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The 20th Century Middle East

  • Hussien-McMahon Correspondance

    Hussien-McMahon Correspondance
    A series of letters between the Sheriff of Mecca and British High Comissioner in Egypt, that promissed a bilateral agreement of an Arab state under the condition in which the Arabs rebel against the Ottomans
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    Pre World War I

    A series of lettters from the British government that concieves specific concordances amongst the Arabs, the French and the Jewish people
  • Great Arab Revolt

    Great Arab Revolt
    Arab forces under the command of TE.Lawrence and Hussien of Mecca lead a revolution which destroyed the Hijaz Railway which was controlled by the Ottomans and was part of the compact of the H-M correspondance.
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    World War I and the aftermath

    World War I was a major source of many changes in the region as nationalistic movements' aspirations of becoming nations were realized. The most pivotal one was the fall of the Ottoman Empire, which colonized major Arab lands for four centuries
  • Sykes-Picot Agreement

    Sykes-Picot Agreement
    A document which divided the Arab lands under French and British control, the French desired the cultural lands of the Crusades whilst on the other hand, the British selected areas that interested their economy.
  • Balfour Declaration

    Balfour Declaration
    A letter from the United Kingdom's Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour to Baron Rothschild, a leader of the British Jewish community which favoured the establishment of a Jewish Homeland in Palestine.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    Arabs were put under British/French Mandates
  • The Turkish Republic

    The Turkish Republic
    Mustafa Kamal Ataturk established a secular republic following years of Turkish nationalistic movement, ending centuries of the once powerful Ottoman Empire
  • Oil in KSA

    Oil in KSA
    The largest amount of crude oil in the world was discovered in the East coast of Saudi Arabia. Today, it is one of the world's richest and most powerful nations due to the importance of the fossil-fuels. Foreign interest in the Middle East started to increase following this. Many conflicts however have resulted from this including the Gulf Wars and the 1973 oil crisis
  • The Holocaust

    The Holocaust
    Many Jews were discriminated throughout Europe for many centuries, however the most infamous act was that of the Holocaust in which Adolf Hitler's Aryan dream slaughtered 6 million Jews through a systamtic and state sponsored murder.
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    The Taking of Palestine

    Following the decimination of the Jewish population during World War II through Adolf Hitler, massive Jewish numbers were immigrating to the Mandate of Palestine. In 1948, follwing the end of the British Mandate of Palestine, an Israeli-Jewish state was established which lead to a massive exodus of Palestinians. This was the catalyst of the continous Arab-Israeli conflict
  • The catastrophe

    The catastrophe
    The state of Israel was established following the end of the Palestinian Mandade which lead to the misplacement of approximately a million Palestinians. One of the notorious acts of genocide was the Deir Yassin Massacre, which sparked many Palestinians to depart due to fear of the Israelis.
  • Gamel AbdelNasser nationalizes Suez Canal

    Gamel AbdelNasser nationalizes Suez Canal
    Gamel Abdulannser avowed that the Suez Canal has been nationalized and was to be controlled by his nation. Egypt was succesfull in capturing it from the British in a war against Britain and it's allies France and Israel, however with the contemporary Cold-War, the USSR and the USA played a major role to make Britain withdraw. This was considered one of the major Egyptian accomplishements as the Canal is a strategic point of world trade especially for oil.
  • 1967 Arab-Israeli War

    1967 Arab-Israeli War
    Following Nasser's heroic rise as an Egyptian leader,he prommised the end of Israel to realize his dream for Pan-Arabism. However the Arabs were poorly prepared and underestimated the strength of the Israeli's as they had air superiority with destroying the Egyptian air base. Israel captured Jerusalem and the West bank.
  • Camp David Accords

    Camp David Accords
    A peace treaty was signed by Egypt and Israel under the presidency of Anwar Sadat. For decades, Egypt had been suffering from wars with Israel and this affected their economy negatively. Therefore, Egypt recognized Israel as a state and the Sinai was returned in addition to a 3B$ aid from the US annually. Egypt was axed from the Arab League following this event
  • Gulf War

    Gulf War
    Iraq invaded Kuwait following disuputes over the conflict with Iran and the splitting of oil. Kuwait was taken in 3 hours as the US gave Iraq an ultimatum on Jan17 1991 and launced operation Desert storm. The US, along with the aid of 53 nations was victorious until the cease fire was announced in April. The terms for the cease fire was the inspection of WMD and no fly zones in the North and South to protect ethnic races in Iraq.