Social Studies Final

Timeline created by caitlin.stone
  • 10,000 BCE

    Stone Age

    -Divided into the Paleolithic(old stone age), Mesolithic(middle stone age), and Neolithic(new stone age)
  • 8,000 BCE

    Neolithic Revolution

    -Hunter gatherers began to settle down into villages
    -They began to farm and domesticate animals
  • 8,000 BCE

    Ancient Greece

    -8000-30 BCE
    -Hippocrates, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
    -Athens vs Sparta
    -Alexander the Great
  • 7,400 BCE


    -7,500-5,700 BCE
  • 7,200 BCE


    -7,200-4,000 BCE
  • 7,000 BCE

    Farming Emerges

    -Pakistan, China, New Guinea, Catalhouyek, Turkey
  • 4,500 BCE


    -Land between the rivers
    -Settled around 4,500 BCE
  • 4,500 BCE

    Mesopotamia- Sumerian Empire

    -4,500-1,900 BCE
  • 4,000 BCE

    Fertile Crescent

    -4,000-1,750 BCE
    -This area becomes fertile when the rivers flood and make the soil good for planting
  • 3,100 BCE

    Egyptian Empire

    -3,100- 30 BCE
    -Lasted 4000 years
    -Khufu(4,600 years ago)-Built the Great Pyramid
    -Hatshepsut(1508-1458 BCE)- Longest reigning queen, reigned for more than 20 years
    -Akhenaten(1352-1336 BCE)-Father of King Tut
    -Tutankhamun(1332-1323 BCE)
    -Nefertiti(1353-1336 BCE)
    -Hyksos Expulsion( 1650 BCE)
    -Cleopatra VII was the last pharaoh of ancient Egypt
  • 2,600 BCE

    Mohenjo Daro/ Harappa

    -Part of the Indus River Valley
    -the city flourished in 2,600-1,900 BCE
  • 2,300 BCE

    Mesopotamia- Babylonian Empire

    -2,300-539 BCE
    -Hammurabi became King of Babylon in 1792 BCE and defeated all of the Sumerian city states
  • 2,000 BCE

    The Mayan Empire

    -established in 2000 BCE
    -art, architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems
    -reached highest state of development around 250 CE-900 CE
  • 1,600 BCE


    -1600-1450 BCE
    -Mycinians attack the city of Troy with the Trojan Horse
  • 1,100 BCE

    The Greek Dark Ages

    -1100-750 BCE
  • -770 BCE

    Yangtze River Valley

    -770-476 BCE
  • -550 BCE

    Mesopotamia- Persian Empire

    -550-334 BCE
    -Cyrus the Great of Persia defeated the Babylonians in 539 BCE
  • -500 BCE

    Mound Builders

    -500 BCE-1000 CE
    -mounds were built in North America
    -they served as burial mounds, temple mounds, or platforms for religious structures
  • -226 BCE


    -Mayan city in Southern Mexico
    -226 BCE-799 CE
  • -100 BCE


    -Aztec city near modern day Mexico City
    -100 BCE-1521 CE
  • 455

    Dark Ages

    -455 CE-1492 CE
    -only happened in Europe
    -almost a complete loss of education
    -no building
    -no progress
    -the plague helped end it
  • 455

    Fall of Rome

    -Visgoths invaded Rome and sacked the city in 410 CE
    -Vandals invaded Rome and sacked the city in 455 CE
    -Rome had been declining for 150 years
  • 550

    Mesa Verde

    -southwest Colorado
    -ancestral Pueblo people
    -550 CE-1200 CE
    -the built villages of stone under overhanging cliffs
  • 570


    -born in Mecca in 570 CE
    -he was the prophet of Islam
    -in 630 CE, he and his followers seized the city of Mecca and made it the shrine of Islam
    -he died in 632 CE
  • 732

    Battle of Tours

    -Moors in France
  • 793


    -793-1066 CE
    -wanted to find money and land
    -first invaded Britain in 793 CE and last invaded in 1066 CE
  • 800


    -first emperor to rule Western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire
    -the height of his power in 800 CE
    -called the "Father of Europe"
    -he died in 814 CE
  • 950

    The Quepoa

    -came to the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica
    -about 950 CE
  • 1095

    The Crusades

    -1095-1270 CE
    -Pope wanted to take the Holy Land back from the Empire of Islam
  • 1100

    Chan Chan

    -1100-1470 CE
  • 1300

    The Aztecs

    -were wanderers
    -migrated from south to central Mexico
    -settled in central Mexico
    -founded capital city in about 1325 CE
    -by 1426 CE they achieved supremacy in the area
  • 1300

    The Incas

    -the Incas founded their capital city of Cuzco in 1300 CE
    -ruled over most of Peru and parts of Chile, Ecuador, Bolivia and northwest Argentina
    -empire continued until about 1520
  • 1346

    The Black Plague

    -1346-1353 CE
    -10 years to cross Asia
    -in 1349 it crosses Europe
    -kills over 50 million people in Asia and Europe in 14 years
  • 1440


    -means "rebirth"
    -de Medici family(produced 4 Popes of the Catholic church, discovered artists and geniuses)
    -began in Florence
    -rise of the arts(architecture, performing arts, and visual arts)
    -rise of learning
    -rise of capitalism
    -increase in trade and commerce
  • 1478

    Spanish Inquisition

  • 1492

    Columbus' First Voyage

    -spurred exploration
  • 1500

    The Columbian Exchange

    -Spain, Portugal, France, and England sent explorers to the New World
    -exchange of food, plants, animals, and illnesses
  • 1517

    The Reformation

    -Martin Luther posted his list of 95 complaints about the activities of the Catholic Church
  • Aug 28, 1565

    St Augustine, Florida

    -first and oldest permanent settlement in the New World
  • Roanoke-1st Attempt

    -117 soldiers and noblemen
    -wanted to find gold
    -they took 2 of their native guides back to England
  • Roanoke-2nd Attempt

    -"bad luck voyage"
    -brought the 2 native guides back
    -again it was mainly soldiers wanting to find gold
    -in 1856 they abandoned the colony
  • Roanoke-3rd Attempt

    -families started to come
    -showed up too late to plant crops
    -John White went back to England to get supplies but England was at war so the ship was detained for 3 years
    -when John White returned to Roanoke in 1590 the colony was abandoned
  • Jamestown, Virginia

    -created in 1607
    -abandoned by the colonists in 1610
  • First Slaves in America

    -first documented slaves were in Jamestown, Virginia
    -in 1619
    -they were indentured servants for 7-14 years and then they would get freed
    -people started "owning" slaves in the 1650s
  • Plymouth

    -founded in 1621
    -Puritan Separatists
    -merged with the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1691
  • Pennsylvania

    -founded by William Penn
  • Salem

    -witch trials between Feb 1692 and May 1693
  • Carolina Splits

    -Carolina splits into North Carolina and South Carolina
  • French and Indian War

    -the American part of the Seven Years War that was going on in Europe
    -the war began in 1754 and ended in 1763 when the colonies became all British
  • Boston Massacre

    -began the Revolution
  • Boston Tea Party

    -dumped the tea into Boston harbor because they were mad about the taxation
  • First Continental Congress

    -meeting of delegates from the colonies
  • The Second Continental Congress

    -selected George Washington as the commander of the colonial army
  • Revolutionary War

    -battles of Lexington and Concord began the war on April 19,1775
  • Battle of Bunker Hill

    -George Washington's armies first battle
    -British lost more than 40% of their force
  • Battle of Saratoga

    -Washington victory
  • Winter at Valley Forge

    -in Pennsylvania
  • Battle of Yorktown

    -The British were surrounded and then surrendered
  • Articles of Confederation

    -passed by The Continental Congress in 1781
  • United States Constiution

    -signed in 1787
    -became law in 18788
    -three branches(executive, legislative, and judicial) that all work together
  • Cotton Gin

    -invented by Eli Whitney
    -helped remove seeds from cotton
  • The Louisiana Purchase

    -large territory bought from France
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition

    -Lewis, Clark, 21 soldiers, 18 rivermen, an interpreter, Clark's slave, and a dog =43 men total
    -reached the Pacific Ocean in November 1805
  • War of 1812

    -James Madison was the president
    -United States declared war on the British
    -White House was burned
    -Star Spangled Banner was written
    -Treaty of Ghent ended the war on December 24, 1814
  • Missouri Compromise of 1820

    -Missouri wanted to join the Union
    -it upset the balance of free states and slave states
  • Indian Removal Act

    -signed by Andrew Jackson
    -moved then to "Indian Territory" in present day Oklahoma
  • Trail of Tears

    -the Choctaw were removed from their land
    -winter of 1831
  • Creeks forced to "Indian Territory"

    -Creeks were forced of their land
    -3,500 of the 15,000 Creeks didn't survive the trip
  • The Gold Rush

    -about 300,000 people rushed to California
    -very few got rich
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854

    -every state decides if they are going to be free or slave
    -called it popular soverignty
  • Harpers Ferry

    -Harpers Ferry, Virginia
    -John Brown wanted to start a slave revolt but was hung
  • Abraham Lincoln Became President

    -a catalyst for the start of the Civil War
  • The Civil War

    -650,000 died
    -slaves were freed
  • Fort Sumter

    -the event that triggered the war
  • First Bull Run

    -first battle of the war
    -southern victory
  • Homestead Act of 1862

    -who gets to own land in the west
    -how to get land in the west
    -many immigrants from Europe came to get their own land
  • Shiloh

    -13,000 Union troops died
    -11,000 Confederate troops died
  • Chattanooga/Chickamauga

    -tried to starve out the Union Army but Grant arrived and sent in supplies
    -Sept-Nov 1863
  • Turning Point in the Civil War

    -Vicksburg surrendered
    -Lee tried to attack North at Gettysburg
    -big win for the North
  • March to the Sea

    -began in March of 1864
    -a chain of battles
    -organized by Sherman
    -Battle for Atlanta was a big battle on Sept 1, 1864
  • Appomattox

    -April 7-Lee's troops were surrounded by Grant's troops and Lee surrendered
    -April 9-they met at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia and Lee officially surrendered
  • Reconstruction

    -Lincoln died and Andrew Johnson became president
    -"black codes" were introduced
  • Civil War Ended

    -resistance collapsed and the war ended
  • Radical Reconstruction

    -gave former slaves rights
  • Jim Crow

    -legal racial segregation
    -"separate but equal"