Syria flag

Syrian History: Period 3B

  • Period: to

    History of Syria

  • Feisal becomes king

    Feisal becomes king
    The National Congress proclaims Emir Feisal king of Syria "in its natural boundaries" from the Taurus mountains in Turkey to the Sinai desert in Egypt.
  • Divided by the French

    Divided by the French
    Syria is divided into three autonomous regions by the French, with separate areas for the Alawis on the coast and the Druze in the south.
  • Agitation against French rule

    Nationalist agitation against French rule develops into a national uprising. French forces bombard Damascus.
  • France agrees to independence--sort of

    France agrees to Syrian independence in principle but signs an agreement maintaining French military and economic dominance.
  • Baath party founded

    Baath party founded
    Michel Aflaq and Salah-al-Din al-Bitar found the Arab Socialist Baath Party.
  • Al-Shishakhli seizes power

    Al-Shishakhli seizes power
    Army officer Adib al-Shishakhli seizes power in the third military coup in the space of a year.
  • New president elected

    New president elected
    Veteran nationalist Shukri al-Quwatli is elected president. Syria seeks closer ties with Egypt.
  • United Arab Republic

    United Arab Republic
    Syria and Egypt join the United Arab Republic (UAR). Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser heads the new state. He orders the dissolution of Syrian political parties, to the dismay of the Baath party, which had campaigned for union.
  • UAR dissolved

    Discontent with Egyptian domination of the UAR prompts a group of Syrian army officers to seize power in Damascus and dissolve the union.
  • Israeli forces attack

    Israeli forces attack
    Israeli forces seize the Golan Heights from Syria and destroy much of Syria's air force in the Six Day War with Egypt, Jordan and Syria.
  • Hafez al-Assad rises to power

    Hafez al-Assad rises to power
    Hafez al-Assad overthrows president Nur al-Din al-Atasi and imprisons Salah Jadid. He later is elected president for a seven-year term.
  • War with Israel begins

    War with Israel begins
    Syria and Egypt go to war with Israel but fail to retake the Golan Heights seized during the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. Begins on Yom Kippur.
  • Assad makes peace

    Assad says he's prepared to make peace with Israel in return for an Israeli withdrawal from "all occupied Arab land".
  • Israel invades -- again

    Israel invades -- again
    Israel invades Lebanon and attacks the Syrian army, forcing it to withdraw from several areas. Israel attacks the PLO base in Beirut.
  • Syria joins forces against Iraq

    Iraq invades Kuwait; Syria joins the US-led coalition against Iraq. This leads to improved relations with Egypt and the US.
  • Bashar succeds Ashad

    Bashar succeds Ashad
    Assad dies and is succeeded by his second son, Bashar.
  • "Axis of evil"

    "Axis of evil"
    Senior US official includes Syria in a list of states that make-up an "axis of evil", first listed by President Bush in January. Undersecretary for State John Bolton says Damascus is acquiring weapons of mass destruction
  • Khaddam accuses Syria

    Khaddam accuses Syria
    Exiled former vice-president Abdul Halim Khaddam alleges that Syrian leaders threatened former Lebanese PM Hariri before his assassination.
  • 2011 protests begin

    2011 protests begin
    Protests in Damascus and the southern city of Deraa demand the release of political prisoners. Security forces shoot a number of people dead in Deraa, triggering days of violent unrest that steadily spread nationwide over the following months.
  • Assad sacks governor

    President Assad sacks the governor of the northern province of Hama after mass demonstration there, eventually sending in troops to restore order at the cost of scores of lives. Opposition activists meet in Istanbul to form a unified opposition
  • Arab League suspends Syria

    Arab League suspends Syria
    Arab League votes to suspend Syria, accusing it of failing to implement an Arab peace plan, and imposes sanctions. Army defectors target a military base near Damascus in the Free Syrian Army's most high-profile attack since protests began. Government supporters attack foreign embassies.
  • Syria agrees to peace initiative

    Syria agrees to an Arab League initiative allowing Arab observers into the country. Thousand of protesters gather in Homs to greet them, but the League suspends its mission in January because of worsening violence.
  • UN Security Council endorses peace plan

    UN Security Council endorses peace plan
    UN Security Council endorses non-binding peace plan drafted by UN envoy Kofi Annan. China and Russia agree to support the plan after an earlier, tougher draft is modified. The UN statement falls short of a formal resolution, and violence continues into the summer.