World Arch Exam 1

By AranZ
  • 40,000 BCE

    Terra Amata (400,000 BCE)

    Terra Amata (400,000 BCE)
    Terra Amata (France), c. 400,000 BCE
    (^^ACTUAL DATE)
    Paleolithic
    Temporary home of Neanderthals (hunter gatherers) Animal hides, bark, or leaves used as roof material
    Dwelling was left by the people to rot when they left the area
  • 17,000 BCE

    Lascaux Cave

    Lascaux Cave
    Lascaux cave (France), c. 17,000 BCE
    Paleolithic
    Used by early homosapiens
    Occupied caves which were "prebuilt"
    Several caves linked like rooms
    Incorporations of art; representations of art; art and architecture are inseparable
    Art done by different peoples over years and years of nomadic people
  • 15,000 BCE

    Mammoth Bone Hut

    Mammoth Bone Hut
    Mammoth bone hut (Mezhrych, Russia), c. 15,000 BCE
    Paleolithic More permanent
    Biologic symmetry
    Animal hides protect against moisture
  • 11,000 BCE

    Göbekli Tepe (11,000-8000 BCE)

    Göbekli Tepe (11,000-8000 BCE)
    Göbekli Tepe (Turkey), c. 11,000-8000 BCE
    Mesolithic 24 oval structures, religious purpose
    Oval shapes may have been made to imitate cave or refer to the heavens, or birth cycle of womb
    Megaliths feature earliest examples of reliefs
  • 9500 BCE

    Lepenski Vir (9500-6000 BCE)

    Lepenski Vir (9500-6000 BCE)
    Lepenski Vir (Serbia), c. 9500-6000 BCE Transitory village built for bands of hunters
    Organized and planned carefully
    Semi nomadic living
    More complex economy, way of managing resources
    Complexity leads to organization and distinction between people
  • 7000 BCE

    Çatalhöyük

    Çatalhöyük
    Çatalhöyük (Turkey), c. 7000 BCE
    Neolithic Agriculture and animal husbandry
    Permanent settlements
    No streets, just tightly packed for defense instead of having walls around the settlements
    Wood frame filled with mud bricks and coated with mud
    Small shrines
    Trade of obsidian, economic system
  • 5500 BCE

    Langweiler longhouse (5500-5000 BCE)

    Langweiler longhouse (5500-5000 BCE)
    (Germany), 5500-5000 BCE A longhouse, built of wood and thatch, post and beam system
  • 4700 BCE

    Menhir Brisé

    Menhir Brisé
    Menhir Brisé, Locmariaquer (France), c. 4700 BCE Largest megalith (70ft tall)
    Architecture that points towards the heaven for cosmic connection
    Religious undertaking + community undertaking
    Implies plan and design
  • 3600 BCE

    Avesbury circle (3600-2500 BCE)

    Avesbury circle (3600-2500 BCE)
    Avebury circle (England), c. 3600-2500 BCE
    Largest henge in the world
    Different stages/time of construction
    Stable economy established
    Most likely used for ritual or marking astronomical events
  • 3600 BCE

    Hagar Qim (3600-2500 BCE)

    Hagar Qim (3600-2500 BCE)
    Hagar Qim (Malta), c. 3600-2500 BCE Temple
    Developed over time
    Interior rooms were built independently from outer wall creating thick poche space
    Megalithic construction
    Corbeled vault roof
    Possibly inspired by underground of Hypogeum at Hal Saflieni
    Cult of motherhood
    sacrifices; animal and human
  • 3100 BCE

    Skara Brae

    Skara Brae
    Skara Brae (Scotland), c. 3100 BCE 9 houses; all of the same size and plan
    Locking doors
    Drainage system
    Plumbing
    Furniture
  • 3000 BCE

    Knowth passage grave

    Knowth passage grave
    Knowth passage grave (Ireland), c. 3000 BCE Passage grave
    Space beneath the surface represents the unknown
  • 3000 BCE

    Stonehenge (England, 3000-1500 BCE)

    Stonehenge (England, 3000-1500 BCE)
    Stage 1 (3100-2700 BC)
    Henge (bank and ditch) construction, likely dug w/ deer antlers
    Stage 2 (2700-2500 BC)
    Wooden posts erected
    Blue stones (from far away) set up in a U-shape
    Stage 3
    Ring of bigger bluestones put in pairs & shaped in horseshoe
    Inner horseshoe (5 trilithons) & outside circle of megaliths
    Horseshoes faced summer solstice sun
    Stones shaped in advance
    Columns/beams held-mortise and tenon
    Human remains? Ancient burial ground?
    Time, astrological (summer & winter solstice)
  • 2650 BCE

    Oval Temple (2650-2350 BCE)

    Oval Temple (2650-2350 BCE)
    Oval Temple (Khafaje, Iraq), c. 2650-2350 BCE Example of formal order of urban mesopotamia
    Existing fabric demolished to fit the temple; hierarchy
    Rectangle = godly perfection
  • 2650 BCE

    Mortuary Complex of Djoser

    Mortuary Complex of Djoser
    Mortuary complex of Djoser
    Place: Saqqara
    Date: c. 2650 BCE
    Architect: Imhotep
    Significance: stepped pyramid inspired the ziggurat towers of Mesopotamia however more abstractly because of the lack of relation to the human scale
  • 2600 BCE

    Stepped Pyramid of Sneferu

    Stepped Pyramid of Sneferu
    Stepped Pyramid of Sneferu
    Place: Meidum
    Date: c. 2600 BCE
    Architect: n/a
    Significance: 1st attempt to smooth out stepped pyramid structure into a solid pyramid; failed as the pitch was too steep to carry the loads, leading to partial collapse which revealed that pyramids inner structure rose in concentric vertical layers (onion) then was smoothed over with flat limestone to create perfect pyramid look
  • 2600 BCE

    Bent Pyramid of Sneferu

    Bent Pyramid of Sneferu
    Bent Pyramid of Sneferu
    Place: Dahhshur
    Date: c. 2600 BCE
    Architect: n/a
    Significance: second attempt at a solid pyramid; construction began at a steep angle however after cracks appeared halfway up, construction had to continue at a lower angle
  • 2589 BCE

    Kufu, Kafre, Menkaure (Pyramids of Giza) (2589, 2570, 2510 BCE)

    Kufu, Kafre, Menkaure (Pyramids of Giza) (2589, 2570, 2510 BCE)
    Kufu, Kafre, Menkaure (Pyramids of Giza)
    Place: Giza
    Date: 2589, 2570, 2510 BCE
    Architect: n/a
    Significance 1: largest building in the world, perfectly aligned to the cardinal points
    Significance 2: second largest pyramid of the trio, notable for remaining limestone covering of the pyramids exterior which hints at what the pyramids might have looked like back in ancient times
    Significance 3: smallest of the 3 pyramids
  • 2550 BCE

    Great Sphinx

    Great Sphinx
    Great Sphinx
    Place: Giza
    Date: 2550 Giza
    Significance: Huge monument "guarding" the great pyramid
  • 2500 BCE

    Le Menec alignments

    Le Menec alignments
    Le Menec alignments, Carnac (France), c. 2500 BCE 4 fields, funerary landscapes, mass ceremonies, thousands of megaliths
    Taller megaliths towards the curve of the field; leads to idea of astronomical observation
    Place to remember dead, and contemplate destiny determined by the heavens
    Use of objects to organize a space
    Build at a monumental scale
  • 2500 BCE

    Passage Grave

    Passage Grave
    Passage grave (Newgrange, Ireland), c. 2500 BCE At winter solstice, sun shines directly into the rear of the grave; ritual use
    Neolithic art, curvilinear and rectilinear
  • 2250 BCE

    Palace of Zimrilim

    Palace of Zimrilim
    Palace of Zimrilim (Mari, Syria), c. 2250 BCE 2nd major urban form of mesopotamia
    Administrative and religious center
  • 2100 BCE

    Ziggurat of Ur-Nammu

    Ziggurat of Ur-Nammu
    Ziggurat of Ur-Nammu (Ur, Iraq), c. 2100 BCE Obvious exception to the densely packed city surroundings
    Built on the site of another temple; a specific site is sacred
    Built to last, with durable bricks on the exterior
    Oriented to the cardinals axes
    3 flights of stairs at right angles
    arrangement of stairs reflects a ritual of hierarchical ascent
  • 2050 BCE

    Mortuary Temple of Mentuhotep

    Mortuary Temple of Mentuhotep
    Mortuary Temple of Mentuhotep
    Place: Deir el-Bahri
    Date: 2050 BCE
    Architect: n/a
    Significance: aligned with Mentuhotep's belief that he was a servant of the gods which contrasts with other views that kings were descended from the gods
  • 1600 BCE

    Gournia (1600-1100 BCE)

    Gournia (1600-1100 BCE)
    Gournia
    Place: Crete
    Date: 1600-1100 BCE
    Architect: n/a
    Significance: use of indirect circulation (labyrinths) as a means of defense
  • 1600 BCE

    Knossos/Palace of Minos

    Knossos/Palace of Minos
    Knossos/Palace of Minos
    Place: crete:
    Date: c. 1600 BCE
    Architect: n/a
    Significance: use of table leg structure symbolizing the power of the gods
  • 1600 BCE

    Tiryns

    Tiryns
    Tiryns
    Place: Greece
    Date: 1600-1100 BCE
    Significance: the palace megaron was a predecessor of the classical temple in form and site
  • 1525 BCE

    Temple of Amon-Ra (1525-1250 BCE)

    Temple of Amon-Ra (1525-1250 BCE)
    Temple of Amon-Ra
    Place: Karnak
    Date: c. 1525-1250 BCE
    Architect: N/A
    Significance:
    Very monumental; cleft in the middle of the pylons creating a strong axis which evoked the course of the Nile pushing through the cliff lined valley, large scale central procession surrounded by grand statues and pylons, dimly lit hypostyle with impressive and imposing columns evoked godly realm
  • 1460 BCE

    Temple Complex at Luxor (1460-1250 BCE)

    Temple Complex at Luxor (1460-1250 BCE)
    Temple complex at Luxor
    Place: Luxor
    Date: c. 1460-1250 BCE
    Architect: N/A
    Significance:
  • 1460 BCE

    Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut

    Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut
    Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut
    Place: Deir el-Bahri
    Date: c. 1460 BCE
    Architect: Senenmut
    Significance: strong sense of central procession, rising straight into the temple
  • 1440 BCE

    Temple of Aten

    Temple of Aten
    Temple of Aten
    Place: Akhentaten
    Date: c. 1440 BCE
    Architect: N/A
    Significance: Entire structure was open to the sky which was necessary to appreciate the new religion revolving around the worship of the sun disk
  • 1400 BCE

    Treasury of Atreus

    Treasury of Atreus
    Treasury of Atreus
    Place: Mycenae, Greece
    Date: c. 1400 BCE
    Architect:
    Significance: precision; use of ashlar masonry and cyclopean dome
  • 1350 BCE

    Tomb of King Tutankhamen

    Tomb of King Tutankhamen
    Tomb of King Tutankhamen
    Place: Valley of the Kings (near Luxor)
    Date: c. 1350 BCE
    Architect: N/A
    Significance: designed to be kidden and very nondescript in order to protect from grave robbers
  • 1350 BCE

    Citadel Hattusha

    Citadel Hattusha
    Citadel Hattusha/Hattusa
    Place: Turkey
    Date: 1350 BCE
    Significance: the buildings were adjusted to fit into the contours of the site
  • 1350 BCE

    Lion and Sphinx Gates at the Citadel

    Lion and Sphinx Gates at the Citadel
    Lion and Sphinx Gates at the Citadel
    Place: Hattusha Turkey
    Date: 1350 BCE
    Significance: guarded the citadel and represented the power of the citadel
  • 1250 BCE

    Temple of Ramses II

    Temple of Ramses II
    Temple of Ramses II
    Place: Abu Simbel
    Date: c. 1250 BCE
    Architect: N/A
    Significance: In place of pylon, the cliff face itself is flanked by enormous statues of Ramses; alignment so that on the summer and winter solstices, the sun shines directly on the back of the temple chamber
  • 1250 BCE

    Lion's Gate

    Lion's Gate
    Lion's Gate
    Place: Mycenae, Greece
    Date: c. 1250 BCE
    Architect: n/a
    Significance: represented power of the gods
  • 900 BCE

    The First Temple of Jerusalem

    The First Temple of Jerusalem
    The First Temple of Jerusalem
    Place: Jerusalem
    Date: c. 900 BCE
    Architect: n/a
    Significance: did not house statues of the divine but rather just their effects
  • 715 BCE

    Palace of Sargon II 9715-705 BCE)

    Palace of Sargon II 9715-705 BCE)
    Palace of Sargon II
    Place: Dur-Sharrukin
    Date: 715-705 BCE
    Significance: Entries to the inner palace placed asymmetrically to discourage direct access
  • 715 BCE

    Ziggurat of Sargon (715-705 BCE)

    Ziggurat of Sargon (715-705 BCE)
    Ziggurat of Sargon
    Place: Dur-Sharrukin
    Date: 715-705 BCE
    Significance: continuous upward ramp instead of extended stair (as used in Ur-Nammu)
  • 705 BCE

    Dur Sharrukin

    Dur Sharrukin
    Dur Sharrukin
    Place: Khorsabad, Iraq
    Date: 705 BCE
    Significance: first instance outside of Egypt to develop a city on an orthogonal plan; exceptional because of greater scale and monumentality
  • 570 BCE

    New Babylon

    New Babylon
    New Babylon
    Place: Iraq
    Date: 570 BCE
    Significance: religiously motivated; palace set distinctly apart from religious structure
  • 570 BCE

    Ishtar Gate

    Ishtar Gate
    Ishtar Gate
    Place: New Babylon
    Date: 570 BCE
    Significance: lined with lions to represent pride and control of Nebuchadnezzar
  • 570 BCE

    Entemenanki Tower

    Entemenanki Tower
    Entemenanki (Enmenaki) Tower
    Place: New Babylon
    Date: 570 BCE
    Significance: built to resemble Ur-Nammu's ziggurat at Ur with 3 stairs
  • 530 BCE

    Tomb of Cyrus the Great

    Tomb of Cyrus the Great
    Place: Pasargadae (Iran)
    Date: 530 BCE
    Significance: relatively modest ad informal to reflect the values of nomadic people
  • 510 BCE

    Temple of Athena

    Temple of Athena
    Temple of Athena
    Place: Paestum, Italy
    Date: 510 BCE
    Significance: first instance of two orders used in the same building
  • 500 BCE

    Apadana of Darius

    Apadana of Darius
    Apadana of Darius
    Place: Persepolis, Iran
    Date: 500 BCE
    Significance: large scale
  • 470 BCE

    Oikos

    Oikos
    oikos (greek urban house)
    Place: Delphi, Greece
    Date: c. 470 BCE
    Significance: designed to be comfortable but without distinction; suggests society of equals
  • 450 BCE

    Rock-cut Tombs of Achaemenid Dynasty

    Rock-cut Tombs of Achaemenid Dynasty
    rock-cut tombs of Achaemenid Dynasty
    Place: Persepolis, Iran
    Date: 450 BCE
    Significance: cut directly into the cliff side
  • 450 BCE

    Temple of Apollo

    Temple of Apollo
    Temple of Apollo
    Place: Epicurus, Bassae
    Date: 450-425 BCE
    Architect: Iktinos
    Significance: singular Corinthian column
    Engaged columns inside
  • 447 BCE

    Parthenon (447-432 BCE)

    Parthenon (447-432 BCE)
    Pa*R*thenon
    Place: Acropolis - Athens, Greece
    Date: 447-432 BCE
    Architects: Iktinos and Kallikrates
    Significance: Reveals refinements in the elevation which established the matchbox effect of later temples; unfamiliar breath and dignity; columns lean slightly in, upper works lean slightly out, whole structure curves toward the corners
  • 437 BCE

    Propylaea/Acropolis

    Propylaea/Acropolis
    Propylaea
    Place: Acropolis - Athens, Greece
    Date: 437 BCE
    Architect: Mnesikles
    Significance: the gate to enter the Acropolis; transition from secular to the precinct of the sacred
  • 421 BCE

    Erechtheion (421-406 BCE)

    Erechtheion (421-406 BCE)
    Erechtheion
    Place: Acropolis - Athens, Greece
    Date: 421-406 BCE
    Architect: Mnesikles
    Significance: Influenced the idea of the paraline drawing bc of the many interesting facades
  • 420 BCE

    Temple of Poseidon

    Temple of Poseidon
    Temple of Poseidon
    Place: Paestum, Italy
    Date: 420 BCE
    Significance: two story interior of cella
  • 420 BCE

    Temple of Athena Nike

    Temple of Athena Nike
    Temple of Athena Nike
    Place: Acropolis - Athens, Greece
    Date: 420 BCE
    Architect: Kallikrates
    Significance:
  • 380 BCE

    Temple of Athena Pronaia (380-360 BCE)

    Temple of Athena Pronaia (380-360 BCE)
    Temple of Athena Pronaia
    Place: Delphi
    Date: 380-360 BCE
  • 350 BCE

    Priene

    Priene
    Priene
    Place: Turkey
    Date: 350 BCE
    Significance: closed off on all four sides, signals that free movement was a thing of the past
  • 335 BCE

    Choragic Monument of Lysicrates

    Choragic Monument of Lysicrates
    Choragic Monument of Lysicrates
    Place: Athens
    Date: 335 BCE
    Significance: 1st time Corinthian order used in a monument as decoration
  • 300 BCE

    Temple of Apollo at Didyma

    Temple of Apollo at Didyma
    Temple of Apollo at Didyma
    Place: The Didymaion, Turkey
    Date: 300 BCE
    Significance: Stairs sized for the gods, smaller stairs for mere mortals; separation of the divine and the human
  • 300 BCE

    Sanctuary of Athena Lindia at Lindos (3rd century BCE)

    Sanctuary of Athena Lindia at Lindos (3rd century BCE)
    Sanctuary of Athena Lindia at Lindos
    Place: Turkey
    Date: 3rd century BCE
    Significance: Studied axiality, symmetry, and monumentality in the layout and interplay of light and shade
  • 200 BCE

    Agora of Athens (2nd century BCE-150 CE)

    Agora of Athens (2nd century BCE-150 CE)
    Agora of Athens
    Place: Athens
    Date: 2nd century BCE-150 CE
    Significance: served as the prime public space for the Greeks; located in the middle of the city unlike in front of temples or palaces as was the norm in other cultures
  • 197 BCE

    Altar of Zeus (197-195 BCE)

    Altar of Zeus (197-195 BCE)
    Altar of Zeus
    Place: Pergamon, Turkey
    Date: 197-195 BCE
    Significance: the gigantomachy frieze; Huge sculptural depiction of the story of gigantomachy
  • 159 BCE

    Stoa of Attalos (159-132 BCE)

    Stoa of Attalos (159-132 BCE)
    Stoa of Attalos
    Place: Athens Agora, Athens, Greece
    Date: 159-132 BCE
    Significance: Larger and more elaborate than the typical Agora, also had two stories (unusual)
  • 50 BCE

    Tower of the Winds

    Tower of the Winds
    Tower of the Winds
    Place: Athens
    Date: 50 BCE
    Significance: Each point of each sides, aligns with a cardinal direction
  • 20 BCE

    The Second Temple of Jerusalem

    The Second Temple of Jerusalem
    The Second Temple of Jerusalem
    Place: Jerusalem
    Date: c. 20 BCE
    Architect: n/a
    Significance: built on a grand platform with a big colonnade but monumentality was criticized by nomadic peoples