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Developing Cultures

  • Period: 2900 BCE to 1150 BCE


    The Minoan Civilization was based on the island of Crete south of the mainland. They were a sea-based power ruled by kings and known for unique architecture and frescoes.
  • Period: 2000 BCE to 1000 BCE


    This time frame is marked by the increasing influence of Egypt over Nubia.
  • 1900 BCE


    Most likely time when the Greeks arrived on the mainland to begin building their eventually expansive empire.
  • Period: 1600 BCE to 1150 BCE


    Located on the mainland, this civilization was composed of city-states ruled by kings and bureaucrats.
  • 1250 BCE


    The city of Troy was sacked after the infamous Trojan Horse delivered her Greek passengers into the city center.
  • Period: 1100 BCE to 750 BCE

    Greek--Dark Ages

    This period began just after the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization. Iron working seemed to be a characteristic of this era, and it is referred to as the Early Iron Age.
  • Period: 1000 BCE to 900 BCE


    The Kushite kingdom gains its independence from Egypt.
  • Period: 751 BCE to 663 BCE


    Kushite Kings Piankhi and Taharqa rule all of Egypt right up to the shores of the Mediterranean.
  • 725 BCE


    Homer was a famed Greek poet and the presumed creator of both epic poems the Illiad and the Odyssey.
  • 700 BCE


    Hesiod was a Greek poet known as the father of didactic poetry. His two surviving works are Theogony and Works and Days about the Gods and peasant life, respectively.
  • Period: 700 BCE to 500 BCE


    This stage of civilization was marked by expansive colonization from Greece to Asia Minor to southern Italy to the Black Sea.
  • Period: 600 BCE to 200

    Steppe peoples

    The Scythians displaced the Cimmerians in the Ukraine area. They were similar to nomadic Iranian tribes until they settled between the Don and Volga rivers.
  • Period: 560 BCE to 550 BCE

    Sparta and Athens

    The Spartans defeat Tegea after a long war. This marks the beginning of the Peloponnesian League, or the Spartan Alliance. When war, peace, or alliance was at issue, they gathered to discuss and decide.
  • Period: 560 BCE to 546 BCE

    Greek and Persian

    Croesus of Lydia conquers Greek cities on Asia Minor, including Ionia. Later, the Lydians are conquered by Cyrus of Persia. Persia then controlled the Greek cities.
  • Period: 508 BCE to 501 BCE

    Athens and Sparta

    A couple years after the deposing of Hippias, Chief Argon Cleistenes institutes changes in the government at Athens--he is considered the founder of Athenian democracy.
  • Period: 500 BCE to 350 BCE


    Considered the Golden Age of Ancient Greek civilization. The time period between 500 BCE and roughly 350 BCE was characterized by a more democratic government, polis rule controlled by aristocrats and tyrants.
  • Period: 500 BCE to 330


    This period is the height of the Meriotic Kingdom of Kush
  • Period: 500 BCE to 500


    Nok culture flourishes on the Jos plateau in western Sudan
  • Period: 499 BCE to 494 BCE

    Greek and Persian

    The Ionian Rebellion was an uprising that resulted in the overthrow of many of the Persian rulers. This revolt was also used as a pretext for Persian invasion of Greece in 490 inciting the Greco-Persian Wars.
  • 480 BCE

    Greek and Persian

    Greek and Persian
    The Battles of Thermopylae, Artemisium, and Salamis were waged.
  • 480 BCE

    Greek and Persian

    Greek and Persian
    God-King Xerxes, King of Kings, King of Persia, Pharaoh of Egypt leads a massive invasion of Greece.
  • 479 BCE

    Greek and Persian

    Greek and Persian
    The Battles at Plataea and Mycale are waged. These were the two decisive defeats of the Persian juggernaut that resulted in the end of the Greco-Persian War.
  • 323 BCE


    The death of Alexander the Great marks the beginning of the Hellenistic period in Greece.
  • Period: 323 BCE to 10 BCE

    Hellenistic Greece

    Alexander the Great spread Greek culture throughout the areas between Egypt and the Indus Valley. This period is marked by the decline of the polis and large monarchical states dominate the Greek world. The Hellenistic period begun with the death of Alexander the Great and ended when the Romans took the final Indo-Greek kingdom was conquered by Indo-Sakas
  • Period: 305 BCE to 63 BCE


    The Seleucid Dynasty ruled in Mesopotamia and Northern Syria under Antiochus I.
  • Period: 305 BCE to 30 BCE


    The Ptolemaic Dynasty ruled in Egypt, southern Syria, and was reaching for the Aegean under Ptolemy II Philadelphus
  • Period: 295 BCE to 168 BCE


    The Antigonid Dynasty rules in Macedonia under the person Antigonus Gonatus
  • Period: 247 BCE to 224

    Steppe Peoples

    The Parthian empire was founded by Arsaces I and eventually covered the area from the Caspian Sea to the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The Parthians were defeated then ruled by Ardashir I, ending the Parthian empire.
  • Period: 100 to Apr 12, 1500

    Africa--migration and diffusion era

    Nilotic-speaking people spread over the Upper Nile valley and into the Rift valley region.
  • Period: 200 to 400


    This period marks the heyday of Aksumite Ethiopia
  • 330


    The Kushite empire finally falls to Elzana of Aksum
  • 400


    The kingdom of Ghana is beginning to become established between the Senegal and Niger rivers
  • Period: 500 to Apr 12, 600


    This period marks when the major Nubian states of Maqurra and Alwa convert to Christianity as the dominant religion.
  • Period: Apr 11, 700 to Apr 12, 900


    The Gao empire is situated northeast of Lake Chad. It was one of the oldest trading centers in West Africa, and it served as a major trans-Saharan route for African goods and slaves.
  • Greek and Persian

    Greek and Persian
    The Battle of Marathon was a decisive victory for the Greeks over the dominant Persian conquerors.
  • Ethiopia

    The Yemenites from southern Arabia settle onto the Ethiopian plateau.