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The Ten Most Important Events In The Twenieth Century That Influnced The Middle East

  • Sykes Picot Accord

    Sykes Picot Accord
    The Sykes–Picot Agreement was a secret agreement between the governments of the United Kingdom and France which defined the areas of controlv in the Middle East should they succeed in defeating the Ottoman Empire during World War I. This agreement was initiated the minute WWI ended.
  • Balfour Declaration

    Balfour Declaration
    The Balfour Declaration was a message from the United Kingdom's Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour. This declaration basically said that Britian will establish a Jewish homeland but without any discrimination against non-existing jews in Palestine. This declaration led to the immigration of hundreds of thousands of jews which displaced Palestinians who took refuge in neighboring countries.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    The Treaty of Versailles was a peace treaty that ended World War I, which ended the state of war between Germany, the Ottoman Empire and the Allied Powers. Being on the losing side, the Ottoman Empire was divided between France and Britian, forcing the Arabs to suffer from the havoc of imperialism for decades.
  • The 1948 Nakba

    The 1948 Nakba
    After Arabs states composed of Jordan, Egypt, Syria, Iraq clashed with Israel, they were defeated miserably as Isreal was able to inflict heavy losses on the Arabian side, while also taking control over substantial parts of Palestine, and displacing some 700,000 people who to took refuge in neighboring countries. Israel also declared its independence and was a recognized state by many international countries.
  • The Free Officers Movement

    The Free Officers Movement
    This movement that was led by Gamal Abdel Nasser, Anwar al Sadat, and other recognized figures aimed at overthrowing the puppet regime set by the British that was led by King Farouq. After this movement succeeded, Gamal was appointed president and Egypt flourished under his rule as he enhanced it socially and economically, Politically, Egypt gained a prominent role under Gamal and became one of Isreal's major enimies, while also playing the Soviet Union and the U.S in gaining its benefits.
  • 1967 Naksa

    1967 Naksa
    The 6 day war persumably was the worst blow for the Arabs and modern day palestine, in which Israel wiped out its Arabian foes with a preempitive strike as it destroyed the Egyptian, Syrian and Jordanian airforce and consequently dominated the war with air superiorty. Afterwards, Israel took hold of the Sinai desert that belonged to Egypt, the Golan Heights that were controlled by Syria, and the East bank that was controlled by Jordan. This war defined modern day borders for Israel.
  • 1973 War and Camp David

    1973 War and Camp David
    Egypt didn't want to negotiate a peace treaty with Israel unless they had the upper hand, and so they planned a surprise attack on Israel in their eid. With the joint forces of Syria, Egypt opened to fronts on Israel and was able sabotage Israeli forces and bypass the Parlev Line. When the war ended, Egypt negotiated a peace treaty with Israel in the U.S when Anwar Al Sadat was president, which was followed by other Arabian-Israeli peace treaties.
  • Iran-Iraq War

    Iran-Iraq War
    This war fundamentally started when Saddam Hussein backed by Western weaponry and gulf financing attacked Iran in order to contain the Ayatollah Islamic Revolution from spreading to the Arab world. Known to many as a Sunni-Shia war, this war was heavily supported by the West who hated Khomeini, as well as taking the blessings of the Gulf who have always viewed Iran as their enemy for being a Shitte country. This war continued for 10 years and ended in a stalemate with no clear winner.
  • The First Gulf War

    The First Gulf War
    Iran-Iraq war aftermath had essentially caused this war, since Kuwait refused to forgive Iraq of its war debts, and therefore pumped oil from the neutral zone to retrieve their money. This enraged the Iraqis who subsequently annexed Kuwait. The U.S gave Iraq an ultimatum to get out of Iraq or else they will attack Iraqi forces, but Iraq declined and consequently was attacked the U.S which formed a coalition of international forces and librated Kuwait.
  • The Soviet Union fall

    The Soviet Union fall
    The Soviet Union collapsed due to many reason. The primary reason was economic crises, while the second reason was the velvet revolution which was a protest in Prague against Communism. Finally, it was the failed invasion in Afghanistan that weakend the Soviets considerably as islamic guirallas inflicted heavy damage upon them. With the Soviets falling, the U.S solely influnced the Middle East with no other competitor to limit its power.