• 7000 BCE

    Mesopotamia- Food surplus (pg 56)

    Irrigation, a way of supplying water to an area of land, helped increased the amount of food grown, which led to a food surplus, which meant that they had more food then they needed. Because of this, other jobs were created as fewer people needed to farm.
  • 7000 BCE

    Chang Jiang Valley- The Development of Farming (pg 162)

    Farmers grew rice in the middle of Chang Jiang Valley as the land there was good for crops. Soon, the Chinese farmers started hunting with bows and fishing in the rivers for more sources of food. The villages soon grew into large towns and had walls surrounding them. The Chinese culture began to advance over time.
  • 4000 BCE

    Mesopotamia- Mesopotamian settlements developed into cities (pg 57)

    Mesopotamian settlements began to slowly develop into cities that people would live in. Cities soon became important places; people would trade there.
  • Period: 3500 BCE to 300

    Nile- Kush Rises (pg 108)

    Farming villages thrived along the Nile. Soon, some of these farmers grew richer than the others and became the village leaders. As time went by, Kushite society grew and became a great nation.
  • Period: 3200 BCE to 1050 BCE

    Egypt- Ancient Egypt (pg 88)

    Hunter gatherers groups moved into the Nile Valley more than 12,000 years ago. They hunted for wild animals, fishes and farmed. They also created small villages. By 3200, the villages banded together and developed into two kingdoms. They soon began to develop into a massive civilization that would be powerful.
  • 3100 BCE

    Egypt- Menes rises to power (pg 89)

    Menes rose to power in the Upper Egypt during 3100 BC. He wanted top unify Egypt. He invaded and took control of Lower Egypt. Menes wore both the white crown and red crown to symbolize a united Eygpt.
  • Period: 3000 BCE to 2000 BCE

    Southern Mesopotamia- Sumerians society (pg 60)

    The Sumerians developed one of the world's first civilization. No ones knows where they came from or when they moved into Mesopotamia. By 2000 BC, historians think that their cities had more than 100,000 people living in it. Sumer combined the two parts (rural and urban) to create a city-state which consisted of a city and all the country side around it.
  • Period: 2700 BCE to 2200 BCE

    Egypt- Old Kingdom (pg 90)

    The Third Dynasty rose to power and began the Old Kingdom. During this period, the Egyptians started developing their political system and believed that the Pharaoh was a king and a god. Because of this, the Pharaoh was the most important figure in Egyptian civilization (and gods too). Also during the Old kingdom the duties of the Pharaoh increased. The most famous Pharaoh of the Old kingdom was Khufu, who ruled during the 2500s BC. He was known to build huge monuments of himself.
  • 2330 BCE

    Tigris and Euphrates- Sargon creates an Empire (pg 61-62)

    The Akkadians were another group different from the Sumerians but they lived in peace with them. In 2300s BC Sargon wanted to extend the Akkadian territory. He was the first ruler to have a permanent army and his soldiers defeated all the city-states of Sumer. He soon conquered all of Mesopotamia and established the world's first empire. Sargon was the ruler of the empire for about 50 years but when he died, the Sumerians regained its strength and conquered Mesopotamia back.
  • Period: 2300 BCE to 1700 BCE

    Indus River Valley- Harappan Civilization (pg 126-127)

    The Harappan civilization developed around the Sarasvati River. Irrigation and agriculture improved and their civilization started t increase. The civilization was named after the mordern city of Harappa, Pakistan. No one knows why the Harappan civilization ended.
  • Period: 2200 BCE to 1500 BCE

    China- Xia Dynasty (pg 163)

    Yu the Great founded the Xia dynasty. Yu dug channels to drain away the water caused by the flood. It is also said that he created the major waterways of China. There is no evidence that these tales are true but we know that geography helped shaped the people's lives.
  • Period: 2050 BCE to 1750 BCE

    Eygpt- Middle Kingdom (pg 96-97)

    Mentuhotep II defeated his rivals and once again, all of Egypt was united. The Hykos from the Southwest Asia invaded and conquered Lower Eygpt. The Egyptians fought back. In the mid-1500s BC, Ahmose of Thebes drove Hykos out and he declared himself as king of all Eygpt.
  • 2000 BCE

    Southwest Asia- Hebrews (pg 202)

    New people appeared in Southwest Asia. They were the ancestors of the Israelites and Jews. They were the Hebrews and they also created their own religion called Judaism. The Hebrew Bible is almost the same as the Old Testament of the Christian Bible.
  • Period: 2000 BCE to 1700 BCE

    Indus River Valley- Aryan Civilization (pg 128)

    Not long after the Harappans, a new group arrived int he Indus River Valley.They created political systems and stuff like that.
  • Period: 2000 BCE to 1600 BCE

    Crete- Minoans (pg 230-231)

    The Minoans spent most of their time at the sea. They were one of the best shipbuilders of their time and they traded goods all around the eastern Mediterranean for copper, gold, silver and jewels. Sometime during 1600s BC, a volcano erupted north of Crete and flooded Crete. The eruption buried cities and may had led to the end of the Minoan civilization.
  • 1900 BCE

    Asia Minor- Hittites and Kassites (pg 74)

    The Hittites built a strong kingdom in Asia Minor, Turkey mostly because of two things. The first thing was that they were one of the first people to master iron working. The second thing was that they could use a chariot. They captured Babylon with these things but their rule ended when their king was killed by an assassin. The Kassites, who lived north of Babylon captured the city and ruled it.
  • 1800 BCE

    Euphrates River (Baghdad, Iraq)- Rise of Babylon (pg 72-73)

    Babylon once used to be a Sumerian town, but soon, it grew into power. With Hammurabi as their leader, Babylon became the most important city in Mesopotamia. But when he died, Babylon's power declined. Soon, its reign came to an end.
  • Period: 1600 BCE to 1200 BCE

    Greece- Mycenaeans (pg 231)

    Mycenaeans were the first people to be considered Greek. The Mycenaeans built powerful fortresses and the most largest one was Mycenae which was named after the Mycenaeans. Minoan society began to decline during the mid-1400s which allowed to Mycenaeans to take over Crete and trade in the eastern Mediterranean. They set up lots of colonies. Mycenaean society began to fall apart in 1200s BC when invaders from Europe attacked Greece. Greece soon went into the Dark Ages.
  • Period: 1550 BCE to 1050 BCE

    Egypt- New Kingdom (pg 97)

    Ahmose's rise to power marked the start of the New Kingdom and was the period where Egypt reached the height of it's glory and power. Conquest and trade brought wealth to the pharaohs at that time.
  • 1500 BCE

    Phoenicia- Phoenicians (pg 76-77)

    The Phoenicians created a wealthy trading society but they didn't have a good military. The Phoenicians also were good sailors which helped them with trade. They also developed the alphabet for trade.
  • 1500 BCE

    Kush- Egypt attacks Kush (pg 109)

    The Egyptian rulers feared that the Kushites would attack them, so Thutmose I sent an army to conquer Kush. He won and the Egyptians took control of Kush for about 450 years. Around 850 BC, Kashta attack Egypt, and when he died his son Piankhi fought for his father and soon when Piankhi died, his brother Shabaka took control of the kingdom.
  • Period: 1500 BCE to 1050 BCE

    China- Shang Dynasty (pg 163-164)

    The Hsnag Dynasty is the first dynasty that we have evidence for that it is real. The Shang dynasty ruled a broad area of northern China and the Shang rulers moved the capital many times, maybe to avoid floods or war. The king was most important in the Shang Dynasty and the Shang dynasty's social order was more organised.
  • 1200 BCE

    Northern Mesopotamia- Reign of the Assyrians (pg 74-75)

    The Assyrians from northern Mesopotamia shortly gained control of Babylon. They were soon overrun by invaders and it took them 300 years to recover their strength. Then starting from 900 BC, they started taking over the Fertile Crescent because of their strong army. They spread terror throughout the lands by looting and burning down villages. The Assyrians ruled their empire through local leaders and demanded high taxes.
  • 1200 BCE

    Troy- Trojan War (pg 225, 231)

    The Greeks and Trojans fought the Trojan War in around 1200 BC. Some historians believe that the Mycenaeans attacked the city of Troy and may have started the Trojan War, which was written into many pieces of literature. Homer wrote about the Trojan War in his epic poems, the Odyssey and the Iliad which was among the earliest Greek writings. The Odyssey talks about the war between the Greeks and the Trojans and the Iliad talks about the story of the last years of the Trojan War.
  • 1200 BCE

    Egypt- Moses leads the Israelites out of Egypt (pg 203)

    According to the Bible, Moses was told by God to lead the Israelites out of Egypt. Moses went to the Pharaoh and declared that he had to free the Israelites. The Pharaoh refused and God struck the Egyptians with 12 plagues. At the last one, the Pharaoh agreed to let them go. Moses led the Israelites to the promise land. The journey was called the Exodus. God also gave Moses two stone tablets called the Ten Commandments which had laws that the Israelites were meant to obey.
  • Period: 1050 BCE to 400 BCE

    China- Zhou Dynasty (pg 166-168)

    The Zhou ruled over a kingdom in China after they joined with nearby tribes and overthrew the Shang Dynasty. The Zhou dynasty lasted more than any other dynasty in Chinese history. The Zhou kings claimed to possess the mandate from heaven They soon made a new political order and, of course, the king was at the top. Lords in China began to fight each other after the Zhou dynasty was defeated. Chinese society fell into disorder during the warring states period.
  • 1000 BCE

    Israel- David becomes king of Israel (pg 205)

    After Saul died, David became the new king of Israel. The Bible tells how David killed Goliath with a slingshot and small stones. David was also praised for his military skills and as a poet: he wrote the book of Psalms which is a book in the bible about praises to God. David was welled loved by the Israelites and he defeated the Philistines and won many wars.
  • 652 BCE

    Assyrian Empire- Chaldeans (pg 75)

    The Assyrian empire fought each other for the right of who should rule. The Chaldeans, a group from the Syrian Desert, saw this weakness and attack the Assyrians. They won and King Nebuchadnezzar rebuilt Babylon into a magnificent city. He also built the Hanging Gardens, one of the 7 ancient wonder of the world.
  • 585 BCE

    Persia- Cyrus II (pg 261-262)

    Cyrus the Great led a revolt to gain independence for Persia and succeeded. Cyrus started conquering Southwest Asia and Asia Minor to expand his empire. He was also successful as an emperor because he didn't force his conquered people to adopt Persian customs and he didn't mistreat them. He allowed his conquered people to keep their religion, and because of this they respected him. His army consisted of 10,000 immortals and a powerful fleet of cavalries (soldiers who ride on horses).
  • 551 BCE

    China- Confucius (pg 169)

    Confucius became the most influential teacher in Chinese history. Confucius wanted China to return to ethics and restore social and family order. His ideas were passed down through his students and later became a book called The Analects. Confucianism is a teaching on both philosophical and religious. Over the centuries, his teaching became the most dominant belief in China.
  • 528 BCE

    India- Buddhism (pg 136-137)

    Siddhartha Gautama was born around 563 BC in northern India and he grew up in luxury. He soon began to ask the meaning of life.He left at the age 30 and journeyed around India. He spent 6 years wandering through India and he sat down and meditated under a tree near the Ganges River. After 7 weeks of meditation he soon understood the meaning of life and he called himself the Buddha.
  • 500 BCE

    Athens- Athens becomes Democracy (pg 238-240)

    Cleisthenes gained power in Athens around 500 BC. He didn't want the aristocrats to run the government. He overthrew the aristocrats and established a new form of government and developed the world's first democracy. Over time, democracy in Athens came to an end. In the 330s BC, the Macedonians from north Greece came and conquered them. After being conquered, the Athens' democracy government had limited powers and in the 320s BC, a new king took over Greece and ended Athens' democracy.
  • Period: 490 BCE to 480 BCE

    Persia and Greece- Persian Wars (pg 263-265)

    Darius invaded Greece and started a series of wars that historians call the Persian Wars. The Athenian army only had around 11,000 soldiers whilst the Persians had around 15,000. But the Athenians won (the comeback is real!) because of their cunning leaders and better weapons. According to legend a messenger ran from Marathon to Athens (26 miles) to bring news of victory. After saying the message, he collapsed and died of exhaution.
  • Period: 431 BCE to 404 BCE

    Greece and Sicily- Peloponnesian War (pg 270-271)

    After the Persian Wars, many city-states formed alliances. Athens joined the Delian League. Sparta banded with other cities to form another alliance. Sparta declared war on Athens leading to the Peloponnesian War. For nearly 10 years, neither sides could take advantage of the other. In 415 BC, Athens tried to conquer Sicily but was defeated. The Spartans took advantage of this situation and attacked them. In 404 BC, Athens surrendered as they were starving and were surrounded.
  • 359 BCE

    Macedonia- Philip II becomes King of Macedonia (pg 272-273)

    Philip II became the king of Macedonia in 359. During his first year of his reign, he had to fight invaders of his kingdom. After defending, he started to attack, and he targeted Greece. The army of Athens were easily beaten by the Macedonians, and he could only do that was because he was a brilliant war leader. He created a phalanx and gave his soldiers long spears. He also sent cavalry and archers to help support the phalanx. He was murdered in 336 BC in his daughter's wedding.
  • 323 BCE

    Macedonia- Alexander builds a New Empire (pg 274)

    Alexander was a brilliant war leader like his father, Philip II. His army was well trained for battle and they defeated Persians time after time. He and his troops journeyed across Asia, conquering and influencing the cities they conquered. He also became the ruler of what had been the Persian empire. In 327 BC his army crossed the Indus River but his exhausted soldiers were tired and they went home. Alexander never made it back to Greece as he got sick and died at the age of 33.
  • 320 BCE

    Northern India- Mauryan Empire Unifies India (pg 142)

    A military leader named Candragupta Maurya conquered of the entire northern part of India and founded the Mauryan empire. He had a complex government system and a huge army that helped make him successful in war. He also had thousands of war elephants and chariots and demanded high taxes from the farmers. He decided to be a Janist monk in 301 BC and let his son become the next new king.
  • Period: 221 BCE to 206 BCE

    China- Qin Dynasty (pg 172-176)

    The Qin King Ying Zheng succeeded in unifying China and named himself Shi Huangdi which meant first emperor. Shi Huangdi was a brutal king burned writings that didn't agree with legalism. He invaded more lands and stretched the Chinese empire. He also built a network of roads and canals, built irrigation systems and built the Great Wall of China. He forced thousands of slaves to work for him. When Shi Huangdi died, China was unified. The country soon fell into civil war.
  • Period: 206 BCE to 220

    China- Han Dynasty (pg178-179)+(pg 187)

    Several groups began fighting to control China after the Qin dynasty fell. Liu Bang won and became the first emperor of the Han dynasty. Liu Bang was a peasant, which meant that he was the first peasant to become an emperor. He earned people's loyalty and trust and was liked by peasants and soldiers. He wanted to free people from harsh rule. He lowered taxes for farmers and made punishments less severe. He also changed the way the government worked. They also created the Silk road.
  • 170 BCE

    Kush- Queen Shanakhdakheto (pg 113)

    Queen Shanakhdakheto was the first woman to rule Kush. Women of Kush were expected to be active in their society. They worked in the fields, cooked, raised children and did household tasks. Queens were also more powerful in Kush than in Egypt.
  • 106 BCE

    Israel- Macabees revolt (pg 206)

    A Jewish family called the Macabees led a revolt because they tired of foreign rule. For about 100 years the Jews once again ruled their own kingdom. IN 63 BC they were conquered by the Romans.
  • 66 BCE

    Israel- Revolt against Rome (pg 214-215)

    Some of the Jews were tired of the Romans ruling them. The Zealots, the most rebellious group led the rebellion against the Romans. They fought, but in the end they were not successful. Because of the war, caused terrible damage to Jerusalem.
  • 100

    China- Buddhism spreads to China (pg 188-189)

    Buddhism spread from India to China because of the Silk Road. Over time, the Han government became unstable and many Chinese looked to Daoism or Confucianism for help, but couldn't find anything When Buddhism was preached to them, they liked the idea that it offered rebirth and relief from suffering and stress.Soon, Buddhism became the major religion in China.
  • 300

    Kush- Decline of Kush (pg 113)

    Kush gradually declined in power. Kush was also weakened by a loss of trade. By 300s AD Kush lost much of its millitary force and wealth. In about 350 AD, the Akusumite army led by King Ezana conquered Moroe and took of Kush. In the late 300s the rulers of Aksum became Christian and the Nubians converted 200 years later and the last influences of Kush had soon disappeared.
  • 320

    India- Gupta Empire (pg 144-145)

    After the collapse of the Mauryan empire, India was divided for almost 500 years. The Guptas came in and made India prosperous again. The first Gupta emperor was Candra Gupta I. Gupta rule stayed strong in India but the Huns attacked them and ended the reign of Gupta.
  • Period: 550 to 456 BCE

    Persia- Persian Empire (pg 260)

    Cyrus II led a Persian revolt against the Medes and succeeded. Because of this, Persia gained its independence and this was the beginning for the Persian empire.
  • World- Social Studies Example: Hebrews (pg 202)

    The Hebrews were the ancestors of Israelites and Jews. If the Hebrews never existed on earth, then maybe Christianity wouldn't exist or Christianity's origins would be a lot different as the ancestors of the Israelites never existed which meant that the Israelites never existed, which means that the Bible would never have existed. And if the Bible never existed then we wouldn't know what God wanted to tell us, and we wouldn't become Christians.
  • World- Social Studies Example: Sumerians develop the Wheel (pg 67)

    The wheel is one of the most important things created in human history as it was the start of transportation. If the Sumerians didn't develop the wheel, there wouldn't be anything. There wouldn't be any transportation as nearly all transportation needs wheels to function (gears, wheels, steering wheel, bikes). Other important things wouldn't also be invented if the wheels didn't exist (lottery wheels, clocks, ferris wheels, pots, and most importantly there wouldn't be any doughnuts!!!)
  • World- Social Studies Example: Food Surplus (pg 56)

    Because of irrigation constructed by the Mesopotamians, there was a food surplus. Because of this food surplus, some people stuck to farming while others did/ created other jobs. If it weren't for the food surplus, some of the Mesopotamians wouldn't create other jobs, which could lead to a job that exists today not ever being created.
  • DALAT School- Social Studies example: Euclid (pg 281)

    Euclid was a Greek mathematician and he is known for geometry. The study of flat shapes and lines is called Euclidean geometry because of him. If he wasn't born, then maybe there wouldn't be any more hard math problems in math class as people in history wouldn't know about geometry and make math a whole lot simpler and fun.