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End of the Year Project: World History

  • Period: 4000 BCE to 2000 BCE


    people of Sumer, among earliest denizens of Mesopotamia; By 4000 BCE, organized themselves into several indepenedent city-states spread throughout southern region; created their own language; usually always fought each other for control; religion very important; developed complex system of writing and an efficient system of record keeping and maintenance.
  • Period: 3100 BCE to 30 BCE


    started from the reign of Egypt's first king, Narmer; used hieroglyphics to communicate, record, and anything needing to be written down or sent to someone else; mummified royals as a way to preserve life;
  • 2630 BCE

    Creation of Egyptian Pyramids

    Creation of Egyptian Pyramids
    Built during a time when Egypt was one of the richest and most powerful civilizations in the world, the pyramids—especially the Great Pyramids of Giza—are some of the most magnificent man-made structures in history. Their massive scale reflects the unique role that the pharaoh, or king, played in ancient Egyptian society.
  • 2000 BCE

    Judaism founded

    Judaism founded
    Judaism is one of the oldest monotheistic religions and was founded over 3500 years ago in the Middle East. Jews believe that God appointed the Jews to be his chosen people in order to set an example of holiness and ethical behaviour to the world.
  • Period: 1810 BCE to 1750 BCE


    sixth Babylonian king; created one of the earliest and most complete ancient legal codes, also expanded the city-state of Babylon along the Euphrates River to unite all southern Mesopotamia (reigned from 1792 to 1750 B.C.)
  • 1800 BCE

    First Alphabet created

    First Alphabet created
    created by the Phoenicians; Sometime during the second millennium B.C. (estimated between 1850 and 1700 B.C.), a group of Semitic-speaking people adapted a subset of Egyptian hieroglyphics to represent the sounds of their language. This Proto-Sinaitic script is often considered the first alphabetic writing system, where unique symbols stood for single consonants (vowels were omitted).
  • 1754 BCE

    Hammurabi Code

    Hammurabi Code
    well-preserved Babylonian law code of ancient Mesopotamia; one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world, created by Hammurabi himself
  • Period: 1500 BCE to 539 BCE


    ancient civilization composed of independent city-states which lay along coast of Mediterranean Sea stretching through now Syria, Lebannon, and northern Israel; maritime trader and manufacturing center; skill in ship-building, glass-making, production of dyes, and manufacturing of luxury and common goods.
  • Period: 1400 BCE to 500 BCE


    first major civilization in Guatemala and Mexico following a progressive development in Soconusco and modern southwestern pacific lowlands of Guatemala; forerunner of all subsequent Mesoamerican cultures such as Mayas and Aztecs
  • Period: 1303 BCE to 1213 BCE

    Ramses II

    also referred to as Ramses the Great; third Egyptian pharaoh of 19th Dynasty... greatest, most powerful, most celebrated of Egyptian Empire (reigned 1279 BC - 1213 BC).
  • 776 BCE

    First Olympic Games

    First Olympic Games
    Although the ancient Games were staged in Olympia, Greece, from 776 BC through 393 AD, it took 1503 years for the Olympics to return; the first modern Olympics were held in Athens, Greece, in 1896, and the man responsible for its rebirth was a Frenchman named Baron Pierre de Coubertin, who presented the idea in 1894.
  • Period: 551 BCE to 479 BCE


    One of a handful of humans who individually affected the history of mankind - Chinese philosopher whose thoughts, expressed Confucianism, which usually were expressed in short phrases which can be interpreted many ways;
  • Period: 518 BCE to 465 BCE

    Xerxes the Great

    Xerxes I (ruled 486 - 465 BCE) was the Shahanshah (king of kings) of the Persian Empire; failed invasion of Greece, assassinated by Artabanus
  • Period: 469 BCE to 399 BCE


    founding figure of Western philosophy, at once the most exemplary and the strangest of the Greek philosophers; grew in golden age of Pericles' Athens, best-known questioner & creator of the Socratic Method - sentenced to death after accused of corrupting the youth of Athens (died from poisonous hemlock)
  • Period: 428 BCE to 347 BCE


    Athenian philosopher - one of the most important figures of Ancient Greek world and entire history of Western thought. Through written dialogues, he conveyed and expanded on the ideas and techniques of his teacher Socrates.
  • Period: 400 BCE to Dec 16, 940


    along southern coast of Red Sea, which made it perfect to be a major center of trade; became blend of many cultures due to the international trading; built tall towers instead of pyramids;
  • Period: 356 BCE to 323 BCE

    Alexander the Great

    Macedonian king; was born to parents King Philip II and Queen Olympia, aided Philip in defeating Athenian And Theban armies at Chaeronea. One of History's brilliant military leaders and most powerful rulers; died at age 32
  • 280 BCE

    Legalism established

    Legalism established
    Legalism in ancient China was a philosophical belief that human beings are more inclined to do wrong than right because they are motivated entirely by self interest. It was developed by the philosopher Han Feizi; Even though Legalism during the Qin Dynasty resulted in huge loss of life and culture, it should be remembered that the philosophy developed during a time of constant warfare in China when each state fought every other for control.
  • 264 BCE

    Punic Wars

    Punic Wars
    The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC. At the time, they were probably the largest wars that had ever taken place; the main cause of the Punic Wars was the conflicts of interest between the existing Carthaginian Empire and the expanding Roman Republic. The Romans were initially interested in expansion via Sicily (which at that time was a cultural melting pot), part of which lay under Carthaginian control.
  • Period: 206 BCE to 220

    Han Dynasty

    first unified and powerful empire in Chinese history; established by Liu Bang; one of the longest Chinese dynasties; opening and creation of the Silk Road; made Confucianism official state ideology
  • Period: 100 to Aug 13, 1521


    originally nomadic tribe in northern Mexico, arrived in Mesoamerica; capital city: Tenochtitlan; developed intricate social, political, religious, and commercial organization, brought many of the region's city-states under their control; overthrew by Hernan Cortes
  • Period: 300 to Dec 16, 900


    one of the greatest civilization in history, agricultural people, built pyramids and great cities; developed an accurate 365-day calendar; headed by kings; left behind impressive architecture and symbolic artwork
  • Period: 300 to Dec 16, 1100

    Kingdom of Ghana

    located in Western Africa, just south of the Sahara in the savanna grasslands; used the major rivers in the region as modes of transportation and trade; main source of wealth and trade was gold and iron, used to make weapons, and tools while gold was used to trade with other nations for much needed livestock, tools, and cloths
  • Period: 570 to Jun 8, 632


    a.k.a. Prophet Muhammad - creator/founder of Islam, merchant; accepted by Muslims throughout the world as the last of the prophets of God.
  • Period: Dec 14, 742 to Dec 15, 814


    In the 9th Century, Charlemagne rules over most of Europe and brings a renaissance of religion and culture to the continent; king of the Franks, ensured survival of Christianity in the West (sometimes referred to as the father of Europe).
  • Jun 15, 1215

    Magna Carta is signed

    Magna Carta is signed
    Following a revolt by the English nobility against his rule, King John puts his royal seal on the Magna Carta, or “Great Charter.” The document, essentially a peace treaty between John and his barons, guaranteed that the king would respect feudal rights and privileges, uphold the freedom of the church, and maintain the nation’s laws.
  • Period: Dec 14, 1280 to Dec 15, 1337

    Mansa Musa

    Fourteenth Century Emperor of the Mali Empire, medieval African ruler most known to the world outside Africa; pilgrimage to the Muslim holy city in 1324 introduced him to rulers in the Middle East and in Europe (on which he gave gold to everyone along the way).
  • Oct 16, 1347

    Black Death

    Black Death
    The Black Death arrived in Europe by sea in October 1347 when 12 Genoese trading ships docked at the Sicilian port of Messina after a long journey through the Black Sea; Most of the sailors aboard the ships were dead, and those who were still alive were gravely ill. They were overcome with fever, unable to keep food down and delirious from pain. Strangest of all, they were covered in mysterious black boils that oozed blood and pus and gave their illness its name: the “Black Death.”
  • Period: Dec 15, 1438 to Dec 16, 1533


    created by Pachacuti in the Andes Mountains, self-proclaimed Sapa Inca (emperor); close-knit communtites (ayllus); farmers; capital city: Cuzco; learned to alloy metals
  • The Great Schism

    The Great Schism
    The East–West Schism, also called the Great Schism and the Schism of 1054, was the break of communion between what are now the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches, which has lasted since the 11th century.