The War of 1948

  • Early 16th century - 1880s

    Early 16th century - 1880s
    Ottoman Empire controlled Palestine and divided it into 2-3 sub-districts/ assaults in the Balkans 1860 birth of Theodor Herzl in Budapest 1860s-the southern part of Palestine between Jaffa and Jeusalem was declared independent district and was under the rule of Istanbul 1860s-1880s north Palestine (Nablus and Acre) were ruled by Damascus 1880s north Palestine was ruled ny Beirut/ pogroms in Russia led Jews flee the country 1881 no hint of Palestinian Arab nationalism in Palestine
  • Early 1880s pogroms in Russia

    Early 1880s pogroms in Russia
    Early 1880s pogroms in Russia The first Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe arrive in the Land of Israel/Palestine 1881 450000 Arabs in Palestine and 25000 Jews 1881-1947 contest of Arabs for the lowlands of Palestine late 19th century inhabitants of Palestine were under Ottoman rule p.5
  • 1882-1903 first wave of Zionist immigrants in Palestine

    1882-1903  first wave of Zionist immigrants in Palestine
    (30000 Jewish settlers)/Zionist attempts to purchase the Land of Israel from Ottomans 1882-1909 Jews encountered little violence by Arabs in Palestine 1907 publication of Epstein's aricle voicing the emergence of national conflict between Arabs and Zionism 1910-1911 Arabs in the north tried to resist the Zionist purchase of and settlement in Jezreel Valley 1913 The Muslim politician Skeikh Suleiman al-Taji al-Faruqi published an anti-Jewist poem in the newspaper Falastin
  • 1904-1914 2nd wave of Zionist immigrants to Palestine and settlement in the lowlands

    1904-1914 2nd wave of Zionist immigrants to Palestine and settlement in the lowlands
    1909 foundation of Tel Aviv and Degania settlement by Jews by 1914 over 2000000 Jewish in North America and British dominions/ about 48 settlements and 60000-85000 Jews in Palestine 24 October 1915 Palestine was omitted from the future Arab domain 1915-1916 unsuccessful cross-Sinai offensives against British-ruled Egypt 2 January 1916 Palestine Sykes-Picot Agreement (Palestine was promised to be under Anglo-French co-rule in the future) (Rabinovich et al., 2008)
  • 1909-1914

    1909-1914
    Nationalist violence of Arabs against Jewish
  • 2 November 1917 Balfour Declaration (Palestine was vaguely promised to be declared as Jewish state) (Rabinovich et al., 2008)

    2 November 1917  Balfour Declaration (Palestine was vaguely promised to be declared as Jewish state)  (Rabinovich et al., 2008)
    October-December 1917 British army conquered the southern part of Palestine including Jerusalem June 1918 Faisal's endorsement of Zionist colonization of Palestine September 1918 British army smashed the Turkish lines north of Jaffa and conquered Samaria, Galilee, Damascus and Aleppo/ Turks' surrender and dissolution of Ottoman empire
  • 1920 Emergence of a Palestinian Arab national movement

    1920 Emergence of a Palestinian Arab national movement
    March 1920 Faisal declared himself “King of Syria and Palestine”/Arabs assaulted and evacuated the Jewish settlement Tel Hai March-April 1920 First major Arab-jewish clashes in Palestine 4th April Arabs assaulted Jews in Jerusalem's Old City July 1920 The French invaded Syria and conquered Damascus ejecting Faisal October 1920 Resettlement of Jewish Tel Hai
  • 1931-1939 Antisemitism in Europe

    1931-1939 Antisemitism in Europe
    Antisemitism in Europe/ 285000 Jewish refugees arrived in Palestine March 1936 Call for holy war (jihad) April 1936 Arabs began to attack Jews August 1937 the 20th Zionist Congress in Zurich supported the transfer of Arabs into Iraq and Transjordan 1936-1937 Christians' disturbances out of fear for the Muslims
  • 7July 1937

    7July 1937
    The royal commission headed by Lord Peel published a report that recommended partition of the Palestinian land with Jews getting 20% (Galilee and much of the Coastal Plain), Arabs getting 70% (Samaria, much of Judea and the Negev) and British getting 10% (Jaffa strip) ; it also proposed exchange of population between Arabs and Jews who lived in suggested Jewish and Arab territories respectively
    1936-1939 (Palestine) Arab Revolt (Rabinovich et al., 2008)
  • September 1937

    September 1937
    Husseinis' rebellion against the partition proposal
  • October 1937

    October 1937
    The British arrested many rebels
  • Summer 1938

    Summer 1938
    Summer 1938 the rebels briefly occupied the City of Jerusalem and Beersheba.
    September 1938 Beginning of the Munich crisis
  • October 1938- April 1939

    October 1938- April 1939
    The British suppressed the rebellion destroying houses and crops,hanging and imprisoning rebels; they also fenced the borders of northern Palestine and reinforced army and police posts (Tegar forts)
  • 1940-1943 LHI ( Freedom Fighters of Israel) campaign in Palestine

    1940-1943 LHI ( Freedom Fighters of Israel) campaign in Palestine
    May 1940 Churchill became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom end of 1940 first unsuccessful LHI attempt for an alliance with Nazi Germany against the British February 1941 88% Palestinians were recorded to favor Germany spring 1941 Al-Husseini raised anti-British revolt in Baghdad and fled to Germany to serve the Nazis
  • May-End of 1941

    May-End of 1941
    May-June 1941 The Haganah established the Palmah (a short strike force) with the help of the British.
    June 1941 Warriors of the Palmah assisted the British against Nazis in Europe.
    End of 1941 second LHI unsuccessful attempt to contact Nazi Germans and achieve their consent on Balkan Jews' moving out
  • By mid 1941 Mass murdering of Jews

    By mid 1941 Mass murdering of Jews
    Germans had conquered Europe, closed its ports and initiated mass murdering of Jews
  • 1942

    1942
    January 1942 Weizmann supported the establishment of a Jewish state in all of Palestine.
    May 1942 The Extraordinary Zionist Conference supported the Biltmore Program that demanded the establishment of a Jewish state in the Land of Israel
  • 1943

    1943
    Palestine's Arabs reunited the Palestinian nationalist movement.
    November 1943-September 1944 IZL violent attacks against the British.
  • 25 September-7 October 1944

    25 September-7 October 1944
    The Arab League consisting of independent Arab states was founded in Alexandria
  • November 1944-March 1945 The “open hunting season”

    November 1944-March 1945 The “open hunting season”
    (The “Saison”) against the IZL was declared by the Haganah and along with the Palmah they attacked, imprisoned and fingered IZL members to the British 22 March 1945 The Arab League signed a pact In Cairo (the Alexandria Protocol) according to which the Palestinian Arab community was considered equal to the other Arab states and the Jews immigration and land sale was demanded to come to an end and Palestine to be declared independent
  • June - early 1945

    June - early  1945
    June 1945 Britain was demanded by a Jewish Agency memorandum to allow 100000 immigrants into Palestine.
    Early 1945 Egypt, Syria, Lebanon and Saudi Arabia declared war on the Axis to ensure membership in the United Nations organization
  • August 1945

    August 1945
    British foreign secretary Ernest Bevin proposed that immigration to Palestine be 15000 every month. Truman supported the resettlement of the Jewish displaced persons in Palestine and asked the British to lift the restrictions on Jewish immigration to Palestine August 1945-14 May 1948 70700 illegal immigrant Jews reached Palestine
  • 9-10 October 1945

    9-10 October 1945
    Palmah squads invaded the British detention camp at Atlit and set free 208 imprisoned illegal immigrant after the IZL, LHI and the Haganah had negotiated a formal accord known as the Hebrew Rebellion Movement
  • November 1945

    November 1945
    1 November 1945 Palmah blew up 153 railway tracks all over Palestine 2 November 1945 Arabs rioted across the Middle East and North Africa burning Jewish shops and houses and slaughtering Jews. November 1945 AHC was reestablished as the supreme executive body of the Palestinian Arabs
  • February-March 1946

    February-March 1946
    The Anglo-American Committee studied the situation of the Displaced Persons in Europe, visited the Middle East and heard out Arab, Zionist and British representatives and finally agreed on the immigration of the Displaced Persons to Palestine.
  • March 1946

    March 1946
    Dissolution of AHC (Arab Higher Committee)
  • 1946

    1946
    Ibrahim Pasha Hashim proposed the absolute partition with exchange of populations
  • 1 May 1946

    1 May 1946
    The Anglo-American Committee's report put forward the immediate issue of 100000 entry permits, the continuation of the United Nations trusteeship and the declaration of Palestine as independent in the future either within a unitary or a binational framework
  • June 1946

    June 1946
    The Arab League replaced AHF and AHC with AHE (Arab Higher Executive) and appointed Amin al-Husseini as chairman
  • 22 July 1946

    22 July 1946
    IZL blew up King David Hotel in Jerusalem which served as a British military headquarters
  • Summer 1946

    Summer 1946
    Morrison-Grady , or Provincial Autonomy, Plan was proposed by Britain in order to reach a compromise between Arabs and Jews making provision for the immediate immigration of 100000 Jews into Palestine and its declaration as an independent state either under unitary or binational terms
  • 4 October 1946

    4 October 1946
    Truman rejected Morrison Grady, promoted partition, immigration to Palestine and the establishment of a state for Jewish immigrants in Palestine
  • 1947-1948

    1947-1948
    Arab Revolt claiming their independence / agencies of the New State of Israel emerged
  • 27 January 1947

    27 January 1947
    The London Conference tried to reach a compromise between Palestinian Arabs and Jews in Palestine
  • 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Resolution

    29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Resolution
  • 30 November 1947 Outbreak of civil war in Palestine

    30 November 1947 Outbreak of civil war in Palestine
    30 November 1947 Outbreak of civil war in Palestine (Said, 2001)
  • 13 May 1948 Jaffa surrenders to the Jewish forces (Said, 2001)

    13 May 1948 Jaffa surrenders to the Jewish forces (Said, 2001)
  • 14 May 1948 End of the British Mandate over Palestine (Said, 2001)

    14 May 1948 End of the British Mandate over Palestine (Said, 2001)
  • 15 May 1948 Proclamation of the state of Israel / Armies of Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Transjordan and Egypt enter Palestine (Said, 2001)

    15 May 1948 Proclamation of the state of Israel / Armies of Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Transjordan and Egypt enter Palestine (Said, 2001)
  • 1948-1967

    1948-1967
    Jordan controlled the West Bank and Egypt controlled the Gaza Strip ("Timeline of the Arab-Israeli Conflict", n.d.)
  • 7 January 1949 End of hostilities (Said, 2001)

    7 January 1949 End of hostilities (Said, 2001)
  • 1950

    1950
    Jordan annexed the West Bank ("Timeline of the Arab-Israeli Conflict", n.d)
  • 1960-1967

    1960-1967
    War of Attrition between Egypt and Israel
  • 5-10 June 1967

    5-10 June 1967
    Six-Day War (Second Arab-Israeli War). Egypt and Jordan lost their territories in Palestine.
  • 1971

    1971
    Black September: Palestinian fighters (PLO) tried to overthrow the Jordanian King Hussein
  • 1987

    1987
    First Intifada (Palestinian protests against Israelis' occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip).
  • 1993-1994

    1993-1994
    Oslo Accords promised self-governing authorities in the Palestinian territories
  • 2000

    2000
    Second Intifada between Palestinians and Arabs of Israel in Jerusalem
  • 2002

    2002
    Arab Peace Initiative proposing an end to teh Arab-Israeli conflict
  • 2005

    2005
    Israelis were removed from Gaza strip and Western Bank