Social Studies Final Timeline

  • 120,000 BCE


    a. Who: closest ancient human relatives
    b. What: extinct human species
    c. When: Ice Age 398,000 BCE
    d. Where: Eurasia
    e. Why: extinct because unable to adapt hunting methods during the Ice Age, long term inbreeding
  • 99,000 BCE

    Skhul People

    The Skhul/Qafzeh hominins or Qafzeh–Skhul early modern humans are hominin fossils discovered in the Qafzeh and Es Skhul Caves in Israel. They are today classified as Homo sapiens, among the earliest of their species in Eurasia.
  • 10,000 BCE

    Neolithic Revolution

    The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population.
  • 9000 BCE


    The Natufians foraged for food such as emmer wheat, barley, and almonds, and hunted gazelle, deer, cattle, horse, and wild boar.
  • 9000 BCE


    Jericho is one of the earliest continuous settlements in the world, dating perhaps from about 9000 BCE. Archaeological excavations have demonstrated Jericho’s lengthy history. The city’s site is of great archaeological importance; it provides evidence of the first development of permanent settlements and thus of the first steps toward civilization.
  • 8000 BCE

    Fertile Crescent

    In Mesopotamia (between the rivers). The Fertile Crescent is a crescent-shaped region in the Middle East incorporating the Levant, Ancient Mesopotamia, and Ancient Egypt, known as the "Cradle of Civilization." The region was named the "Fertile Crescent" because of its rich soil and half-moon shape.
  • 7200 BCE


    The Faiyum (also given as Fayoum, Fayum, and Faiyum Oasis) was a region of ancient Egypt known for its fertility and the abundance of plant and animal life.The basin filled, attracting wildlife and encouraging plant growth, which then drew human beings to the area at some point prior to c. 7200 BCE
  • 6200 BCE


    the best example of an early neolithic town where the transition to a fully settled existence has been satisfactorily achieved. Food is produced by agriculture, with the cultivation of wheat and barley, and by the breeding of cattle. A surplus of food enables specialist crafts to develop. Located in turkey.
  • 4000 BCE


    Located in Mesopotamia. Sumer was first settled by humans from 4500 to 4000 B.C., though it is probable that some settlers arrived much earlier.Sumer was an ancient civilization founded in the Mesopotamia region of the Fertile Crescent situated between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Known for their innovations in language, governance, architecture and more, Sumerians are considered the creators of civilization as modern humans understand it.
  • 3300 BCE

    Out of Africa

    The earliest recorded civilization of humans came from out of Africa.
  • 3000 BCE

    Yangzte River Valley

    he Yangtze River is the third longest river in the world, and the largest one in China. The river winds for about 3,964 miles, originating from the Tanggula Range in the Qinghai Province of western China, and ultimately draining into the East China Sea at Shanghai
  • 2900 BCE


    Babylon is the most famous city from ancient Mesopotamia whose ruins lie in modern-day Iraq 59 miles (94 kilometres) southwest of Baghdad. The name is thought to derive from bav-il or bav-ilim which, in the Akkadian language of the time, meant 'Gate of God' or `Gate of the Gods' and `Babylon' coming from Greek.
  • 2686 BCE

    Old Kingdom

    The "Old Kingdom" is a period of time during the history of Ancient Egypt. It lasted from 2575 BC to 2150 BC. Over these 400 years, Egypt had a strong central government and a prosperous economy. The Old Kingdom is most famous as a time when many pyramids were built.
  • 2500 BCE

    Mohenjo Daro and Harappa

    Mohenjo-daro was built in the 26th century BCE. It was one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, also known as the Harappan Civilization, which developed around 3,000 BCE from the prehistoric Indus culture. Located in Pakistan.
  • 2040 BCE

    Middle Kingdom

    The Middle Kingdom (mid-Dynasty 11–Dynasty 14, ca. 2030–1650 B.C.) began when Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II reunited Upper and Lower Egypt, setting the stage for a second great flowering of Egyptian culture. Thebes came into prominence for the first time, serving as capital and artistic center during Dynasty 11.
  • 800 BCE

    Ancient Greece

    The Greeks made important contributions to philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, and medicine. The Greeks were known for their sophisticated sculpture and architecture. Greek culture influenced the Roman Empire and many other civilizations, and it continues to influence modern cultures today.
  • 800 BCE

    Alexander the great

    Alexander the Great served as king of Macedonia from 336 to 323 B.C. During his time of leadership, he united Greece, reestablished the Corinthian League and conquered the Persian Empire.
  • 753 BCE


    Ancient Rome was founded by the two brothers, and demigods, Romulus and Remus, on 21 April 753 BCE. The legend claims that in an argument over who would rule the city (or, in another version, where the city would be located) Romulus killed Remus and named the city after himself. This story of the founding of Rome is the best known but it is not the only one.
  • 550 BCE


    Persia, historic region of southwestern Asia associated with the area that is now modern Iran. ... The people of that region have traditionally called their country Iran, “Land of the Aryans.” That name was officially adopted in 1935.
  • 221 BCE

    Qin Dynasty

    The main achievement of the Qin is the fact that it unified China, creating the first dynasty ruled by the first emperor Qin Shi Huang. Other well-known achievements is the creation of the Great Wall and a large army of Terracotta Warriors.
  • 300

    Rise of Religion: Christianity

    In 313 CE, the emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan, which granted Christianity—as well as most other religions—legal status. While this was an important development in the history of Christianity, it was not a total replacement of traditional Roman beliefs with Christianity.
  • 400

    Alaric and the Goths Sack Rome

    Alaric. Alaric, (born c. 370, Peuce Island [now in Romania]—died 410, Cosentia, Bruttium [now Cosenza, Italy]), chief of the Visigoths from 395 and leader of the army that sacked Rome in August 410, an event that symbolized the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
  • 500

    Rise of Religion: Buddism in India

    When Gautama passed away around 483 B.C., his followers began to organize a religious movement. Buddha's teachings became the foundation for what would develop into Buddhism. In the 3rd century B.C., Ashoka the Great, the Mauryan Indian emperor, made Buddhism the state religion of India.
  • 540

    The Empire Strikes Back

    Constantine divided empire into 2 parts; Rome capital of western empire, Constantinople capital of eastern empire (Bisintine). When Rome fell, it was just the western empire that fell, not the eastern.
  • 600

    Rise of Religion: Islam in Iraq (Persia)

    Most Persians Iraqis belong to Twelver Shīʿa Islam, the same religion that most Iraqis belong to. However, a significant portion of them are of Sayyid Iranian heritage of Arab origin which were moved to Iran under the Safavids and returned to Arab lands after the fall of the Safavids.
  • 732

    Battle of Tours

    Kept the Moors from entering France.
  • 793

    Vikings from Scandinavia

    The vikings attacked a lot of churches while looking for land. They raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of Europe, and explored westwards to Iceland, Greenland, and Vinland.
  • 800


    Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, was king of the Franks between 768 and 814, and emperor of the West between 800 and 814. He founded the Holy Roman Empire, strengthened European economic and political life, and promoted the cultural revival known as the Carolingian Renaissance.
  • 1066

    Battle of Hastings – Anglos and the Saxons

    William the Conqueror was a Norman duke when he won the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066 — a victory that would ultimately lead to him taking the English crown. Although William's army won the battle decisively, it was hard-fought on both sides and unusually long by medieval standards.
  • 1162

    Genghis Khan

    Wanted to prove himself
    - Tribal leader of Mongolian nomads
    - Key to success: horses
    - Domesticated 5000 years before him
    - Cover up to 300 miles per day
    - Used to communicate over the world’s largest empire to date – over twice the size of the US
    - Raped countless women
  • 1270

    The Crusades

    The Crusades were a series of military campaigns organised by popes and Christian western powers in order to take Jerusalem and the Holy Land back from Muslim control and then defend those gains.
  • 1337

    Kussik Khul

    Diseases start spreading, killing 4 people from the plague
    - Jani Beg – descendant of Genghis Khan – one man responsible for spreading the plague to Europe – killed his brother for power – wanted to expand the empire westward
    - The plague was killing his men faster than they can be replaced – shot his dead soldiers as chemical bombs into villages – first biological weapon in Kaffa
    - Kaffa people fled to Italy – brought the diseases with them
  • 1346

    The Black Plague

    The Black Death, also known as the Pestilence (Pest for short), the Great Plague or the Plague, or less commonly the Black Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
  • 1349

    Plague rages across Europe

    -Mankind looking for someone to blame for the plague – weak and irrational
    - Thought the Jews were poisoning the water – anger confusion, prejudice
    - When fear grips mankind, minorities are an easy target
    -Feb. 14 – St. Valentine’s Day Massacre – Jews had to choose to convert or die in Germany – 1000 Jews buried alive
  • 1400

    Renaissance – “Age of Enlightenment”

    The Enlightenment emerged out of a European intellectual and scholarly movement known as Renaissance humanism. ... In France, the central doctrines of the Enlightenment philosophers were individual liberty and religious tolerance, in opposition to an absolute monarchy and the fixed dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church.
  • 1492

    Cristobal Colón (Christopher Columbus)

    • Was never on mainland America, wasn’t responsible for setting up trade with Americas
    • Never knew where he was – thought he was in India
    • Didn’t prove the world was round
    • Wasn’t on a voyage of discovery – was seeking business
    • 1492 – Moors pushed out of Spain and pushed into Northern Africa
  • Roanoke – the Lost Colony

    The settlers, who arrived in 1587, disappeared in 1590, leaving behind only two clues: the words "Croatoan" carved into a fort's gatepost and "Cro" etched into a tree. Theories about the disappearance have ranged from an annihilating disease to a violent rampage by local Native American tribes.
  • Jamestown

    Jamestown was the first successful colony set up by Great Britain in the New World. Some colonists even resulted to cannibalism, but the colonists endured and made Jamestown, Virginia a permanent colony and establishing the foundation for the eventual United States of America that would come in the next century.
  • Plymouth

    The town holds a place of great prominence in American history, folklore, and culture, and is known as "America's Hometown."
  • Maryland

    The Maryland Colony's original name was the Province of Maryland. The Maryland Colony was founded as a refuge for English Catholics. Although the settlers in the Maryland Colony grew a variety of crops, the major export was tobacco.
  • Minnesota Early People

    The Dakota and Ojibwe (also called Chippewa or Anishinabe) Indians lived in Minnesota when the first Europeans arrived. Many Dakota, Ojibwe and other American Indians still live here today.
  • New York

    The New York Colony was originally a Dutch colony called New Amsterdam, founded by Peter Minuit in 1626 on Manhattan Island. In 1664 the Dutch surrendered the colony to the English and it was renamed New York, after the Duke of York.
  • Pennsylvania

    On March 4, 1681, Charles II of England granted the Province of Pennsylvania to William Penn to settle a debt of £16,000 (around £2,100,000 in 2008, adjusting for retail inflation) that the king owed to Penn's father. Penn founded a proprietary colony that provided a place of religious freedom for Quakers.
  • Carolinas

    The South Carolina Colony was founded by the British in 1663 and was one of the 13 original colonies. It was founded by eight nobles with a Royal Charter from King Charles II and was part of the group of Southern Colonies, along with the North Carolina, Virginia, Georgia, and Maryland.
  • Salem

    The infamous Salem witch trials began during the spring of 1692, after a group of young girls in Salem Village, Massachusetts, claimed to be possessed by the devil and accused several local women of witchcraft. By September 1692, the hysteria had begun to abate and public opinion turned against the trials.
  • Georgia

    The three reasons for settlement were Charity, Economics, and Defense. 1) Charity: King George II had his prisons filled with people who didn't deserve to be there, and he needed a place to put them, because the place was overflowing.
  • French & Indian War

    Where: Ohio river valley
    What: English and French battled for colonial domination, Britain was provided with enormous territorial gains in north America
  • Taxation without Representation

    Where: 13 original colonies
    What: imposing taxes on people who have no control over taxing authority; one of the major causes for revolution; colonist resenting British parliament
  • Boston Massacre

    Where: Boston, Massachusetts
    What: Killed 5 colonists, fueled anti-British views that helped start revolutionary war
  • Boston tea party

    Where: Boston, Massachusetts
    What: No taxation without representation, dumped 342 boxes of tea in harbor because angry about tea taxes
  • Lexington and Concord

    Where: Middlesex providence
    What: destroy British weapons, shot heard round the world, start of revolutionary war
  • Articles of Confederation

    • The original constitution of the US
    • Was replaced by the US Constitution in 1789.
  • The 3 branches of government

    • The Legislative Branch to make the laws. Congress is made up of two houses, the Senate and the House of Representatives.
    • The Executive Branch to enforce the laws.
    • The Judicial Branch to interpret the laws.
  • Constitution

    • preamble
    • Articles 1-7
    • Amendments 1-27
  • The bill of rights

    Ratified in December 15, 1791, created September 25, 1789
    The first 10 amendments to the Constitution make up the Bill of Rights.
  • Lewis and Clark:

    May 1804- September 1806.
    - Their objective was to explore and map the newly acquired territory, find a practical route across the western half of the continent, and establish an American presence in this territory before Britain and other European powers tried to claim it.
    - Louisiana purchase 1803
    - Meriwether Lewis
  • War of 1812

    - James Madison was the president, last of the BIG FIVE. The first 5 presidents were all founders of the United States and signers of the declaration.
    - Cause: a series of economic sanctions by the British and French against the U.S.
    as part of the Napoleonic Wars.
    - Star spangled banner created
  • Treaty of Traverse De Sioux

    The Treaty of Traverse des Sioux of 1851 is an agreement between the Sisseton and Wahpeton bands of Dakota and the U.S. government. It transferred ownership of much of southern and western Minnesota from the Dakota to the United States.
  • The Civil War (Succession, Blockade, Shiloh, Gettysburg, March to the sea)

    - The resolved two fundamental questions left unresolved by the revolution:
    - Whether the united states was to be an indivisible nation with a sovereign national government
    - Whether this nation would continue to exist as the largest slaveholding country in the world
  • Dakota Uprising

    During the war, the Dakota made extensive attacks on hundreds of settlers and immigrants, which resulted in settler deaths, and caused many to flee the area. The mass hanging of 38 Dakota men was conducted on December 26, 1862, in Mankato, Minnesota; it was the largest mass execution in United States history.
  • Slavery to Jim Crow

    • Eli Whitney
    • The cotton gin
  • Reconstruction

    - Under administration of president Andrew Johnson in 1865 and 1866
    - Passed restrictive “black codes” to control the labor and behavior of former slaves and other African Americans
    - The radical reconstruction began in 1867
  • Jim Crow Laws

    Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States. All were enacted in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by white Democratic-dominated state legislatures after the Reconstruction period.
  • America during and after World War 1

    WWI was largely a stalemate until the US entered the war. Its large population and many resources tipped the balance and allowed the Allied Powers to win the war soon after the US entered. The American troops were fresh because we didn't join the war until April 1917. Our rested troops were a big asset for the Allies.
  • The Great Depression

    The Great Depression was the worst economic downturn in the history of the industrialized world, lasting from 1929 to 1939. It began after the stock market crash of October 1929, which sent Wall Street into a panic and wiped out millions of investors.
  • America during and after World War 2

    When World War II ended, the United States was in better economic condition than any other country in the world. Building on the economic base left after the war, American society became more affluent in the postwar years than most Americans could have imagined in their wildest dreams before or during the war.
  • War Protests

    The first third of the 1960s student movement was dedicated to resolving issues involving civil rights, poverty and liberating college students. At first, students gathered to protest the war in general. They chided the war as an unnecessary display of imperialism by the United States.