The Enlightenment and Nationalist Revolutions

  • Montesquieu publishes a book called: On the Spirit of Law

    Baron de Montesquieu wrote a book called On the Spirit of Law which would lay out the ideas that would eventually form the basis for the US government. In it, he wrote about seperation of powers and checks and balances which would turn into the legislative, excecutive, and judicial branches.
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    Important Dates

  • America declares its independence from Britain

    On this day, colonial representatives signed the declaration of independence and America was officialy free from Britain. This would start a long war between the Americas and Great Britain which the Americans would eventually win.
  • The French Revolution occurs

    After years of suffering through inflation and high taxes, the third estate of france revolted and started the French Revolution which would eventually lead to the reign of terror.
  • Napoleon overthrows the Directory through a coup d’etat

    Napoleon and three other rulers led France as the Directory but Napoleon named himself the first consul and gained complete dictorial control of France. This sudden seizure of power is called a coup d'etat.
  • Napoleon crowns himself emperor of France and begins to create a vast European Empire

    During his crowning ceremony, Napolean took the crown from the pope and placed it on his own head. This action showed that he believed he was not only more powerful than the church but was also more powerful than God.
  • Haiti wins its freedom from France

    The French colony on the island of Hispaniola declares its independence with the help of Toussaint L'Ouverture and Jean-Jaques Dessalines and becomes the first black colony to gain its independence.
  • Padre Hidalgo calls for Mexican Independence

    Padre Hidalgo will cause an uprising in Mexico that will kickstart the Mexican revolution which will also be lead by José Maria Morelos and Agustín de Iturbide.
  • Napoleon is defeated at the Battle of Waterloo

    Napoleon's defeat at this battle marked the end of his rule over France. After he lost this battle, he was sent off to Saint Helena and died there.