The History of the Middle East

By ksagan
  • 1293

    Ottoman Empire Founded

    One of the largest and strongest powers in world history. An Islamic Empire. Conquered areas in the Middle East, Europe, and Africa
  • 1520

    Beginning of Reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (Ott. Emp.)

    Hurrem Sultan (previous slave concubine) married Suleiman. Ottoman Empire became very powerful under his rule
  • Ottoman Empire Declares Bankruptcy

    Empire had expanded too much- kept losing and increasing their debt. Brought up arguments as to why this happened... should the ott. emp. be more traditional/religious (Islam) or should they adapt to be like Europe?
  • Young Turks Lead Coup and Win

    CUP=Committee of Union and Progress. Remove Abdulhamid II from power. He had ignored Young Ottomans constitutional gov agreement to become an autocrat that emphasized the importance of ISLAM. Young Turks restored constitutional government and democracy
  • Ottoman Empire Declares War in WWI

    Allies with central powers (against Britain/France).=> anger with these powers for international interference
  • Balfour Declaration

    British gov announces their support of a Jewish state in Palestine
  • Britain's Palestine Mandate

    Post WW1, Britain given power over area of land-"Palestine" to help "guide them" to self gov
  • World War 1 Ends

    Western Powers split up colonies of losing powers. The Ottoman Empire is split up by the British and French who will "guide" new countries until they are "ready" for self government
  • Turkish War of Independence Begins

    Greeks invade, trying to reclaim Constantinople, Kamal puts together forces to resist
  • Riots in Syria, Iraq, and Palestine

    Riots break out in opposition to western mandates and French and British control
  • Start of League of Nations Approved Compulsory Deportation in Turkey

    Population exchange between Greece and Turkey. You are "Turk" if Muslim and "Greek" if orthodox christian. By the end, Turkey becomes 99% Muslim
  • Turkish War of Independence Ends

    Turkey becomes its own nation. Kemal is elected president and creates change in Turkey- very secular and regects the Ottoman past
  • French-Syria Mandate

    split up part of ottoman emp. Creates Lebanon- France uses division to maintain power
  • Hagia Sophia Becomes a Museum

    Under Kemal's leadership, Turkey becomes secular
  • World War II Ends

    France and Britain largely give up colonial holdings because of limited resources for recovery after war.
  • Syria Becomes Independent Nation State

    All French leave. Heavy conflict remains in Syria for power.
  • Israel becomes a Nation State & Arab-Israeli War

    Israel declares itself a nation and is recognized internationally- Britain relinquishes control. War breaks out and Israel forces out Palestinians. Gaza Strip falls under control of Egypt and the West Bank part of Jordan
  • Operation Ajax

    The US supports local thugs to stage a coup against the elected PM of Iran, Mohammad Mossadegh. Mossadegh was demanding a 50-50 split of oil profits, and US saw as a nationalist, communist threat in time of the Cold War. The Shah put in power as an autocrat and puppet of western interests.
  • Johnston Plan

    Sponsored by UN and backed by the US state department (supervised by TVA (weird)). Plan covering the Jordan River giving 77% if water (dams) to Syria and Lebanon and 32% to Israel (which Israel said was not enough)
  • Nile Waters Agreement

    Agreement between countries in Nile Basin region. Egypt gets control of 87%, Sudan 13%, and the rest (including Ethiopia) get nothing. Shows historic power balance in the region
  • Six Day War

    Israel shows air force superiority and takes West Bank (Pal/Jordan), Golan (syria), and Gaza (Egypt). Wipes out Egyptian air force.
  • UN Resolution 242

    Israel needed to "withdraw armed forces from territories" that were won in 6 Day War. Did not specify ALL...future conflict
  • Syria: Hafez al Assad Becomes President

    Part of the Baath party and is a secular nationalist with a strong Arab Identity. He ends instability but at the cost of freedoms
  • Iranian Revolution Ends

    (Started same year). The Shah leaves the country and Khomeini returns. In April the Islamic State of Iran is declared.
  • Sadam Hussein Becomes President of Iraq

    Saddam Hussein is a member of the Ba'ath party. He maintains popularity by remaining on good terms with military (no more coups), managing personnel (spies), and providing benefits to the people of Iraq.
  • Iran-Iraq War Begins

    Hussein decides to invade because he perceives Iran as being weak. Also, he is interested in the Thelweg channel.
  • Hama Massacre

    Syrian regime attacks/bombs Hama to quell Muslim Brotherhood Uprising. The regime kills 10-25 thousand.
  • First Intifada Begins

    Protests and Riots by Palestinians against Israeli occupation
  • Iran-Iraq War ends

    There are an estimated 1.5 million casualties in the war and the economies of both countries are destroyed.
  • Operation Desert Storm

    The US and 35 other countries go to war against Iraq after they decided to invade Kuwait. Many countries feared an expansion of power. Minimal US casualties but enormous for citizens of Iraq
  • Oslo Declaration of Principle

    Attempt at peace for Palestine and Israel. Gave Palestine limited powers and Israel withdrew from Jerrico and Gaza. Did not provide Palestinian state or deal with water and refugee issues
  • Camp David Summit

    Prez Clinton invites PM Barak (Israel) and chairman Arafat (Palestine) to Camp David to try to reach settlement in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. No agreement is reached.
  • Syria: Hafez al-Assad dies and Bashar al-Assad comes to power

    Both authoritarian leaders. People hoped Bashar would relax policies. Did not and turned to more Neoliberal policies as well.
  • Spark of Antifada

    Ariel Sharon (candidate for PM) goes to Muslim Holy Sites in Jerusalem with Israel defense forces before the election. Angry Palestinians protest and Israeli retaliation sparks the Antifada
  • AKP Comes to Power in Turkey

    Earlier banking crisis, urban unrest, and hyperinflation cause a shift away from secular government (failure). AKP is the party of Erdogan.
  • Second Antifada ends

    Separation barirer now fully built seperating Palestinians from Israelis- limits their accessiibilty to water and agricultural lands. Wall paid for with US tax dollars!!!
  • Palestinian Election: Victory for Hamas

    Hamas wins 74 out of 132 seats in Legislature. The results are not recognized by the US and aid is cut off. The US encourages Israel and Palestine to reject the election results
  • Israel goes to war with Lebanon

    Hisbollah (Lebanon) claims they kidnapped 2 Israeli soldiers to get back 3 Lebanese citizens held in Israel. Israel launches airstrikes that kill 1109, injure 4399, and displace 1 million in Lebanon. A total of 55 Israeli citizens are killed and 101 wounded. Israel claims that goal was to get rid of Hisbollah infrastructure (basically all Leb infrastructure).
  • Israel Airstrikes Gaza

    More than 1000 Palestinians die after rockets kill 13 Israelis

    Severe drought in Middle East that increased tensions in the Israeli/Palestinian conflict as well as increased tensions in Syria which could have been a factor in the coming civil war
  • Iran 2009 Election

    10th Iranian presidential election and the largest upheaval since 79'. Protests sparked because people doubted the results of the election of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.
  • Nile Cooperative Framework Agreement

    10 countries in Nile Region come together to negotiate and set rights over the Nile. Starting to weaken Egypts unbalanced dominance in the region.
  • Palestine becomes a Nonmember Observer State in the UN

    Upon admittance, Obama cuts funding for UNESCO
  • Syrian Civil War Begins

    Civil War begins as a civil uprising to protest violence, injustice, and economic disparities caused by the regime
  • Egyptian Revolution Begins

    Following the tide of the Arab Spring, Egypt falls into revolution because of corruption, unemployment, and dissatisfaction by the people. Provides opening for the construction of the GERD
  • Ethiopia Announces Construction of the GERD

    Ethiopia is a country upstream of the Nile against Egypt. The announcement shows a significant shift in power in the region as Egypt is the historical leader of it (through control of the Nile). Presumed the announcement is now because of the Arab Spring taking place in Egypt- instability of Egyptian government.
  • US troops exit Iraq

    Created instability and led to the rise of power of ISIS. Jihadis gained weapons from disbanded Iraqi army because of the US invasion. Radical conservative Islamist group that was willing to label Shi'is and Armenians apostates
  • Gezi Park

    Symbolic protest to protect one of the last greenspaces in Istanbul. Sparked large protests against Erdogan's growing power and several people killed
  • Operation Protective Edge

    Israel airstrikes Gaza- more than 2000 Palestinians die
  • ISIS takes Mosul

    ISIS claim caliphate in Mosul. Do not properly take care of infrastructure...risk develops in dam as no upkeep is given. If the dam breaks, massive flooding will take place going all the way to Baghdad.
  • Iran Nuclear Deal (JCPOA)

    Nuclear compromise between Iran and several powerful countries like China, France, Germany, Us, and UK. Israel is the only nuclear armed country in the middle east, impacting the power dynamics.
  • The US Announces Withdraw from Iran Nuclear Deal

    Trump administration announces a withdraw from the JCPOA because he argued it was a bad deal. This was a major setback in negotiations in the region.
  • Hagia Sophia Converted Back Into Mosque

    Erdogan declares Hagia Sophia a mosque, calling on Ottoman Islamic History to grow his own power and vision for an Islamic State
  • Ethiopia Begins to Fill The GERD

    Tensions continue to simmer between Egypt and Ethiopia about the construction of the GERD. This is a continued visualization of the power shift in the Nile Basin Region. Egyptian farmers are worried they won't have enough water and Ethiopia's economy will grow massively because of the power created from the dam.