with the Oslo accords, and these objections were catalyzed with Ariel Sharon's visit to the Temple Mount. While the period was populated by gross acts of violence, this violence actually pushed for peace in the region, with talks happening in Taba, Egypt. The intifada ended in 2005, when the PA denounced them.
  • US gives Egypt 19 billion for military support [SG]

    From 2000-2004, the US gave Egypt a total of 19 billion dollars for Egypt military support, the reasons of aiding Egypt in Middle East warfare, strengthening allyship between the US and Egypt, and making both countries a more dignified name in the Middle East. The significance of this event is the making of the Middle East's US involvement through allies and making Egypt a bigger power.
  • 9/11 [HC]

    9/11  [HC]
    On September 11th, 2001, terrorists from Al-Qaeda hijacked four planes and flew them into the two World Trade Centers, the Pentagon, and a field in Pennsylvania. These attacks shook Americans to their core, and in response the United States invaded Afghanistan in the beginning of their war on terror. The 9/11 attacks marked the beginning of widespread islamophobia in the US, and are often used as examples by those all around the world to justify anti-Muslim sentiment.
  • USA invaded Iraq [OS]

    A combination of the US, UK, Australia and Poland began invading Iraq on March 19th, 2003. The US hoped to oppose Hussein because of his potential possession of weapons of mass destruction, as well as imminent ties to terrorism. The invasion was also an attempt to bring democracy to Iraq and better control the country's oil. [OS]
  • Arab Springs [JS]

    Arab Springs [JS]
    Protests started against the autocratic government in Tunisia, they wanted democracy, these protests spread to many more countries in the region naming it as the Arab springs. These protests improved protest on social media, and led to some changes in government; the US completely was forced to change its role in the North African region.
  • Assassination of Osama bin Laden (TV)

    Assassination of Osama bin Laden (TV)
    The assassination of bin Laden, the United States' most wanted individual, was carried out in Abbottabad, Pakistan by America's SEAL Team Six. The operation marked the end of bin Laden's reign as the head of Al Qaeda, one of the world's largest terrorist cells, and it brought closure to many around the world who had suffered because of his abhorrent actions. Additionally, the assassination allowed the US to shift its focuses in the Middle East from chasing terrorists to building relationships.
  • Declaration of ISIS Caliphate (TV)

    ISIS declared Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi as "Caliph Ibrahim" of the newly established ISIS caliphate, attempting to claim status as the most powerful global terrorist cell. The announcement forced America and other global powers to acknowledge ISIS as a legitimate threat, prompting those nations to refocus their foreign policy efforts in the Middle East on halting the spread of terrorism.