Napoleon wrote a letter to the Jewish Nation that expressed his belief that they are the "Rightful heirs of Palestine"
The Sykes-Picot Agreement
During World War I, secret negotiations were held between Britain and France, where most of the Arab land that was under the rule of the Ottoman empire were divided into British and French spheres of influence.
The Balfour Declaration
Britain made a public promise to aim to establish a "national home for the Jewish people" in Palestine
The Palestine Mandate
The League of Nations approved of the British rule in Palestine
The al-Buraq wall is a holy site for Muslims and Jews. Zionists were challenging the control over the wall since the beginning of the mandate.
A group of Zionists led demonstrations with the aim to seize the wall. Counterprotests by Palestinian Muslims erupted and eventually turned into an uprising. Fights between Arab Palestinians and Jews backed by British occupation forces, continued for two weeks. 133 Jews were killed, and 116 Arabs were killed, mostly by the British security forces.
4,070 legal Jewish immigrants entered Palestine
10,000 legal Jewish immigrants entered Palestine
16,000 legal Jewish immigrants entered Palestine in the first 8 months of the year.
The 1933 Riots
Palestinians began rioting due the the sudden increase of Jewish immigrants
Palestinians began a strike in order to protest British colonialism and the increase in Jewish immigration. The strike was viciously suppressed by British forces and arrested anyone they thought was apart of the movement as well as starting punitive home demolitions.
Ransacked Palestinian Home
The courtyard of a Palestinian family home after being ransacked by British troops
Calling Off the Strike
The Arab Higher Committee urged the Palestinians to call off the strikes and to trust that Britain would listen to their demands
The Great Arab Revolt
Palestinians started an armed uprising against the British Mandate, however were violently repressed by British forces. 20,000 troops were sent to Palestine to stop the uprising.
The Peel Commission
The Peel Commission found that the mandate was not working because the objectives of the Palestinians and the Jews that immigrated to Palestine clashed with each other. Therefore, the commission proposed the idea for Palestine to be partitioned into an Arab state, Jewish state, and a neutral territory for the holy places.
Martial Law in Palestine
Mandate authorities declared martial law in Palestine and banned the Arab Higher Committee
The British White Paper - The End of the Revolt
Britain promised to restrict Jewish immigration into Palestine and promised to establish an independent Palestinian state within a decade.
The Biltmore Programme
Zionists within the US met in NY and adopted the "Biltmore Programme," which called for Palestine to be established as a Jewish Commonwealth and unlimited Jewish immigration
UK Proposal to Relinquish
The UK proposed to relinquish their mandatory role and placed the question of Palestine before the UN.
UN Resolution 181
The General Assembly decided to partition Palestine into two states, one Arab state, and one Jewish State. Leaving Jerusalem under a special government.
The Palestinians rejected this resolution.
Members of the Zionist military organization, Haganah, raided the al-Khisas village. Many houses were blown up and 10 civilians were killed including 5 children. Initially, Haganah denied that children were killed, but later admitted that fact was true.
The attack was stated to be an act of revenge for the killing of two men from the Jewish Settlement Police, according to a newspaper story.
Haifa Oil Refinery Massacre
The Zionist military group, Irgun, threw two bombs at a group of Arabs who were waiting for construction jobs outside of the Haifa Oil refinery, killing 6 and injuring 42. From inside the refinery, Arab employees rioted and killed 39 of their Jewish coworkers.
Balad al-Shaykh Massacre
170 members of the Zionist military organization, Haganah, were ordered to 'encircle the village, harm the largest possible number of men, damage property, and refrain from attacking women and children.' However, more than 60 villagers were killed including women and children. The total number of deaths are at dispute. Dozens of homes were destroyed. The attack was an act of revenge for the revenge killings for the Haifa Oil refinery bombings.
In 1948, more than 800,000 out of 1.4 million Palestinians were driven out of the homeland into the West Bank or Gaza Strip.
Israel occupied 774 towns and villages, destroyed 531 Palestinian tows and villages, and committed more than 70 massacres over the course of one year.
At least 15,000 Palestinians were killed during this time.
Mansurat al-Khayt Massacre
The Zionist group, Haganah, infiltrated the village in the middle of the night with automatic guns. One villager was wounded, none killed. A house was blown up under heavy fire from Haganah. Israel used various methods to push the villagers our of their homes, and successfully pushed them into Syria.
First Sa'sa' Massacre
Zionist military group, Haganah, was ordered to "blow up twenty houses and kill the largest possible number of fighters." According to Haganah, "tens" of people were killed and 10 homes were completely or partially destroyed. According to the NYT, 11 villagers were killed, including 5 small children, 3 homes were completely destroyed, and 11 were severely damaged.
On March 12th, soldiers from the Zionist Palmach forces raided the village and blew up 20 houses. 15 Palestinians were killed and 20 were wounded.
On March 16th and 17th, the forces attacked again and 60 Palestinians were killed, 30 being women and children.
The last of the 390 residents of the village fled on April 21st.
Deir Yassin Massacre
Zionist paramilitary groups, Irgun and Stern Gang, attacked the village of Deir Yassin, killing at least 107 Palestinians.
According to testimonies from surviving victims, some of those killed were tied to tree and burned to death. A British report says, "Women and children were stripped, lined up, photographed, and then slaughtered by automatic firing."
Nasir al-Din Massacre
The village population was around 90 people and consisted of 35 houses.
On April 12th and 13th, Zionists from the Golani Brigade destroyed set houses on fire, with the intention of scaring people in neighboring villages.
On April 14th, more Zionist soldiers were sent to destroy the rest of the village.
A total of 50 Palestinians died.
Wa'ra al-Sawda a Massacre
Haganah forces came into the village and rounded up 15 men, and took them to the nearby village of Eilabun, and shot them. 14 of the men died and were buried in a cave. One survived and escaped to Syria, including other fellow villagers.
‘Ayn al-Zaytun Massacre
On May 1st, as part of Operation Yiftach, Zionist forces infiltrated and occupied the village. Troops rounded up 37 men randomly and killed them in a gully. With the knowledge that the Red Cross was going to visit the area, the soldiers removed any evidence that made the killings look like they were done in cold blood.
Villagers tried to return home on May 2nd, but the soldiers fired at them. On May 2nd and 3rd, soldiers burned or blew up all of the houses in the village.
Zionist soldiers part of the Irgun Zvai Leumi began attacking the village on May 12th. Most of the villagers fled whilst under mortar fire. Many were kept for a few days behind barbed wire and then expelled.
Number of people killed is unknown.
Members of the Haganah forces came into the village and threw hand grenades into homes and filled about 125 farmers and their families. Soldiers also torched the village, burnt bodies were scattered in the streets. The remaining surviving villagers escaped and now are refugees in Gaza.
End of British Mandate - Creation of Israel
Britain terminated the Mandate of Palestine.
David Ben-Gurion, the head of the Jewish Agency, announced the establishment of the State of Israel, and President Harry Truman recognized the nation.
First Arab-Israeli War
Once the establishment of the State of Israel was made, it triggered the first Arab-Israeli war.
Tantoura al Massacre
Zionist Alaxandroni Brigade attacked and occupied the village. Once the village was surrendered, more than 200 Tantura villagers, mostly unarmed young men, were shot and killed all over the village and inside of homes. All of the remaining villagers were expelled out.
On the morning of July 11th, Israeli aircrafts dropped leaflets over the city and told the people to surrender and leave the city before it collapsed. At noon, Zionist soldiers started their attack and began to shoot indiscriminately.
On July 13th, the Israeli soldiers expelled the residents from the city and neighboring towns. Approximately 70,000 were forced to leave within 30 mins
Zionist soldiers came into the village and killed 145 children, women, and men. 450 villagers went missing, including 170 women and children.
Second Sa'sa' Massacre
As part of Operation Hiram, the forces of Haganah occupied Sa'sa', expelling the remaining villagers that did not flee after the first massacre. According to the former head of the Haganah National Staff, acts of mass murder was committed in the village. Detailed accounts of the killings at Sa'sa' are not available.
Lausanne Conciliation Conference
The goal of this conference was to come to an agreement regarding the Arab-Israeli War. Negotiations began with the signing of the Lausanne Protocol, which stated that the basis of discussions would surround the UN General Assembly Resolutions 181 (partition plan) and 194 (calling on Israel to allow the return of Palestinian refugees).
Many proposals were made, including the Israeli proposal for the annex of the Gaza Strip.
Armistice Demarcation Line (ADL)
With UN Mediation, Israel signed an armistice agreement with Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria.
Also known as the Green Line.
The agreement marked Israel's borders, which was 78% of Palestine, for the first 18 years of its existence.
Jordan annexed the West Bank and East Jerusalem
Egypt annexed Gaza Strip
Syria annexed Golan Heights
Change of Israel's Capital
Israel moved its capital from Tel Aviv to Western Jerusalem, in defiance of the UN resolutions
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
During the Arab League Summit, Palestinians created the PLO with the goal to create a liberated Palestine in Israel.
Attack on As Samu
Israeli armored cars opened fire from the Israeli side of the ADL against police in southern Hebron. The UN Military Observers documented 125 houses, a medical clinic, and school was completely demolished. One mosque and 25 houses were damaged. 18 people were killed, and 134 people were injured.
6 Day War
Israel defeated Egypt, Jordan, and Syria, and occupied the Sinai Peninsula, the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Golan Heights. The US tried to push Israel for a ceasefire, however, ended up staying out of the situation until there were peace settlements. However, the UN stepped in and brokered a ceasefire.