History Themes 2 and 3

  • France: A fractured press represents a fractured society

    After the 1870s the press becomes an instrument to mobilize political support for different themes (nationalism, anti-smite...)
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    France "L'age d'or" de la presse

    Les causes de cette age d'or:
    -adoption de la loi sur la liberté de la presse
    -alphabétisation encoragés par le République
    -innovations des techniques favorisent la production et la diffusion des journaux
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    Dreyfus affaire

  • Middle east: Zionism

    A Nationalist movement calling for the creation of a Jewish Nation in Palestine.Zionism is established by Austro-Hungarian journalist Theodor Herzl in 1897, in response to anti-Semitism in Europe.
  • China: Open Door Policy

    U.S. proposed that China opens up their “doors” for merchants of all nations. This protected China from being colonized but gave increased influence to Western countries in China.
  • China: Boxer Rebellion

    They resented foreign influence and marched into Beijing to attack the foreigners. The rebellion failed due to the strength of the European military but ignited a sense of nationalism in China. People wanted change.
  • China: Sun Yixian Nationalist Party and overthrows the Qing Dynasty

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    WW1 France: the Press is controled

    1. the government control public opinion by censuring and using propaganda.
    2. Uses this to also keep the morals of soldiers up
    3. the "Canard enchainé" denonces the censuring and the proaganda
  • Middle east: Sykes Picot Agreement

    Secret agreement between the UK and France during World War I dividing the provinces of the Ottoman Empire outside the Arabian peninsula into areas of British and French control or influence.
  • China: Nationalist Party can't control warlords and loses power.

  • Middle east: Balfour Declaration

    Promising a homeland in Palestine for Jews throughout the world
    Assumed that this could be done without displacing Arabs living in Palestine
  • China: Chinese fights in WWI

    Chinese fight in WWI declaring war on Germany in hopes of impressing the Europeans and regaining economic influence in their country. Instead, the Treaty Of Versailles rewards Japan with Germany’s holdings in China.
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    France: The Press is modernized

    1. color photogrphie becomes available
    2. scoops and shoking stories and introduced
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    America is isolationist

    1. 1920’s: Moderate-> Means used: Dollar Diplomacy,
    2. 1930’s: Accentuated-> Means used: Official neutrality, Protectionism, Limits on immigration
    3. outcome: US unwillingness to intervene internationally adds to global political instability 3.
  • China: May 4th Mouvement

    Violent student protests take place throughout China due to unfair treatment of Treaty of Versailles and Japan’s influence in China.
  • China: Communist Party formed

    Mao Zedong leads Communist party. Their goal was to take over the government and create a centralized government to regulate the agricultural output, education, and society. Mao believed the peasants were most important and sought to distribute land equally to all.
  • China: Communists and Nationalists unite

    Despite differences, Communists and Nationalists unite together to fight warlords and Japanese.
  • China: Sun Yixian die

    Sun Yixian dies and Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-Shek) becomes the leader of the Kuomintang, or Nationalist Party.
  • China: Shanghai Massacre

    Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists kill thousands of Communists. New National Republic of China is formed and officially recognized by Europeans.
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    China: Civil War

    Nationalist Party does nothing to reform and better China. No land reforms or open elections took place and peasants remained unhappy. Communists regain strength and begin war against the Nationalists.
  • France: Radio appears and becomes a rival to the press

    1. Radio rivals the written press
    2. political leaders use it to directly address the nation
    3. radio allows for a rapid up-to-date on events
  • China: Japan invades Manchuria (north of China)

  • China: The long March

    Nationalist forces chase Communists over 6,000 miles through China. For one year, the Communists fled always staying one step ahead of the Nationalists. Over 100,000 people began the journey but only about 30,000 survived.
  • France: The Press is once again fractured

    1. the apperance of totalitarian regimes, international tensions and the war approching creats a divided public opinion
    2. the press has extreme left and right papers
  • China: Japan invades China

    Japan invades China and forces Nationalists to unite with Communists. Both groups battle Japan throughout WWII (1939-1945) However, the Communists begin to gain power and influence throughout China, especially with the peasants.
  • Middle east: Peel commission

    Lord Robert Peele abolished a mandate and partition between Arabs and JewsJews prohibited from purchasing land in the area allocated to the Arab state. Jewish immigration would be solve by the demarcationHowever, bitter disagreements erupted between supporters and opponents, while the Arabs rejected the proposal and refused to regard it as a solution
  • Middle east: MacDonald White Paper

    Placates Arabs in Palestine by limiting Jewish immigration and land purchases
    Demonstrates a shift in British policy in Palestine
    Alarms Jews
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    WW2 France: medias used to control public opinion

    1. freedom of press is gone
    2. the propaganda used by the Vichy regime creates a distrust in the media
    3. Many french turn to illigal broadcasting stations or presses
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    France: A fight for the radio waves

    the nazis and collaborateurs were fighting a war on radio waves. Dispite efforts, 70% of french population listened to the BBC
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    America accepts international responsibilities to fight totalitarianism

    1. Means used : Military interventions + Influence throughout Western world + Open trade policy + Renewed immigration to the US2. Outcome: Allied victory in WWII + Commitment to Cold War conflicts lead to split domestic opinion / support of dictatorships and crumbling of Soviet model
  • Middle east: Arab League

    confederation of 22 Arab states; Founding members: Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, and YemenHas long been criticized for ineffectiveness, disunity, and poor governance
    Casts doubt on the concept of Pan-Arabism
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    France: Trente Glorieuses

  • Middle East: King David Hotel

    the base for the British Military Command in Palestine was bombed by the Irgun, a militant terrorist Zionist
    The terrorist act caused Britain to realize that its mandate to run Palestine was coming to an end and that it shouldn’t try to stay longer
  • China: Communist Party of China introduces thorough land reforms

  • Middle east : U.N. Partition Plan

    The United Nations General Assembly decided on the partition of Palestine into Jewish and Arab states, with Jerusalem to be an internationalized city.
    The area of Jerusalem and Bethlehem was to become an international zone.
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    Cold War

  • Middle East: Creation of the state of Israel

    Both superpower leaders, US President Harry S. Truman and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, immediately recognized the new state
  • Middle East: Arab-Israeli War of 1948-49

    five Arab nations attack the newly declared Israeli State
  • China: Creation of communist china

    With the wide and mass support of the peasants and workers, Mao Zedong defeats Jiang Jieshi and creates The peoples republic of China
  • China: Four Pests Campaign

    Campaign led by the Chinese government to eliminate four kind of pests to supposedly augment the farmers’ harvest:
    Rats, Flies, Mosquitoes Sparrows
    Failure on the part of the state: severely affected biodiversity and had a backfiring effect: the sparrows, who were seen as harmful, actually helped maintain healthy crops by eating hazardous insects  Led to deforestation, and laid the foundations for the Great Famine
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    France: Radio becomes increasingly popular

    1. government, concient of the inpact of the Radio has a huge control over it
    2. new stations are made on the other side of the border were censure is illigal
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    France: Emergence of TV

    1. increasing amount of TV sets in houses
    2. government creates RTF to try and controle TV,
    3. TV becomes the dominant source of info
    4. by the late 1960s the public wants less gov. power over TV
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    Middle East: Height of Pan-Arabisim

    the nationalist ideology that all Arab people in the Middle East constitute one nation, the movement sought to unite them all.
    The pan-Arabism movement mostly failed due to the constant tensions among Arab states.
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    China: Great Leap Forward

    Economic movement to modernize China’s economy
    Led to famine and million of deaths due to illogical quotas and constraints
  • China: Agricultural Collectivization

    Gradually, starting in 1953, the lands that were now owned by the peasants were being transferred over to the state
  • Middle east: Suez Crisis

    France, Britain, and Israel conspire to take back control of the Suez Canal and overthrow Nasser
    Israel invades Egypt October 29, 1956, capturing the Sinai peninsula in a week, to distract from the French and British troops (see map)
    Outcry from rest of world, both US and USSR demand a ceasefire
    Results: Complete humiliation for Britain and France
    Nasser becomes a hero to the Arab world + Israel gains breathing space (inflicted heavy losses on Egyptian army)
  • China: Anti-Rightist Campaign

    A political campaign was launched in the summer of 1957 to the identify and remove from positions of power members of the CCP who were not adequately “left” or pro-Communist in their thinking
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    China: The Great Chinese Famine

    Widespread famine in the Republic of China partially due to natural causes, but mainly to mismanagement.
    Major cause of this famine was “The Great leap Forward”
  • France: de Gaulle uses media to gain political power

  • Middle East: creation of (PLO)

    One of the best known terrorist organizations.
    Led by Yassir Arafat.
    Created in 1964 during the Palestinian Congress
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    China: Cultural Revolution

    Destruction of the Four Olds (Habits, culture, customs and thoughts) and rejection of old values
    Red Guards- group of young Mao supporters
    Marches, protests, riots were used to propagate the Communist idea.`
    Girls and Women empowerment
    Removal of Leaders
    Disintegration of the Red Guards into various smaller groups that fought amongst each other
    Downfall of economic and agricultural success
  • Middle East: War of 1967

    In the War of 1967; Israel defeated Egypt, Jordan, and Syria; respectively.
    June 10th, 1967, Israel occupied Sinai Peninsula, Golan Heights, West Bank, and Jerusalem
  • France: Gov. and Students use media to control opinions

  • Middle east: Yom Kippur War

    Egyptian president willing to sign peace agreement with Israel in exchange for the return of territory lost in the 1967 war
    Egypt ignored by Israel and the US
    Egypt and Syria attack on the Jewish holy day of Yom Kippur
    Due to Arab military victories, US increased military aid to Israel, Arab oil embargo on Western nations supporting Israel caused economic crisis
  • Middle East: Camp David Accords I

    Peace negotiations between Israel and Egypt
    Two agreements:
    1. Egyptian-Israeli peace
    2. autonomy to Palestinians in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, install local government
  • China: Deng's Four Modernizations

    The Four Modernization:
    1. Agriculture: began dismantling the "rigidly" controlled agriculture collectives and encouraging farmers to raise crops in individual plots. 1987 almost equal to that of the U.S. and Soviet Union
    2. Industry: Special Economic Zones
    3. National Defense
    4. Science and Technology
  • France: Government no longer controls TV

    1. opposition can now express themselfs on TV
  • Middle East: Lebanese Civil War and Israeli Invasion

    Lebanese Civil war in 1975: Growing tensions among Christians and Muslims, compounded by presence of Palestinian refugees in Lebanon
    1980s: Israel had become militarily involved in Lebanon in combat with the Palestine Liberation Organization
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    Middle East: First Intifada

    The Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, beginning in 1987 until 1993
  • France: Emergence of the Internet

    1. causes a decline of TV viewers
    2. other forms of media adapt to survive, many radio station and press have an online version
    3. the absence of verificaton can lead to propaganda, users have to be careful of what they read
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    America: New World Order

    1. Will to build a “New World Order” + Sole Superpower + New threats
    2. means used: Efforts to encourage globalization
    3. outcome: Support for democratization efforts + New rivals: China...+ Financial crises undermine leadership
  • Middle East: Oslo peace accords

    Israel formally recognizes PLO / PLO recognizes Israel’s right to exist and promises no more terrorism
    Limited self-rule for Palestinians in Jericho (West Bank) and part of Gaza. Israeli troops will withdraw from these areas.
    Extremists on both sides disapprove
    Moderates on both sides forge ahead: 1995 Israel agrees to withdraw from most of the West Bank
    Again extremists disapprove: Israeli Prime Minister Yitzak Rabin assassinated by an Israeli fanatic
    1996 Hamas launches suicide bombings
  • China: The Shanghai Cooperation Organization

    was formed as a confidence-building mechanism to resolve border disputes between China and the former Soviet Union.
  • Middle East: Camp David accords II

    Who: President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, and Palestinian Chairman Yasser Arafat
    Why: To negotiate a final settlement of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict in accordance with the Oslo agreement.
    The negations failed however as an agreement was not found between the two countries.
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    Middle East: Second Intifada (2000 - 2005 )

    Combined riots of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) and the Palestinian civilians.
    Palestinian tactics:
    Mass protests , general strikes (= 1st Intifada)
    Armed attacks on Israeli soldiers, security forces, police, and civilians.
    Methods of attack include suicide bombings, launching of rockets and mortars into Israel, kidnapping of both soldiers and civilians, including children, shootings, assassination, stabbings, stoning, and lynching.
    Construction of the Israeli West Bank bar
  • China: China joins the WTO