The Middle East igcse

  • McMahon-Hussein Agreement

    McMahon-Hussein Agreement and what did it promise?
    1915 with arabs , agreement to defeat the ottoman empire [allies to germany] , in return the support for arab independence , arabs did their part and 1918 ottoman empire fell . unknown british troops decided to stay in palestine
  • Sykes-Picot Agreement

    Sykes-Picot Agreement and what did it propose?
    1916 with france - made to protect access to oil supplies and control of the suez canals
    they secretly decided to split the ottoman empire between themselves , palestine in international control
  • The Balfour declaration

    A letter from the British Foreign Secretary
    - That the British government would help to build this homeland.
    That the British, despite wanting to help the Zionist cause, had no plans to alienate any non- Jews in the region.
  • The Balfour declaration effect

    Jewish immigration increases at the promise of a holy land.
    Directly comes into conflict with McMahon letter of Oct 15th (British declaring support for Arab right to autonomy) and also with the Sykes-Picot agreement (made in 1915, became public in 1917) which further backed the idea of an Arab State in Palestine. The British government had now committed itself to two separate policies.
  • Jewish immigration

    Immediately following the end of the first world war more than 10,000 Jewish immigrants (mainly due to the BD) arrived in Palestine. Between 1918-1920. Because of this, the Palestinians asked the British to help them to set up and Arab state before even more Jews arrived. The British refused. This marked the point at which the Arabs started to rebel against the British (due to feelings of resentment) and become more violent towards the Jewish
  • May Day 1921

    May day - 2 rival jewish political parties created a rumour that jews attacking arabs , agreed palestinians living in jaffa who attacked locals properties 47 jews 48 arabs dead
  • Jewish population in Palestine

  • The mandate

    How did the Palestinian Arabs react to the Mandate?
    Furious , not consulted from ottoman rule to british rule
    8. How did the Jews react to the Mandate?
    It enabled zionist dream
  • Period: to

    British Mandate in Palestine

  • August 1929

    clashes in Jerusalem 4 days of bloody riots , 133 jews and 116 Arabs dead . jews angered that the British had not helped so formed a group irgun a terrorist organisation dedicated to zionism if violence was necessary
  • Jewish population in Palestine

  • Arab Strike, 1936.

    Seven years later , Syrian Arabs won rights for striking , and Palestinians decided to use the same tactic . protesting to end jewish immigration , land sales and have a national government for themselves , refusing to work or pay taxes . roads, railways , oil pipes attacked .
    The British reaction was harsh , leaders arrested , rebels flogged , .
    6 months 20,000 British troops took control in October 1936 at Britain's request , neighbouring Arab states got involved and called for peace .
  • The Peel Commission 1936-1937

    End the mandate and partition the country between the two , a small part under British control , all immigration to what would be called Arab territory to end Jews - disliked them but accepted idea
    Palestiniens rejected idea completely , giving land to the jews was unjust , most fertile lands given to jews
  • Period: to

    the Arab Revolt

    Reaction to peele's proposal, increased attacks against british troops and jews . helped by 15000 men from hagnah 50000 british troops used dreadful tactics
    ● Rebels trousers were destroyed
    ● Curfews put in place
    ● Arabs arrested held without trial
    ● Ppl beaten and tortured
    ● Villages occupied
    ● Arabs tied arab hostages to bonnets of lorries
    1939 revolt ended 250 british troops , 300 jews killed 5000 palestinians 15000 wounded Arab population killed , wounded, exiled .
  • Feelings for arabs

    1. Why did Britain’s attitude towards the Palestinian Arabs become positive in 1939?
    They needed oil from the Arabs so had to be nice , peele plan was shelved , limited amount of Jewish immigrants
    2. How did British policy towards the Arabs change? Give details of what the British did in 1939. peele plan was shelved , limited amount of Jewish immigrants
  • Lehi created

    Wage campaign Of violence against British troops
  • the Labour Party were elected to government in Britain i

  • Jewish immigration

    Set a strict limit of Jewish immigration, 1,500 per month into Palestine
    - he believed that a flood of Jewish immigrants would result in a civil war between the Jews and the Arabs in Palestine
    - Britain needed to be on good terms with the Arab states due to the oil demand
  • Period: to

    Jewish insurgency 1945-47.

    Oct 1945 - Zionist groups worked together to blow up Palestinian railways , ingenuity and lehi campaigned
    with violence, blew up offices , police stations, oil pipes , bridges, radio stations. 1946 73 British troops killed
    Dec 1946 2 terrorists sentenced to 18 years and 18 whips , in retaliation menachem began , leader of Irgun kidnapped 4 British soldiers and beat them with 18 strokes each
  • Period: to

    Impact of Jewish insurgency on USA

    Lots of sympathy in USA
    5 million Jews in 1945 in USA
    1945 - 46$ million raised to Zionist cause
    Us press printed articles that encouraged Jewish terrorism
    Truman sympathized admitted 150000 Jewish refugees immediately after war
    Truman repeatedly asked Britain to allow 1 hundred thousand refugees in to Palestine. Ernest Bevin refused , saying it would cause revolt , USA applied economic pressure. They could not afford this . This was most of pressure that lead for them to give up mandate
  • SS Exodus

    Irgun and lehi campaign with terror
    Hagnah- smuggling Jews into Palestine , breaking through the British blockade Failure few got through , but for Zionist publicity success.
    When British turned ships away Jewish sympathy increased
  • King David hotel bombing

    Why was the King David Hotel important to Britain?
    It contained the headquarters of the mandate administration and the British army lorry drove up to the tradesman’s entrance of the hotel . Irgun disguised as Arabs entered building with milk containing explosives , killed 91 people , 41 Arabs , 28 Britons , 17 Jews , most were civilians
  • Britain hand the problem over to the United Nations in 1947

    British position in Palestine impossible
    Could not agree with Jew to anger Arabs . It could not stop Jewish terrorism No money
    Too much negative publicity
    USA pressure
    Asked in to come up with a solution
  • Unscop and partition plan

    United Nations special committee on Palestine
    Delegates came from 11 nations representing every continent, they toured Palestine . Met with British representatives and Jewish leaders. Warmly welcomed by Jews . Arabs boycotted unsop so did not get Arab views - no right to be there
    Warmly welcomed by Jews . Arabs boycotted unsop so did not get Arab views - no right to be there
  • Reactions to US partition plan

    British said the plan would lead to war , Arabs find it unacceptable.
    Public demanding a withdrawal, expensive .
    Kidnapping and execution of two British sergeants by the Irgun, British public outraged
    Completely rejected the plan , in had no right to take away their land , plan was not fair Gave 1⁄3 of population 1⁄2 of state
    Given Jews most fertile bits of land
    Accepted plan reluctantly .
    They wanted Jerusalem to be their capital
  • UN Resolution 181

    Why did many countries vote with the USA in favour of the Partition Plan in the General Assembly? Link to the Cold War topic to help develop your answer.
    33 nations
    European states follow us as world power USA put pressure on smaller state
    Why did USSR vote in favour of the Plan?
    In hopes So new Jewish state would be an ally in the Cold War Many many Jewish organisations left wing
    result of the vote in the General Assembly? 33 nations for - 13 against - 10 abstained I.e it passed
  • Period: to

    The Civil War in Palestine, December 1947-May 1948

  • Plan D

    introduced by haganah
    Debated- ‘Defensive/offensive plan ‘ secure future of Israel , taking control of all Arab town inhabitants would be under military control, if they resisted they would be expelled
    Ethnic cleansing operation in Palestine
  • Phase 1: May-June 1948

    In the first 3 weeks of the war, Israel struggle for survival.
    Only one in three of its troops had weapons, and it had only five field guns. The Arab forces had152. For a time, it appeared that the new country might be cut in two.
    ● The Arab Legion, the army of Transjordan, occupied the West Bank and captured east Jerusalem ● Iraqi forces invaded the north.
    ● Egyptians attacked from the south.
  • Phase 2: July 1948

    Two days before the truce ended, Israeli forces went on the offensive.
    ● Surprise was their main weapon.
    ● Following intensive fighting around Tel Aviv, Israeli troops occupied the Arab towns of Lydda and
    Ramleh, and expelled the Arab populations of these towns.
    ● The USSR also helped(both sides) while USA only helped the Jews
    11. How long was the second truce supposed to last?
    ● A second truce was arranged by the UN. This one lasted for 3 months.
  • Phase 3: October 1948-July 1949

    Israel broke the truce early, this time to gain land before an eventual peace settlement.
    Israeli forces captured Galilee from the Lebanese and then retook the Desert, pushing the Egyptian forces back into the Sinai Desert. the dates for the armistice signed between Israel and the 5 Arab nations.
    ● The war then moved slowly to a close when armistice agreements were signed with Egypt (February 1949), Lebanon (March1949), Transjordan (April+1949) and Syria (July1949). Only Iraq refused to sign one
  • Period: to

    The First Arab-Israeli War,

  • Deir Yassin

    9 April 1948 100 Irgun+ lehi fighters massacred 120 of it own inhabita`Nat Menachem begin led the attack and claimed that the action was justified on military grounds as Arab fighters were using the village as a base What was the effect of the Deir Yassin ‘massacre’ on Palestinians?Arab radio stations broadcasted the details
    Arab fighters ambushed groups of lorries containing Jewish nurses and doctors killing 70 People panicked that this awaited for them 250,000 Palestinians abandoned towns
  • Israel created

    Which major countries recognized the new state of Israel?
    USA and USSR
    3. Which nations did not recognize the new state of Israel?
    Egypt, Syria, Transjordan, Lebanon and Iraq
    4. When did the British leave Palestine? I
    Saturday 15 May 1948
    5. Which 5 countries immediately invaded Israel?
    Egypt, Syria, Transjordan, Lebanon and Iraq
  • Un intervened

    Then, on 11 June, the United Nations intervened. Its negotiator, Count Bernadotte, managed to arrange a month's truce. Without this truce, Israel might not have survived.
  • How did Israel win

    The Arab states did not send their entire armies to the war. Over-confident, The Israelis were also much more experienced as fighters 3 The first truce called by the UN was absolutely crucial to Israel's survival. 4 Israeli tactics were more effective.
  • king of Egypt forced to abdicate

    Egypt's defeat by Israel in the 1948-49 war triggered Farouk's removal
    ● He was personally blamed for his troops' lack of preparation and faulty weapons.
    ● In 1952, the 32-year-old king was forced to abdicate by a group of disillusioned army officers.
  • Nasser took over

    3 aims
    ● Complete independence
    ● Prosperity
    ● Pride
  • Aswan dam

    He also aimed to dam the River Nile at Aswan in order to control the Nile's annual floods, and to provide hydroelectric power and water for irrigation
    USA were keen for any ally against the USSR, and so they opened talks about the loan.
    October 1955, the USA and Britain offered to loan Egypt $270 million for the Aswan Dam.
    ● They hoped to win Egypt back from an alliance with the USSR. But that failed to happen and, in July
    1956, the USA and Britain suddenly took back their offer.
  • USA refused to send Nasser weapons

    They refused because they thought he would use the weapons against Israel.
    ● Nasser's broadcasts on Cairo Radio were heard by millions of Arabs.
    ● He wanted all Arab states to be proudly independent and neutral in the Cold War.
    ● He soon became the champion of Arab nationalism.
    ● But, if Egypt was going to lead and defend a united Arab world, Nasser would need to purchase
    modern weapons.
  • Israel attack on gaza

    Israel was not a priority for Nasser and he had made an effort to keep the border quiet,
    Feared a united Arab front led by Nasser, and the development of close ties between the USA and Egypt.
    ● If he could expose Nasser as weak,
    ● If he could push Nasser into askingthe USSR for help, it would damage
    ● US-Egyptian relations. Ben-Gurion may also have wanted to provoke an Egyptian response in order
    to justify Israel's high military expenditure in a time of economic difficulty.
  • egypt secret arms deal with Czechoslovakia

    , a Soviet ally. In return for $300 million of Egyptian cotton
    ● Egypt was rearmed with massive Soviet firepower: 100 self-propelled guns, 200 armoured personnel carriers, 300 tanks, 200 MIG-15 fighters and 50 bombers.
  • Why did Nasser make this arms deal public?

    In August 1955, a Fedayeen raid killed 11 Israelis; the IDF reprisal attack on Gaza left 72 Egyptian soldiers dead. ● In response, Nasser made public the Czechoslovakian arms deal
    ● He also imposed a complete blockade on all trade through the Straits of Tiran.
    ● His popularity in Egypt had never been higher: he was standing up to Israel.
  • Closing the straits of tiran effect on Israel

    Israel decided war against Egypt was inevitable and it would be better to fight sooner rather than wait until Nasser's new Soviet weapons had arrived.
    ● In November 1955, an IDF attack on Gaza killed 50 Egyptian soldiers,
    ● In April 1956, an Israeli mortar attack on Gaza caused 58 civilian deaths.
  • Suez Crisis in 1956.

    On 29 October 1956, Israel invaded Egypt, occupied Gaza and dropped paratroopers into Sinai, near the Suez Canal.
    As predicted, Nasser refused, So, in early November, Britain and France Launched an airborne
    attack, defeating Egyptian forces and advancing towardsthe Suez Canal.
    Israel gained security and trade ability
    Britain and France the crisis was humiliating
    USSR now firm ally
    Egypt had full control over canal
  • Nasser nationalizes the Suez Canal

    He nationalised the Suez Canal. because he thought it would compensate the shareholders and use the toll money from the Canal to build the Aswan Dam.
  • Serves agreement

    the head of the IDF, flew toFrance on 22 October 1956
    Israel would attack Egypt; Britain and France could then invade Egypt, while pretending to keep the peace.
    ● If the plan succeeded, Israel's security and ability to trade would be assured, while Britain and France would regain control of the Suez Canal.
    All three hoped to overthrow Nasser.
  • Fatah founded

    Fatah means ‘victory’ and was founded in 1959 by Yasser Arafat.
    He believed that the state of Israel had no right to exist and should be replaced by one state, Palestine, in which Jews and Arabs lived together.
    Arafat also believed that Palestinians had to stop waiting for the Arab states to solve their problems.
    He felt like only an armed struggle by Palestinians would destroy Israel. He was prepared to use violent tactics to achieve this.
  • Headwater Diversion Plan

    The Headwater diversion plan proposed using Egyptian and Saudi money to make Syria and Lebanon divert two of the three sources of the River Jordan to prevent them from flowing into the Sea of Galilee.
    The aim was to stop Israel channeling fresh water (a massive war crime)
    If the plan didn’t work Arab states would prepare for war to destroy Israel.
  • The Cairo Conference 1964

    Nasser did this as after the 1956 Suez Crisis he enjoyed his reputation as the leader of the Arab World.
    However the United Arab Republic idea had not worked and Syria pulled out of the alliance in 1961.
  • Set up of PLO and PLA

    to unite and lead all Palestinians in the struggle to regain their lost land.
    It was to be responsible for the welfare of Palestinians in refugee camps in Syria, Lebanon and Jordan.
    5. What was the PLA?
    The PLO also set up a Palestinian Liberation Army (PLA), so that Palestinians could join an army of their own.
    ● As Nasser had hoped, his leadership of the Arab world was confirmed. He had also proved he was clearly anti-Israeli without having to go to war.
  • Consequences of 6 day war

    Nasser was humiliated
    Sinai and Gaza taken.
    The Suez Canal was unusable.- Because Egypt refused to let Israel use the canal Nasser tried to force them to move away from the canal. With Soviet aid, within a year, Egyptian forces were regularly bombarding and raiding Israeli positions on the Sinai side of the Suez Canal. An Israeli warship was sunk. The Israelis retaliated fiercely Egyptian towns raided and bombed Egyptian cities and oil refineries which badly affected the Egyptian economy.
  • United Nations Resolution 242

    It attempted to settle the Arab-Israeli conflict with a 'Land for Peace' solution, and both the USA and the USSR voted in favour of it. Resolution 242 stated:
    ● Israel must withdraw from 'territories occupied in the recent conflict'
    ● in return, Arab states must recognise Israel's right to exist
    ● there should be a 'just settlement of the refugee problem'.
    Palestians rejected it - refugee problem was insulting
  • Life after 6 day war

    300,000 Palestinians fled
    Baqa’a . 26,000 refugees living there . Basic living in only 5,000 tents in an area of 1.5 km2 Unsanitary conditions . They were not allowed to become citizens . The Arab states believed that because Israel unhooked them they should revoke them
  • Khartoum Conference 1967

    At the conference, the Arab states, including Egypt, Jordan and Syria, publicly rejected Israel's right to exist and responded with what became known as the 'Three Nos': no peace with Israel, no recognition of Israel, no negotiations with Israel.
    Nasser said he would accept Resolution 242, but Israel had to pull out of all the territories it had occupied first. Until then he followed the 'Three Nos' and that meant no peace.
    no peace with Israel, no recognition of Israel, no negotiations.
  • PFLP formed

    Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), believed that terrorist action outside of Israel was the key. This would draw global attention to the Palestinians and force foreign governments to do something about the problem. Funded by communist countries like china
  • Period: to

    The six day war

    5 June 1967 at 4 am operation focus
    By 11 am it had destroyed 309 ( out of 340) Egyptian air crafts
    All 19 of egypts air bases had been bombed
    The IDF turned its attention north. By 9 June, the Golan Heights had been captured and IDF forces had moved nearly 50 km into Syria itself. Gaffes - al-Assad
    pre-emptive strike a surprise attack attack based on the belief that the enemy is about to attack you and that the only way to defend yourself is to attack first
    Causes Nasser dislike for Israel
  • Fatah carry out 38 attacks on Israel in 1968

  • Battle of Karameh

    Fatal mine blew up a school bus , Israel decided to destroy karameh , crossing Jordan . It sent 15,000 troops and faced strong resistance from fatah guerrillas . What started as a rais was now a 15h battle .
    Israel won however it lost 30 soldiers, 27 tanks and 2 aircraft . It was worldwidly condemned for use of large force
  • War of attrition

    ● Over 1.5 million Egyptians had fled their homes
    ● About 1,000 Israelis had been killed.
    ● Both sides were calling in superpower aid.
    ● The USSR provided Egypt with 100 fighter planes and also gave them SAM-3 (surface-to-air) anti-
    aircraft missiles to defend the Aswan Dam, while 20,000 soviet troops arrived to build 80 missile
    ● Sam-3 missiles meant that Israel’s air force could no longer fly over Egyptian soil
    ● The USA supported Israel with weapons and aid
  • PFLP aeroplane hijacks: Dawson’s Field, 1970

    In September 1970, Habash masterminded his most famous action. The PFLP hijacked four planes and flew three of them to Dawson's Field, a remote desert airstrip in Jordan. The 310 passengers were allowed to disembark. Most were released, but 56 Jews were separated out, to be kept as hostages until Israel freed four PFLP prisoners (which they eventually did). Then, as the invited world's press watched, the PFLP blew up the planes
  • Black September

    He ordered his army to seize control of Palestinian bases, whatever the resistance. Over 10 days - known as 'Black September' to Palestinians - Jordanian troops killed nearly 2,000 Palestinian fighters. There was some respite when Nasser negotiated a truce, but hostilities resumed when Nasser suddenly died of a heart attack in 1970.
  • Nasser suddenly died of a heart attack in 1970

  • Massacre at the Munich Olympics, 1972

    At 4.30 a.m. on 5 September, eight armed members of Black September entered the Olympic Village. Two Israeli athletes were shot dead; a further nine were taken hostage. Black September then demanded the immediate release by Israel of 234 Palestinian prisoners. at the airport an attempt was made by West German police to free the hostages. In the gun battle, all nine athletes and five of the terrorists were killed. The three surviving terrorists were taken prisoner
  • Impact of Yom Kippur war on Israel

    victory for Israel.
    . It gained land in both Syria and Egypt,
    and the brilliance of its armed forces was confirmed.
    But victory came at a price: 9,500 soldiers had been wounded or killed.
    Israel had also suffered a blow to its confidence. Israel had survived and won, partly becaus of US support, and partly because of Egyptian and Syrian tactical errors. Israelis blamed their government for not being ready for an attack.
    , Golda Meir and Moshe Dayan both resigned.
  • Impact of Yom Kippur war on egypt

    Egypt suffered 30,000 casualties
    , its SAM-3 missile sites had been destroyed
    lost huge numbers of tanks and aeroplanes.
    The Suez Canal was still unusable.
    Canal itself was full of debris from the war.
    However, Egypt gained a lot from the war.
    Overrunning the Bar Lev Line was a brilliant military achievement, and its Sagger and SAM missiles had done a lot of damage. Egypt could argue that it had only lost because Israel had US support.
  • Impact of Yom Kippur war on USA

    the USA to the need for peace the Middle East.
    The quarrel between Israel could have led to the USA and the USSR going to war with each other.
    the USA could not ignore the fact that it relied on Arab states for oil. What would happen if they refused to supply oil? (People called this 'the oil weapon'.) So, the USA had to rethink its support for Israel. Peace was more important and the USA had the power to force Israel to negotiate with Sadat.
  • the USA’s attitude towards the Middle East change as a result of the oil weapon

    The USA was badly hit by the oil crisis.
    it had to buy from the Middle East to meet its industries' needs. It’s economy was failing
    the USA had to make peace between Israel and its Arab neighbours , then OPEC might relax its oil restrictions .
    another good reason for peace: the Yom Kippur War had almost brought the superpowers into a confrontation.
  • Period: to

    Yom Kippur war

    • On 6 October, the Egyptian air force attacked the Israeli defence line on the Suez Canal
    • The USA sent Israel huge quantities of arms and the USSR did the same for Egypt and Syria.
    • 15-17 October The Israelis won a huge tank battle
    • In the Golan Heights, 500 Syrian tanks attacked the Israeli defenses
  • The oil weapon

    One reason why the 1973 Yom Kippur War ended was because OPEC used its 'oil weapon'. OPEC refused to sell any oil to the USA,
    ● . This quadrupled the price of oil,
    ● an enormous impact because oil is used in the production of many things.
    ● OPEC countries worked together in 1973 shows the strength of their feeling about Israel's advance
    into Egypt.
    ● The restrictions on oil production continued after the end of the Yom Kippur War
    ● By 1974, the world was in major economic crisis,
  • Kissinger’s ‘shuttle diplomacy’ 1974

    Kissinger task to make peace between Israel and Egypt It sort of succeeded . With both states pulling back from the Suez Canal and creating a Demilatrised some and in march 1974 opec recognised kissingers work and started to sell oil to the USA so in terms of profit and industry yes it was a good plan
  • Arafat’s speech to the UN 1974

    People were afraid of Palestinian terrorism and due to the tension
    It was with the head of the PLO because the Palestinians did not have an official leader
    The USA and Israel strongly objected however . Arafat gave his speech and got the PLO an observer status in the un . They could not vote but they could speak .
    His states he can not be called a terrorist for fighting for the freedom of his land so he holds an olive branch in one and a freedom fighters gun in another.
  • the Suez Canal reopened

  • Sadat and Begin exchange visits 1977

    The new Israeli prime minister begin . Sadat in November 1977 for ten days to the knesset the Israeli government
    Willing So that the idf could focus on the PLO threat coming from Lebanon
  • The Camp David Accords 1978

    President carter invited Sadat and begin to continue peace talks . It was private neither side could leave because access was by helicopters
  • Framework for an Egyptian-Israeli Peace deal

    Egypt & Israel would be at peace.
    • Israel would leave the Sinai within 3 years.
    • Egypt would allow Israel to use the Suez Canal & Straits of Tiran.
    • Egypt would receive $1 billion a year for 10 years from the USA.
    • Israel would receive a $3 billion loan from the USA to help pay for the expenses of dismantling its bases in Sinai.
  • Framework for peace in the Middle East deal

    • Israel accepted the legitimate rights of the Palestinians.
    • Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza could elect a council to govern themselves for 5 years.
    • At the end of 5 years, a final decision about how these areas would be ruled would be made by Israel, Egypt, Jordan and the Palestinians themselves.
    No bad deal , Palestinians did not get granted in un they did not get there land back and there was no money for reparations for USA sending people to their land then killing them
  • Coastal Road Massacre 1978.

    On 11 March 1978, 13 PLO militants, all members of Fatah, decided to seize a seaside hotel in Tel Aviv. to take the tourists as hostages to exchange for Palestinians held prisoner Israel,. to a main road, hijacked a bus, and shot at passing cars as they drove to Tel Aviv. An Israeli police block finally stopped the bus. In the shootout that followed, 38 Israeli civilians, It was the single deadliest terrorist attack on Israeli soil. Nine of the PLO militants were killed.
  • Operation Litani 1978.

    Israel's response to the Coastal Road Massacre was swift. On 15 March 1978, it launched Operation Litani and 26,000 troops invaded Lebanon. The aim was to take control of south Lebanon, to destroy PLO bases there and create a buffer zone that would protect northern Israel from PLO attacks. About 1,100 Palestinians and Lebanese died during Operation Litani, including 75 in a mosque that was destroyed by an airstrike. Most of those who died were innocent civilians
  • The Treaty of Washington, March 1979

    Palestinian issue was not even mentioned. For that reason, Arab states and Palestinians strongly condemned the Washington Treaty, just as they had the Camp David Accords. As far as they were concerned Sadat had betrayed his own side.
  • War with Lebanon 1982

    PLO based in Lebanon
    It was divided by religion and politics
    government . PLO acted like it owed south Lebanon it became known as Fatahland
    Start in 1975 and 70,000 people died
  • Israel invaded Lebanon

    On 2 June 1982, Israel got the excuse it needed to act when three Palestinians attempted to assassinate the Israeli Ambassador in London. The fact that the three assassins were not members of the PLO, and in fact were bitterly opposed to it, was ignored. On 6 June, Israel launched Operation Peace for Galilee. With a massive force of 70,000 troops, 800 tanks and 350 fighter jets, it invaded Lebanon. For 2 months, Beirut was bombarded and food, water cut off

    Israeli Defence Minister, Ariel Sharon, was not satisfied.
    He announced that 2,000 PLO terrorists remained in the refugee camps . Two weeks after the PLO had been evacuated from Beirut, Israeli forces surrounded the two camps of Sabra and Shatila. They prevented anyone from leaving the camps, and then allowed in Christian Phalange forces to find any remaining PLO fighters. 3,500 civilians died
  • Israel’s ‘Iron Fist’ policy.

    Reservists were called up and security was increased.
    Large numbers of schools were closed down, and curfews and censorship were put in place. Thousands were arrested, while suspected ringleaders were detained and their homes were
    bulldozed or blown up.
    The arms and fingers of child stone throwers were broken.
    Hostile crowds were dispersed with tear gas, rubber bullets and, sometimes, live ammunition.
  • Causes of first intifada

    Occupied territories
    December 1987 idf truck crushed into two van containing Palestinian workers
  • Period: to

    The First Palestinian Intifada, 1987-93

    In December 1987 an Israeli market trader in Gaza was stabbed to death.
    The following day, an IDF truck crashed into two vans carrying Palestinians home from work, killing four of them and wounding seven. Within 2 weeks, the rioting had spread to the West Bank. A massive uprising, the Intifada, had started; it lasted for 5 years. First 6 months IDF reported 42,000 acts of hostility Previously 3,000 a year
  • King Hussein of Jordan renounce (give up) his claim to the West Bank

  • Arafat Renounces Terrorism

    The PLO now recognised the existence of Israel and adopted a two-state solution- one state for an independent Israel and one state for an independent Palestine, which would have Jerusalem as its capital.
    5. What change of policy did Arafat and the PLO announce in December 1988?
    He called for the withdrawal of Israel from all the occupied territories and asked Israel to join him in negotiations.
  • King hussein renounced Jordan’s claims to the West Bank

    Arafat could propose the West Bank as tThe heart of Palestine
  • Arafat speech in UN

    Aided by USA . Renounces terrorism
    Interest in peace deal
    Asks Israel to join him in negotiations
  • Impact of Arafat speech

    Positive :
    The USA agreed to open negotiations with the PLO
    The USA put pressure on Israel to negotiate with the PLO Negative :
    For Israel the PLO were still terrorists and they did not want to negotiate , two state solution to them unacceptable Arafats peace initiative was rejected by hamas and jihad .
  • Period: to

    Changing superpower policies in the Middle East

  • Impact of the end of the Cold War

    PLO lost main weapon supplier
    Weakened Arafat he needed peace solutions
    More Jewish immigrants from the USSR to Israel bad for economy Israel affected :
    USA now the only superpower so no longer needed Israel
    The USA put pressure on Israel to negotiate with the PLO
  • The Impact of the End of the Cold War

    PLO lost main source of finance and arms
    During Cold War it had been the usas only ally in Middle East . Now usa only superpower it didn’t need Israel
    The usa could now put pressure on Israel to negóciate with the plo . Israel needed financial aid because of immigration
  • Iraq invaded Kuwait

    Iraq invaded and occupied the tiny oil-rich state of Kuwait. The invasion was condemned by the world.
    In January 1991, a UN- approved, US-led coalition of 34 countries launched Operation Desert Storm and expelled the Iraqis from Kuwait.
  • Period: to

    The gulf war

    First time Middle East states cooperated with USA
    - USA no longer completely hostil
    - Strong position to act as peace negotiator
    During the Gulf War, Saddam Hussein fired missiles on Israel, hoping that Israel would retaliate
    the reputation of Yasser Arafat was severely damaged
    He made the serious error of supporting Saddam Hussein, who had always openly backed the PLO cause, and Saudi Arabia and Kuwait were furious.
    They withdrew their financial support from the PLO
  • Peace Talks

    Israel refused to talk with any Palestinians who lived outside the West Bank and Gaza. That excluded Yasser Arafat and the PLO leadership based in Tunis.
  • The impact of the gulf war

    In 1990 when Iraq invaded Kuwait that was oil rich . It was condemned by the world
    Us lead coalition called operation dessert storm and expelled the Iraqis
    1st time USA and Middle East work together , US no longer completely hostile Israel reputation improved during war hussien fired missliles at Israel . No retaliation was appreciated Arafat reputation damaged , he supported hussein who had backed the plo , Palestinians were expelled from Kuwait
  • Peace talk in Madrid

    The USA and the USS sponsored a peace conference in Madrid in November 1991. Because of the Gulf War, Middle East states like Saudi Arabia supported the conference. Israel, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and the Palestinians were all invited to attend. They failed Israel refused to talk to any Palestinians outside of Gaza an West Bank
  • New Israeli government

    In June 1992, a new Israeli government led by Yitzhak Rabin took power. Rabin was prepared to compromise with the PLO if it meant ending the Intifada.
  • Arafat died

    April 1992, Arafat survived an aeroplane crash in the deserts of Libya. A sandstorm was responsible and for 12 hours people thought he was dead. His survival was greeted with relief by ordinary Palestinians: the crash restored Arafat's image as the leader of the Palestinian cause.
  • new Israeli government led by Yitzhak Rabin took power.

    In June 1992, a new Israeli government led by Yitzhak Rabin took power. Rabin was prepared to compromise with the PLO if it meant ending the Intifada
  • Arafat plane crash

    In April 1992, Arafat survived an aeroplane crash in the deserts of Libya. A sandstorm was responsible and for 12 hours people thought he was dead.
    His survival was greeted with relief by ordinary Palestinians: the crash restored Arafat's image as the leader of the Palestinian cause.

    1,200 Palestinians were killed by Israelis, a quarter of them under the age of 16; 120,000 Palestinians were wounded (including 27,000 children).
    ● Another 882 Palestinians accused of working with the Israelis were killed by other Palestinians.
    ● Ordinary life became more difficult than ever as schools were closed for long periods, use of water
    was restricted, curfews put in place, and houses were knocked down without warning.

    160 Israelis died (100 were civilians).
    Israel's economy suffered: security costs increased greatly; closed borders and Palestinian boycotts damaged businesses; tourism collapsed.
    Israeli society became sharply divided: those on the right wing wanted to use even stronger measures to stop the disorder and to protect Jewish settlers, but many liberal and left-wing Israelis were shocked by the brutality of the IDF and some wanted to negotiate a peace.
  • wider consequences of the First Intifada

    ● Media changed international opinion - Israel’s reputation suffered
    ● Americans shocked by IDFs cruel tactics
    ● Sympathy for Palestinian public
    ● Before intifada PLO ambition to destroy Israel
    ● Now PLO would accept a 2 state solution . Israel exists and Palestinian independence
    ● Forced the Israeli government to consider an alternative to its military occupation of the West Bank
    and Gaza.Attempts to crush the uprising not succeeding
    ● it could not afford to continue with the 'Iron Fist' policy
  • first Hamas suicide bombing

    In April 1993, the first Hamas suicide bombing took place in Israel. Hamas was completely unwilling to negotiate with Israel.
  • Oslo peace accords

  • Consequence of the first intifada

    Change in international opinion
    Israeli reputation suffered
    Un condemned iron fist policy
    Before plo wanted Israel destroyed now PLO proposed a two state solution
    After 5 years Israel forced to consider other things than occupation of Gaza and West Bank
    Iron fist policy too expensive
  • Consequences of intifada / attempts for peace Arafat renounces terrorism

    Arafat renounces terrorism
    His leadership was being over shadowed
    By hamas - set up after infitada militant group . - aim - to destroy Israel
    And Islamic jihad - militant group similar to Hamas
    Destroying Israel was almost unachievable
  • First Hamas suicidal bombing

    In April 1993, the first Hamas suicide bombing took place in Israel. Hamas was completely unwilling to negotiate with Israel. It saw the Palestinian struggle as a holy war to be fought by any means possible. Compared with Hamas, Rabin could see that Arafat was a moderate who could be negotiated with.
  • Oslo peace accords

    Israel accepted the PLO
    • The PLO renounced violence and accepted Israel's right
    • agreed that a Palestinian National Authority (PA) should be set up; run by the PLO at first but, eventually members would be democratically elected by Palestinians living in the West Bank and Gaza.
    • next 5 years, Israeli forces withdraw from parts of the West Bank, and transfer responsibility for governing these parts to the PNA.
    • A permanent peace treaty would then be signed at the end of the five-year period.
  • Impact of Oslo peace accords

    breakthrough. There was a real sense of optimism that this time there could be peace. Each side would gain. Palestinians would get land and an opportunity to rebuild their economy, while Israel would get peace and security from terrorist attacks. In September 1993, Rabin and Arafat met in Washington to sign the Accords. The following year, they were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts to create peace in the Middle
  • Reactions to Oslo II

    Palestinians believed too much land was going to Israelis with most of the natural resources
    The PFLP , Hamas and Islamic jiihad refused to accept it Some Israelis excited by peace prospect
    However some did not want to give up any of bible Israel
    They killed the Israeli president
  • The failure of the Oslo peace accords From Israel POV :

    From Israel POV :
    Meant to provide security
    Arafat could not stop terrorist attacks ,they felt he had not fulfilled his side
    It took measures to stop movements
    They put in road blocks
    Continued expanding in area c
  • The failure of the Oslo accords from the Palestinian pov

    They were meant to provide land for Palestinians and a chance to rebuild their economy
    Oslo II only gave them control of 3% of the West Bank
    Movement was difficult because of Israeli road blocks
  • Netanyahus opposition to Oslo

    When Rabin killed there was a new. Election but hamas suicide bombing disrupted
    Netanyahu voted in very right wing anti Oslo
    He did not outright reject as fear from losing USA
    He destroyed the Oslo agreements
  • Oslo II

    Vague abt parts that would come under pna control
    Area A was controlled totally by the PNA. No Israelis were allowed to enter Area A. The PNA would prevent terrorist attacks on Israel from this area.
    • Area B was under joint Palestinian and Israeli There were no Israeli settlements in Area B. Israeli forces would be gradually withdrawn once security issues had been resolved.
    Area C was the rest of the West Bank. It was controlled totally by Israel.
  • Oslo peace records

    Moderate Palestinians who had been optimistic in 1993 now objected to the fact that so much of the West Bank was still going to be in Israeli hands.
    Area c had natural resources On the other side, many Israelis were delighted by the prospect of peace.
    However, Israeli settlers strongly objected to giving up any part of 'Biblical Israel' at all. They saw Rabin as a traitor. Two months after Oslo II was signed, he was assassinated by an Israeli-Jewish religious extremist called Yigal Amir.
  • Rabin killed

    Two months after Oslo II was signed, he was assassinated by an Israeli-Jewish religious extremist called Yigal Amir.
    Rabin's death stunned the Israeli public and hundreds of thousands gathered to light candles in his memory. Rabin's funeral was attended by many world leaders, including President Clinton of the USA, King Hussein of Jordan and President Mubarak of Egypt.
  • The second intifada the start

    Ariel Sharon head of an Israeli opposition party
    Went to Temple Mount in Jerusalem surrounded by police and claimed that the heart of Jerusalem is Israeli this was illegal in Palestinians eyes
    Protests begun
    The 2nd was far more violent Thant the 1st
    Not rocks but grenades were now thrown
  • Factors that sparked greater violence

    Anger -
    Palestinians angry lack of progress of Israel
    Israels support for new settlers
    Inspiration -
    Many believed the guerrilla campaign had forced Israel out of Lebanon in 2000
    They hoped to achieve the same
    Arafats weakness -
    He did not control the jiihad and h as
    Violent suppression of riots from Israelis
    Jihadism -
    Following 9/11 new wave of radical Islamism
    Many Palestinians inspired by bin laden saw israel as evil
    Iran funded jihad
  • Ariel Sharon elected as Israeli president

  • Sharons response to 2nd intifada

    He ordered operation defensive shield , Israeli military re occupied 6 Palestinian cities
    For two months strict curfews
    15000 ppl arrested
    500 killed 1,500 injured
    IDF laid siege on arafats compound , bombed . Sharon saw Arafat as corrupt
    In June 2002 Sharon ordered massive wall construction \
    Terrorist attacks fell however so many more casualties
    Wall cut deeply into Palestinian land
  • Road map to peace

    2003 Sharon met with bush , Abbas (appointed by Arafat as Sharon would not speak to him )
    Phase 1 -
    Palestinians end all violence
    Israel to freeze all settlement building and pull out from any built since 2000
    Phase 2 -
    Fully democratic Palestinian state set up
    Phase 3 -
    Discussions for jerulselms status and Palestinian refugees right to return
  • Meeting of Sharon and Abbas

    Resume talk for roadmap
    Cease fire USA promise 50 million in aid
  • Arafat death

    After living in poor standards
    Mahmoud Abbas elected as president of PNA
  • 2nd intifada officially over

  • Impact of 2nd intifada on Palestinians

    5000 killed
    Economic damage
    5000 homes destroyed homelessness
    Reputation from bombings damaged
    1 good thing was that Sharon ordered Israeli evacuation of Gaza
  • Impact of 2nd intifada on Israelis

    1000 died
    Economic damage
    Negative publicity - Israel’s harsh tactics criticised
    Increased levels of security
  • Road blocks - failure in roadmap for peace

    Sharon had a stroke weakened
    Right wing Israel’s would not with draw Hamas won control of PNA
    They wanted destruction of Israel
    They refused to give up violence
    Sanctions were placed
    Hamas opposed Abbas and his party
    In 2007 fatah attempted to seize control failed and were expelled
  • The Gaza war

    Life for Palestinians in Gaza increasingly worse , Israel’s blockade and sanctions meant no food , fuel etc
    2008 truce between Israelis and Hamas by Egypt
    End 2008 hams announced truce ends
    Israelis launched operation cast lead killing tonnes in Hamas headquarters
    Called ‘massacre of black Saturday ‘
    Conflict lasted 3 weeks
  • Effects of the Gaza war

    4000 homes
    600 factories 24 mosques 8 hospitals destroyed
    1000 Palestinians killed 13 Israelis killed
    Israel lost war propaganda Palestine lost people
    Unnecessary force