Middle East Timeline

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    Middle East Events

  • Balfour Declaration

    Britian gave support to the Zionists by the declaration that views these people as
  • League of Nations

    Britian recieved the League of Nation's control over Palestine to satisfy the Balfour Declaration.
  • Jewish Migration

    Over 500,000 Jews migrated to Palestine. They built modern cities, created agricultural settlements, started industries, restored desert lands to fertility, improved health standards, and established schools.
  • Limiting Jewish Migration

    Before WWII Britian Severly limited Jewish migration the Palestine. Therefore the Zionists thought the Britain was going against the Balfour Declaration.
  • Arab League

    Founded in 1945.
  • Palestine and the U.N.

    The Palestine problem was turned over to the U.N. General Assembly, it ended the British mandate, placed Jerusalem under international control, and partitioned Palestine into seperate Arab and jewish states.
  • Israeli War for independence

    The Arab Nations disagreed with the U.N. decision for a Jewish state and attacked Israel. During the War the Arab's lost territory to the Israelis. Therefore, in 1949 they accepted a temporary armistce agreement arranged by the U.N. Mediator.
  • Continued Arab hostility

    The Arab League enforced an economic boycott against Israel and Western companies having business affairs with Israel. By 1956 Egypt kept Israeli ships from the Suez Canal and ships on Sinai Pennisula were blocked from Israel's southern port of Ealth on the Gulf of Aqaba.
  • Sinai Campaign

    Israel invaded Egypt to end the Aqaba Blockade and to wipe out Guerrilla bases. Because of the U.N. Emergence forgein Egypt Israel was free from Egytian Guerrilla Raids and free to use the Gulf of Aqaba for ten Years.
  • Arab- Israeli War

    Egypt, Syria, and Jordan, in military alliance, moved their armies toward their borders with Israel. Nasser removed the UNEF and closed the shipping from the Gulf of Aqaba to Israel. The war lasted for six days. The Israelis routed the Arab forces and seize the Gaza strip and the entire Sinai Peninsula westward to the Suez Canal the southward to Sharm el Sheikh from Egypt, all territory on the West Bank of the Jordan River including Jerusalem from Jordan. From Syria they seized the Golan Heights
  • Egypt Under Sadat

    Nasser died, Anwar al- Sadat assumed his postion. He ordered the Soviet Military to leave Egypt two years after he assumed Nasser's position.
  • Jordan's Army

    Jordan's Army drove the guerrillas out of Jordan.
  • Japanese Terrorists

    the Arab extremeists employed Japanese terrorists to massacre innocent civilians at the Tel Aviv Airport. Eleven Israeli Olympic athletes and coaches at Munich were murdered. Israel then raided guerrilla bases in Syria and Lebanon.
  • Arab-Israeli War

    The Syrians and the Egyptians attacked the Israelis on Yom Kippur. The Israelis won the war militarily but lost in several other ways, with their already small population they suffered devistating casualties, and heavy war costs.
  • Geneva Peace Conference

    Israel, Egypt, and Jordan sent delegates to a UN-backed peace conference in Geneva, Switerland. The conference failed after one day.
  • Arab support for PLO

    The Arab Nations unanimously declared the PLO to be the sole representitive of the Palistinian people and called for the creation of a Palestinian state. The Arab nations secured the UN General Assembly invitation for the PLO as a representative of the Palestinian people to take part on debates in Palestine.
  • Start of the Lebanon Civil War

    Leftist Palestinian guerrillas took part in Lebanon's Civil War. They fought first against the Lebonese Christians and Lebanese Muslims who had formally been there all of their lives.
  • Lebanon Civil War

    A civil war broke out in Lebanon, with a society that is divided along religious lines. Each Religion had their own militias.
  • Syrian Intervention

    Syria sent 15,000 troops into Lebanon in order to mandate the troops to cease-fire.
  • The Camp David Conference

    At Camp David, Sadat and Begin met with President Carter and reached two agreements. One provided a framework for peace negotiations on the Israeli-occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip
  • Khomeini Seizes Control

    Shah converted Iran into an Islamic republic based on the principles stated in the Koran.
  • Americans are Taken Hostage in Iran

    When the Shah entered the United States for surgery and treatment of cancer, students occupied the American embassy and seized more than 50 Americans as hostages.
  • The Iran-Iraq War

    The United States provided Iraq with intelligent information and other help in order to ward off an Iranian victory. Iran had bombed Kuwait ships and damaged them with mines and continued bombing. Thirty seven United States sailors died when an Iraqi jet fired a missle at the U.S.
  • The Syrian-Soviet Treaty

    The president of syria, Hafez al-Assad signed a 20-year peace treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union.
  • Release of the American Hostages

    The Iranian Parliament proposed to free the fifty-two remaining hostages upon American acceptance of 1) not interferring in Iran's international affairs and would end its embargo against Iran 2) The U.S. would return $9 to $10 billion of frozen assets 3)The two nations would establish an arbitration commission to decide claims of American individuals and corporations against Iran and 4) Iran could sue in American courts for any of the late Shah's assets discoveredin the U.S.
  • Israeli Raid on Iraqi Reactor

    Israeli warplanes bombed and destroyed an Iraqi nuclear reactor being built with French aid.
  • Assassination of Sadat

    Anwar al-Sadat was assassinated by four Egyptians who were later identified as belonging to a Muslim fundamentalist group critical of Sadat's policy of dealing with Israel.
  • Israeli Annexation of the Golan Heights

    After capturing the Golden Heights from Syria in the 1967 war, Israel kept them under military rule. In late 1981, Israel formally annexed the strategic heights, which overlook Isralei towns and farms.
  • Israel Invaded Lebanon

    Enforces the PLO guerrillas to leave. By 1983 Syria had helped drive out the rest.
  • Suicide Bombings

    The U.S. joined forces with France, Italy and Britain in creating a multinational force to help tfc yugf fexw weaken Lebanon government. Suicide bombers drove trucks into U.S. and France military compounds in 1983, killing 241 Marines and 58 French soldiers.
  • Controversy Over Secret Arms Sales

    A storm of controversy arose following the revelation that President Reagan had secretly approved U.S. arms sales to Iran through Israel.
  • The Intifadah

    Palestinians living in lands under Israeli occupation began an uprising they called Intifadah, which caused increasing polarization between Jews and Arabs in Israel and occupied lands.
  • Peace Plan of Israel and Palestine

    Yasir Arafat proposed a peace plan calling for Israel and Palestine to live peacefully together. Yasir renounced terrorism and accepted Security Council Resolution 242. In response U.S. talks with PLO.
  • Ceasefire

    The UN arranged a ceasefire in August 1988 that halted the fighting after 365,000 people had died.
  • Palestine is an Independant State

    Arafat in Palestine National Council met in Algiers to proclaim the formation of an independant state of Palestine with its capital, Jerusalem. Arafat gave his acceptance to Israel's right to be a country and called for an International Peace Conference to resolve the conflict in the Middle East.
  • New Constitution

    A new Constitution was approved in Lebanon. It was designed to increase the power of the Lebanon's Muslim majority and end the civil war.
  • Oliver North

    A jury convicted North of obstructing Congress, destroying NSC dicuments, and accepting an illegal gift. In 1991 all charges against North were dropped.
  • Shaky Peace

    Syrian troops assaulted the presidential palace to remove Michel Aoun, a Christian General, wheo was against the new Constitution. A new "national unity" government reestablished central authority and disarmed the rival militias. A shaky peace took hold. Syrian and Israeli troops remained in Lebanon and so did some of the PLO guerrillas.
  • Iraq's invasion of Kuwait

    1) Iraq's demand for changes in a border that divides a rich oil field, with most of the oil on the Kuwaiti side.
    2) Iraq's demand that kuwait cancel loans made to Iraq during the Iran-Iraq war. This caused for kuwait to invade in August and Iraq declared that it was annexing Kuwait.
  • Military Action Against Iraq

    Congress voted to support military action against Iraq.
  • Operation Desert Storm

    Hundresds of U.S. and coalition planes and missilles struck targets in Kuwait and Iraq. They drove Iraqi planes from the skies, although Iraqi missiles did cause limited damage to Israel and Saudi Arabia.
  • Victory

    Six weeks after the first air strikes the U.S. and coalition forces achieved a complete voctory over the Iraqi army.
  • Israeli-PLO Accord

    After months of secret peace talks in Norway between Israelis and members of the PLO, the two sides opened formal diplomatic talks. the PLO accepted Israel's right to exist in peace and security" and renounced " the use of terrorism and other acts of violence."
  • Historic Accord between PLO and the Israelis

    The two sides signed a historic accord in Washington, D.C. A handshake between Rabin and Arafat symbolized the dramatic turn in Israeli- Arab relations.
  • Pact Between Israel and Jordan

    Jordan declared an end to its state of war with Israel, after Egypt.