Egyptian Revolution Precursors 1952-2013

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    Egyptian Revolution Precursors 1952-2011

  • Revolution of 1952

    Revolution of 1952
    -Military coup executed on July 23,1952 by Gamal Abdel Nasser and Muhammad Naguib forced King Farouk I to abdicate his throne and be exiled from Egypt
    -Col. Nasser seized power from General Naguib by 1954
    -In 1953 Britain agrees to leave the Suez Canal Zone and end its occupation of Egypt (all British troops are gone by 1956)
    Political ambitions included ending british occupation and monarchy, and establishing a republic
    War with imperial powers, France and the United Kingdom, and Israel
  • Repercussions of Revolution

    Repercussions of Revolution
    -Free Officers movement increases alliance with Palestinians.
    -Major military losses, but beneficial politically, Suez Canal in egyptian control for first time since 1875
    -Agrarian and industrial reform in 1960’s until reversed or stopped by President Anwar Sadat in 1970
  • Attempted Assassination of Nasser

    Attempted Assassination of Nasser
    -Muslim Brotherhood attempt assassination of Nasser in ‘54, puts first president, Naguib, under house arrest for associations with Muslim Brotherhood
    Nasser is able to assume executive office and cracks down on Muslim Brotherhood
  • Cold War Tensions

    Cold War Tensions
    -Nasser decides Egypt will remain neutral in Cold War, increases tensions with western powers
    -West withdraws funds off Aswan Dam, Nasser counters by attempting to nationalize Suez Canal -France, UK, and Israel all occupy Sinai Peninsula in order to protest nationalize of the Suez Canal
    -Countries withdraw, causing huge political approval boost for Nasser
  • Nasser becomes President

    Nasser becomes President
    -In ‘56 the public approves a new Constitution and Nasser as president
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    Nasser Presidency

    -Second President of Egypt, serving from ‘56 til death in ‘70 as president, also leader from 54 to 56
    -Nasser introduces far reaching land reforms in 53 to reclaim Egyptian land from British.
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    Pan Arabism and United Arab Republic

    -Through popularity, Nasser promotes pan-Arabism, and from ‘58 to ‘61 forms United Arab Republic with Syria
    -Seeks to unite Middle East as a new power.
  • Modernization

    -Nasser seeks to modernize Egypt in 62 through socialist reforms
    -Modernization controversial for old Muslim traditions
  • Non Aligned Movement

    Non Aligned Movement
    -Nasser introduces in constitution in 64, becomes president of Non Aligned Movement
    -Non Aligned Movement found in 1961
    -Non Aligned Movement: certain states choose not to be aligned with Eastern or Western Bloc during Cold War
    Creators are from India, Indonesia, Egypt, Ghana, Yugoslavia
  • Nasser Second Term Presidency

    Nasser Second Term Presidency
    -1965 Nasser starts second presidency, no other candidates legally allowed to run
    -Easy victory for Nasser, shows corruption for otehr candidates
  • Six Day War

    Six Day War
    -1967 6 Day War begins: Israel campaigns to seize land near Gaza Strip and Sinai Peninsula, Jordan, and Syria
    -Last from June 5, 1967 to June 10, 1967
    -Israel does incredibly well, captures land, high diplomatic tensions
    -Russia filabusters make diplomacy difficult in cold war era
    -Egypt suffers huge losses, Nasser voluntarily resigns
    -people of Egypt love Nasser too much, he is reinstated
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    Nasser Prime Mininster

    -1967-1968 Nasser appoints himself Prime Minister, begins campaign to regain lost land in gaza strip and sinai peninsula
    -Begins immediately after land losses from Six Day War
    -Issues liberal reform, adjusts military power
  • Nasser's Death

    Nasser's Death
    -Right after Arab League Summit
    -Has heart attack
    -5 million mourners in Cairo
  • Sadat's Actions

    Sadat's Actions
    -Sadat slashed the power of the central government, downgraded the (much hated) secret police, and expelled the Soviet military from Egypt
    -During this time he became very popular because he relieved much of the impoverished population who suffered economically from the Six-Day War and the strained relationship with the USSR
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    Anwar Sadat Presidency

    Third President of Egypt (1970-1981)
    -Was a senior member of the Free Officers Movement
    -Close confidant to President Nasser and took power after Nasser’s death on October 15, 1970
    -He was assassinated on October 6, 1981
  • Egypt and Syria's Surprise Attack

    Egypt and Syria's Surprise Attack
    -Known as the October War or the Yom Kippur War
    -Egypt re-occupied the Sinai Peninsula which Israel took control during the Six-Day War
    -Due to US aid to Israel, many of the OPEC nations placed an embargo on the United States and other Western nations which would result in the Energy Crisis of 1973 throughout the US
    The Camp David Accords would almost directly produce the peace treaty in 1979 between Israel and Egypt
  • Sadat Signs Camp David Accords

    Sadat Signs Camp David Accords
    -Sadat met at Camp David with President Jimmy Carter, King Hussein from Jordan, Hafez al-Assad from Syria, and leaders of Israel
    -Met for 13 days in secret before on the final day signing what was official called “A Framework for Peace in the Middle East”
    -They signed a second agreement tilted “A Framework for the Conclusion of a Peace Treaty between Egypt and Israel”
    -This second agreement would lead directly to the peace treaty in 1979 between Israel and Egypt
    -Sadat gets the Nobel Prize
  • Assassination of Anwar Sadat

    Assassination of Anwar Sadat
    -The peace treaty with Israel was the first ever in Middle East
    -Many Islamist and radical Muslims who wanted Islamic Theocracy were outraged by the peace treaty and felt betrayed
    -Anwar Sadat was attending a military parade to honor crossing the Suez Canal and anniversary of the Yom Kippur War with Israel.
    -Four gunmen opened fire onto the crowd and killed ten people including Sadat
    -Following his death, Sufi Abu Taleb briefly took power, until VP Hosni Mubarak was in power in Oct 14, 1981
  • National Democratic Party

    National Democratic Party
    -National democratic party, created by Anwar Sadat, dominates political scene during Mubarak’s reign, parliamentary politics influence weakens.
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    Hosni Mubarak's Presidency

    -Fourth President of Egypt (1981-2011)
    -Mubarak takes power after Sadat was assassinated by Islamist extremists on October 6th, 1981.
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    Islamist Terrorist Attacks

    -1980’s to 2000’s Islamist terrorist attacks frequent target Coptic Christians and tourists.
    -Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya targets intellectuals and tourists, tourism in egypts takes a huge dive, many dependent on tourism now lost.
  • Luxor Massacre

    Luxor Massacre
    -62 person massacre in the city Luxor, mostly tourists and Coptic Christians
    -Attack believe to be created by exiled leaders of Islamist terrorist organization Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya, however they denied it in 2013
  • Mubarak's Reelection

    Mubarak's Reelection
    -Mubarak fixes elections for multiple candidates to run since 1952 but legal restrictions on others allowed for Mubarak’s easy reelection
    -Low voter turnout (<25%)
    -Mubarak imprisons runner up Ayman Nour, govt suspected of interfering with elections
  • Amnestly International proclaims Egypt as Center of Torture

    Amnestly International proclaims Egypt as Center of Torture
    -2006-2007 Amnesty International claims Egypt is center for torture regarding War on Terror
    -Military torture reveals Mubarak's corruption
  • Mubarak Ousted

    Mubarak Ousted
    -Egyptian Revolution of 2011 lasts 18 days
    -Mubarak overthrown and brought to trial
    -Trial states he will begin life imprisonment on June 2, 2012
    -Trial began Augst 3, 2011
    -Power temporarily transferred to Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
    -Military Prosecutors believed Mubarak was involved in Sadat's assassination
    -On January 13, 2013 Mubarak was offered a retrial after health issues