Period: 2600 BCE to 1250 BCE
Wealth, magnificence palaces
Invaded & overpowered by the Mycenaeans
Period: 2000 BCE to 1100 BCE
Mycenaeans CivilizationBorrowed heavily from Minoan culture.
Traders & warriors
Internally divided & contentious.
Discovered by Heinrich Schliemann in 1870s.
Period: 1100 BCE to 800 BCE
Greek "Dark Ages"Rise of Hellenic Civilization
-Dorians = Peloponnesus
-Ionians = Attica, & later Asia Minor
Eventually trade & urban life revived.
Writing using borrowed Phoenician alphabet.
Period: 624 BCE to 548 BCE
Thales of MiletusPerson
Contemporary of Solon
Sought to understand the order of nature.
Believed water was the basis element.
Omitted the gods from his account of origins of nature.
Sought natural explanations only.
First recorded prediction of a solar eclipse.
Period: 611 BCE to 547 BCE
Rejected Thales' ideas about centrality of water.
"Boundless" was the source off all things.
Explained the creation of the world & all things in it by natural means & without relying on gods or creation myths.
Period: 605 BCE to 527 BCE
Promoted culture & architecture
considered a tyrant
(tyrants were often aristocrats, but posed as champion of the poor)
Established school on the island of Lesbos.
Period: 580 BCE to 507 BCE
Nature of things is to be found in Mathematical Relationships.
Musical scale represented in math.
Religious mystics who believed in transmigration of souls.
-Therefore refused to eat meat because it contained former human souls.
Primary substance was air.
-Rarefied air become fire.
-Condensed air became Clouds & Wind.
-Further condensation produced Water, Earth, & Stones.
Period: 525 BCE to 456 BCE
Believed in Divine Justice which couldn't be violated with impurity.
Hubris inevitably leads to punishment.
Through suffering comes knowledge.
Believed to have written 70-90 plays, only 7 survived today
Period: 518 BCE to 438 BCE
Extolled the pursuit of excellence.
Period: 515 BCE to 450 BCE
Founder of formal logic.
Universe is unchanging, unknowable by the sense, but apprehended by the mind only.
-Foundation of metaphysics.
Viewed universe as: One, Transcendent, Permanent, & Perfect.
-Influential on later Christian views of God.
Persian WarIonian Greeks of Asia Minor rebel against Persians.
Athhenians (Ionians) sent assistance.
Period: 496 BCE to 406 BCE
Dramatic characterization, violent passion & tender emotion.
Immoderate behavior results in negative consequences.
Believed to have written about 123 plays, only 7 survive today.
Period: 495 BCE to 429 BCE
He was a influential Greek statesman, orator, & general of Athens.
Persian WarsDarius I invaded Attica.
Greeks defeat Persians at Marathon.
Period: 485 BCE to 406 BCE
Critical anaalysis of war, women human suffering, weakness.
Portrayed inner struggle of souls in torment.
Portrayed war as cruel & barbaric, not noble & heroic.
Believed to have written about 90-95 play, 18 survive today.
Period: 484 BCE to 424 BCE
Herodotus: "The Father of History"Person
Present is shaped by the past.
Contrast of Eastern despotism with Greek freedom.
Punishment of hubris
He sought to make history more than mere stories.
Persian WarsXerxes invades with 250,000 men & 500 ships
Many Greek city-states unite in a rare display of unity & cooperation to oppose the Persian invasion.
Persian WarsBattle of Plataea
Significant land victory for Greeks.
Period: 469 BCE to 399 BCE
Socrates:The Rational IndividualPerson
He emphasized importance of knowledge of individuals & society-self-knowledge.
He didn't merely attack old ideas but sought to offer solutions in their place.
sought the improvement (perfection) of the individual character, the achievement of of moral excellence.
Subject all human beliefs to reason.
Remove tradition,authority, myth, superstition.
Tireless & endless introspection.
Wrong thinking results in wrongdoing.
Condemned to death.
-Corrupting the youth of Athens.
Period: 460 BCE to 370 BCE
Infinite number of atoms.
Mechanical universe consisting of atoms.
Period: 460 BCE to 400 BCE
Critical analysis applied to political history.
Strove for factual accuracy.
Sought to discover larger principles behind the details of human events.
Rejected myths & legends.
Period: 448 BCE to 380 BCE
Comic plays ridiculed statesmen, intellectuals, government.
Critical of decay of Athenian morality & traditional values.
Corruption & waste angered him.
Wrote 40 plays, 11 survived today.
Period: 431 BCE to 404 BCE
Peloponnesian WarDelian League (Athens) VS Peloponnesian League (Sparta)
Peloponnesian League invaded Attica
-Inflicted damage but not decisively so
-Plague kills 33% of Athenians, including Pericles
-Truce in 421 bce
Athenians attempt to colonize Sicily
Period: 429 BCE to 347 BCE
Plato: The Rational SocietyPerson
Disciple of Socrates.
Theory of Ideas.
Theory of Just State.
Influenced by Peloponnesian War.
Sought permanent truth & moral certainty.
PoliticsOligarchs gain control
-The Four Hundred
-Restrict citizenship to 4,000 men
-Challenged & briefly overpowered by forces loyal to the democrats.
End of Peloponnesian WarSparta resumes fight against Athens & defeats the city.
-Delian League is Dissolved.
-Athenian walls are reduced.
-Athenian navy is reduced.
End of Athenian hegemony.
Shatters the spirit of Hellenic society.
Period: 400 BCE to 301 BCE
The Fourth CenturyCivilization
Weakened Athens no longer led the Greeks.
Fighting among the city-states & within the city-states (civil wars)
The Fourth CenturyCivilization
There were no more independent Greek city-states except for Sparta.
As the city-states destroyed themselves, Phillip II of Macedonia began to organize his troops.
Gradual extension of Macedonian power until all were under the rule of Phillip II.
Period: 384 BCE to 322 BCE
Aristotle: A Synthesis of Greek ThoughtPerson
Pupil at Plato's Academy
Tutor of Alexander the Great
Founded the Lyceum
Organized & systematized the thought & work of the Pre-Socratic's, Socrates, & Plato.
Addressed: Ethics, Physics, Logic, Astronomy, Zoology, Botany, Rhetoric,Poetry, Anatomy, & Metaphysics.
Ethical Thought & Political Thought