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2017 Kai Ru Bok Dalat World history

By krbok
  • Period: 10,000 BCE to 500 BCE

    Chapter 3 - Early Fertile Cresent people

    Mesopotamians, The Akkadian Empire, Sumerians, The Babylonians, The Hittites and Kassites, Chaldeans, The Phoenicians.
  • 3100 BCE

    Lesson 4.1 - Ancient Egypt: The First and Second dynasty

    In 3100 BC, Menes gained power in Upper Egypt, and had a plan of uniting Upper and Lower Egypt. Menes' armies invaded Lower Egypt and took control of both kingdoms. He then married a princess from Lower Egypt to strengthen the unified Egypt. He combined the crowns from both kingdoms, which became a double crown. The First and Second Dynasties lasted for about 4 centuries.
  • Period: 3100 BCE to 350

    Chapter 4 - Ancient Egypt and Kush

    The First and Second dynasties lasted for 4 centuries, then the Old Kingdom took over in 2700 BC then lasted to 2200 BC. The Middle Kingdom started in 2200 BC. 1550 BC, the New Kingdom started and ended in 1050 BC.
  • 2700 BCE

    Lesson 4.2 - Egypt: Old Kingdom

    After the First and Second Dynasties (or Ancient Egypt) ended the third dynasty started. This dynasty was called the Old Kingdom. The people in the Old Kingdom believed that the pharaohs were both king and god. They also created the pyramid in the Old Kingdom.
  • 2300 BCE

    Lesson 5.1 - Early India- Harrappa and Mohenjo Daro civilization

    The first two cities in India were Harappa and Mohenjo Daro, these two cities were part of Early India's first civilization which was called the Harappan civilization. Both cities lay on the Indus river, but are more than 300 miles apart. However, according to archaeologists, were very similar. One of the greatest achievements in Harappan was almost every house in both cities had bathrooms with indoor plumbing.
  • Period: 2300 BCE to 500

    Chapter 5 - Ancient India

    Ancient India is considered a subcontinent, a subcontinent is a large piece of land, but is smaller than a continent. India has the famous Himalayan mountains to its Northeast. They believed in many things, like Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism. The Indians had a way to keep order, but put many people in sadness. It was the caste system, which divided the people into four groups. The highest of the caste system was the Brahmins or priests.
  • 2200 BCE

    Lesson 6.1 - China - China's first dynasties

    the first China civilization started near the Houng He river, or the Yellow river. The first dynasty was called the Xia dynasty, they farmed along the Chang Jiang and Huang He rivers, which would bring fertile silt when it floods. When rich people died, they would fill their tomb with very wonderful jewelry made of jade. Jade was very precious to the Chinese at that time, since it was a hard gemstone. The Shang dynasty came to power, and they made oracle bones that would tell the future.
  • 2050 BCE

    Lesson 4.3 - Egypt: Middle Kingdom

    When the Old Kingdom lost its power in 2200 BC, for the next 160 years nobles battled each other for power. Finally at 2050 BC, a pharaoh named Mentuhotep the second, rose to power and controlled Egypt. The Middle Kingdom lasted until 1750 BC.
  • 2000 BCE

    Lesson 5.1 - Ancient India- The Aryans

    The Aryans developed the Caste System, which separated people into different Varnas or groups. There were four different types of Varnas, there was the Brahmins (priests), Kshatriyas (rulers and warriors), Vaisyas (farmers, craftspeople,and traders), and the Sudras (slaves or non-Aryans). Brahmins were the top of the Caste system, and Sudras at the bottom. Their were rules which made people miserable if they were in a lower varnas. A person couldn't eat or marry another person in another caste.
  • 2000 BCE

    Lesson 5.2 - Ancient India- Aryan Migration

    In the early 1700s BC, the Harappan civilization started to fall. Archaeologists are not sure how their civilization crumbled, however they believe that it may be from natural disasters or invaders. Soon after Harappa and Mohenjo Daro was destroyed, the Aryans (a group from the Caspian Sea in Central Asia, took over). The Aryans took over in 2000 BC. The Aryans lived in small groups, unlike the Harappans, they based this small groups on family ties.
  • 2000 BCE

    Lesson 8.1 - Greece - The early Greek people

    The Minoans and the Mycenaens were the first two groups in Greece. The Mycenaens lived on the mountains, it gave them good protection, however it also cost them isolation from other cultures and farmland. The Minoans also lived on an island, but they stayed by the sea, which made them become one of the greatest shipbuilders of their time. Although the Minoans helped build Greek history, historians don't consider them as Greek people, because they don't speak Greek.
  • 2000 BCE

    Lesson 8.3 - Greece - Greek Mythology and literature

    Greece made explanations to why things happen, which created the Greek gods. They believed that everything that happens is the god's will, such as earthquakes and thunder. Ancient Greek literature was also an important part in Greek culture, Homer was a very famous writer for epic poetry (tales of heroes and their deeds), such as the Odyssey and the Iliad. Another famous writer is Aesop, who wrote fables or stories with advice.
  • Period: 2000 BCE to 500 BCE

    Chapter 8 - Ancient Greece

    The Greek people were an important part in our world, they made many myths that we read today and help shape cultures in our world with their way of leading their country.
  • 1995 BCE

    Lesson 3.4 - Asia Minor (Present: Turkey) The Hitties and Kassites

    The Hitties and Kassites built a powerful kingdom in Asia Minor. The Hitties used the chariot, a wheeled horse powered cart, when they went to battle, which gave the, the upper hand.
  • 1800 BCE

    Lesson 3.4 - Euphrates River (Present: Baghdad, Babylonians)

    The rise of Babylonians The Babylonians lived near the Euphrates river around 2000 BC. In 1792 BC, Hammurabi became Babylon's monarch. Hammurabi was famous for his code, Hammurabi's code. The code consisted of 282 laws that Hammurabi wrote himself. Hammurabi was a great monarch and leader, however he only ruled for 42 years. After his death the Babylonians became weak,and they got conquered by the Hitties and Kassites. Mordern day connection: Without Hammurab's code we wouldn't have a law.
  • 1700 BCE

    Lesson 5.2 - India- Aryan religion

    The Aryan religion was based on the Vedas. Vedas contained old hymns and poems. They believed in Hinduism, which was polytheistic, above all of them there was three major Gods: Brahma the Creator, Siva the Destroyer, and Vishnu the Preserver. They believed that Brahma, Siva and Vishnu are aspects of Brahman. They also believe that everyone has an atman or soul, if your atman is good then you will join Brahman, however if you aren't good then you will reincarnate.
  • Period: 1600 BCE to 1 CE

    Chapter 6 - Ancient China

    China was one of the many river valley civilizations. The Chinese used the Haung He river (or the Yellow River) and the Chang Jiang River (or the Yangzi River). There were many dynasties, the Xia, Shang, Zhou, Qin, and Han were all the dynasties of China, which what made China what it is today.
  • 1550 BCE

    Lesson 4.3 - Egypt: New Kingdom

    In the 1700s BC a group from Southwest Asia (Hyksos) conquered all of Lower Egypt. The Hyksos ruled for 200 years. The Egyptians fought back in 1500 BC with a leader Ahmose. When Ahmose led the Egyptians to victory, he declared himself the new king of all Egypt. He started the New Kingdom. In the New Kingdom the people made trade routes for the traders or merchants to follow.
  • 1200 BCE

    Lesson 3.4 - Northern Mesopotamia, The Assyrians

    The Assyrians first took over Babylon, however they got taken over by invaders. They took around 300 years to recover their strength, and after they did they started to take over the whole Fertile Crescent with parts of Asia Minor and Egypt.
  • 1100 BCE

    Lesson 6.2 - China - the Zhou dynasty

    the Zhou dynasty started when a leader joined forces with nearby tribes and overthrew the Shang dynasty. The Zhou also had their own "social hierarchy", the king came first, then the lords and warriors, after them were the peasants. The dynasty's power declined when a group of attackers invaded the capital. They entered the Warring States period when they began to have internal problems. They mostly depended on the structure of their family, but families started to separate and lose their power.
  • 900 BCE

    Lesson 9.2 - Sparta/Athens - Sparta and Athens

    Sparta was strick in their training, they forced boys and men to train to fight. Women had many rights, they had education, and was allowed to do more important jobs other than household things. Athens believed in education, so they didn't train as much as Spartans, however they stayed in the army their whole life. Women also didn't have as many rights as Spartan women. Sparta and Athens fought a lot, which started the Peloponnesian War, where the Delian league fought Peloponnesian league.
  • 800 BCE

    Lesson 3.4 - Present : Lebanon, the Phoenicians

    The Phoenicians were the most probably the first pirates in the world. They were famous for making the alphabet, the alphabet spread when they went on their trading routes.
  • 800 BCE

    Lesson 10.1 - Italy/Rome - Geography and the Rise of Rome

    They had the Alps and the Apennines to protect them from other people, as well as hills, since Italy wasn’t to flat. The climate there has warm summers and rainy winters. Rome’s early history is unknown, because there is no written records. However, in later times Romans made legends of their past. Roman Government was made a republic. Soon some people took control and became a dictator. Plebeians had no say on anything so they made their own government and elected their own officials.
  • Period: 753 BCE to 27 BCE

    Chapter 10 - The Roman Republic

    The Roman’s had many legends of very different things. The Romans also were very organized people they many things to keep things in order. Even though they are organized people, they also fought and conquered places.
  • 652 BCE

    Lesson 3.4 - Babylon, The Chaldeans

    Led by the most famous Babylonian leader, Nebuchadnezzar, the Chaldean rebuilt Babylon into an amazing city. According to legend the palace had hanging gardens and flowers growing on the roof.
  • 585 BCE

    Lesson 9.1 - Persia- Greece and Persia

    Cyrus the great was a famous Persian ruler, he was famous for how he treated his conquered people. He was a flexible ruler, becuse he let them keep their customs and beliefs, that is mostly why people didn't rebel against him. His army had a calvary (people who ride on horses) and the Immortals (very skilled warriors), together they were very strong. He, Cambyses, and Darius I made the Persian empire powerful across, Persia, Egypt, and Asia Minor. They also attacked Greece twice but lost twice.
  • Period: 550 BCE to 30 BCE

    Chapter 9 - The Greek World

    The Greeks were one of the greatest conquers ever, like Alexander the Great who conquered almost half of the world. It had many powerful cities such as Sparta and Athens, and it also us advance in architecture.
  • 500 BCE

    Lesson 5.3 - India- Origins of Buddhism

    Siddhartha Gautama was a prince who grew up in luxury, he felt something was missing, so he left home at the age of 30. He wandered for years, then he rested under a tree. After seven weeks of meditation, he finally realized why we suffer. Suffering comes from three things: wanting things but do not have, wanting to keep what we like and already have, and not wanting what we dislike but have. He was later named Buddha, meaning the enlightened one. People later started to believe his teachings.
  • 500 BCE

    Lesson 8.2 - Athens - Gorvernment in Athens

    Athens has been ruled by three different types of government, democracy, oligarchy, and tyranny. Oligarchy was the first type of government to rule Athens, they voted for a person (usually a rich person) to lead them and hope that they would deliver what they want. The gorvenment was then democratic, which meant they ruled together. However in the 546 BC, Peisistratus, brought in a new idea called tyranny, to rule with force. It may seem harsh, but Greece became very prosperous.
  • 500 BCE

    Lesson 9.4 - Greece - Greek Achievements

    Greeks were famous for their paintings and sculptures, their sculptures were especially special, because of the realistic features and looks. Greek architecture was also very well known, the Parthenon is a famous temple in Athens, it is popular, because of the pillars. The pillars were slanted in the middle to prevent it to look curved in the middle. The Greeks also had the first kind philosophy, founded by Socrates. Euclid also contributed to today's mathematics.
  • 500 BCE

    Lesson 13.1 - Africa - Landforms

    Traditional African villages families are on the top of the social hierarchy. Surprisingly, the Council of Elders in at the bottom. The people believed in animism, the belief that everything has a spirit. African mountains extend alongside rifts, it is formed by movement from the Earth's crust, which makes long deep valleys. Rain forests, savannas and the Sahel are all sub-Saharan meaning below the Sahara.
  • Period: 500 BCE to

    Chapter 13 - Early African Civilizations

    Africa is home to many great land forms and animals such as the Sahara Desert, the biggest desert in the world (arguably) and the Sahel, which separates the Sahara with the wetter areas: savannas and rain forests.
  • Period: 500 BCE to 1537

    Chapter 16 - The Early Americans

    The Early Americans consisted of the Mayans, Aztecs, Incas. The Aztecs were really intrested in human sacrifice and probably sacrificed 28 people every day. Unlike the Aztecs, the Mayans and Incas rarely did human sacrifice, for the Incas they sacrificed llamas instead.
  • 481 BCE

    Lesson 6.2 - China - The Warring States period

    People started to think how they could solve this problem, Confucius was one of them. He was very influential to the people at that time, in addition he is still one of the greatest teachers in Chinese history. He said they needed to move to moral ethics. The Chinese thought of this teaching as Confucianism. He said Fathers should inspire children, children should listen to their parents, and family members should be loyal to each other.
  • 400 BCE

    Lesson 10.2 - Rome - Government and Society

    Plebeians complained about the government, and the city leaders had to do something, because they can overthrow them. The government made some changes, such as offices that only can be held by them. Slowly, the anger between the plebeians and patricians disappeared, this made a tripartite government. There were four different roles in this government: Magistrates (the two most powerful are called consuls), Senates, and Assemblies and Tribunes. They had written laws to keep order and the Forum.
  • 387 BCE

    Lesson 10.3 - Rome - the Late Republic

    Rome became very powerful, by trading and taking over territory. By then they conquered almost the whole of Italy. They became strong by defeating the tribes who attacked them by attacking them back with legions. Rome became very strong so other countries began to attack them, which started the Punic Wars. Hannibal attacked Rome with war elephants, but Rome still won. While the Punic Wars were, happening Rome gained more land and territory.
  • 359 BCE

    Lesson 9.3 - Macedonia - Alexander the Great

    Alexander the Great was a student of a famous philosopher, Aristotle, who was hired by Philip II. Philip II invented the Plalanx, it was a powerful strategy that won him many battles. Alexander continued his father work after he died. He conquered Macedonia, Egypt, Asia Minor, Syria, and the Persian Empire, which was almost half of the world. When he died his three most powerful generals split him empire into three Hellenistic empires, Hellenistic Macedonia, Syria, and Egypt.
  • 320 BCE

    Lesson 5.4 - India- The Mauryan empire

    In the 320s BC, the whole of northern India was under the rule Candragupta Maurya. He had a complex government and 600,000 soldiers, spies, and war elephant and chariots. In 301 BC Candragupta became a Jainist monk.The new king was his son, who conquered most of central India as well during his reign. After Candragupta's son, Asoka became king. Asoka was by far the greatest of all the Mauryan king, because he took over most of India and other kingdoms. The Mauryan, empire ended after Asoka died.
  • 221 BCE

    Lesson 6.3 - China - The Qin dynasty

    Shi Huang di unified all of China by conquering all the other states. He kept peace between the new China with legalism. Shi Huang di made the terracota Warriors thinking that they would protect him when he comes back after his death. Each warrior had different faces and were all in a combat position. However resentment grew to Shi Huang di's laws and the Qin dynasty declined
  • 206 BCE

    Lesson 6.5 - China - Han contacts with other cultures

    Trade increased in the Han dynasty, which made a path for other cultures to come in. They were very famous for their silk, silk was very valuable at the time because it was soft and light. People that made silk were determined to keep their process of silk making a secret, so that they will be wealthy. With the silk making came trade routes, the most used trade route is the Silk Road. The Silk Road is a 4,000-mile-long path that traders use to trade their goods. With that other cultures came.
  • 206 BCE

    Lesson 6.4 - China - The Han dynasty

    The Han dynasty was led by Lui Bang. They believed in the mandate from heaven, which means heaven chose the king for the people. Soon Wudi took the throne, he wanted to make a strong central government. He did so by raising taxes and taking land from lords. He took in confusions mandarin made the people follow it. This way of living made the Han dynasty prosperous. For the first time, peasants were in a high class in the social system. They were right after the king, meaning they were second.
  • 63 BCE

    Lesson 11.2 - Rome - The Roman Empire and Religion

    Romans were very confused about which god is real and which isn’t, so they worshiped whatever god they heard about, because they were concerned in upsetting any Gods. They also were quite fair to the people who doesn’t believe in their gods, because they allowed them to worship whatever god they wanted. However, the Jews didn’t like the Romans and the emperor banned some rituals. When Jesus was born most Jews converted to Christians and listened to Jesus’ teachings. Constantine became Christian.
  • 50 BCE

    Lesson 11.1 - Rome - From Republic to Empire

    There was a lot of disorder in Rome until Cicero told the upper class Romans to band together and make Rome a better place. Generals began to work together and Julius Caesar was one of the most powerful of these generals. He made an alliance with two people in Gaul, Pompey and Crassus, together they ruled Rome. Caesar became very popular and his friends were jealous, they told him to quit but he refused. Caesar became to proud a got stabbed to death by senators. Rome grew more under Marc Antony.
  • Period: 50 BCE to 1453

    Chapter 11 - Rome and Christianity

    The Romans had many emperors that had different perspectives on Christians, such as Nero, who hated the Christians and put them in the colosseum to be killed by animals. However there was Constantine, who became a Chirstian himself, which made it better for the people who believed in Christianity, because they would be allowed to do all their banned rituals.
  • 100

    Lesson 11.3 - Rome - The End of the Empire

    Roman Empire became very big and it was hard to protect the whole empire, so they gave away parts of their empire to other people. Outside tribes attacked parts where their wasn’t much defense and too over. Farmers started quitting, because of the constant raids on their farm. Rome had famine until they decided to hire the Germans to work the farm for them. Germans filled Rome and took over the government and didn’t listen to them, the Huns attacked as well many times and Roman Empire fell.
  • 200

    Lesson 16.1 - Maya - Mayans

    Maya civilization reached its height during 250 AD also known as the Classic age. This included 40 large territories each having its own king to govern it. The king was thought to be related to gods, so he has political and religious power, although he had that power, the priests, merchants, and noble warriors controlled the maya society. The Maya were polytheist, but the Sun god was their ultimate god, that is why they sacrificed people, to give power to him, so that the sun will come out.
  • 300

    Lesson 5.5 - India- Indian acheviments

    The Indians were very advanced in their time. They created great literature stories, and temples. During the Mauryan empire, the Hindu temples were simple and basic, however when the Gupta empire came it became complex and detailed. They also made metallurgy, alloys, Hindu-Arabic numerals, and inoculation. The Indians studied astronomy as well.
  • 320

    Lesson 5.4 - India- The Gupta empire

    After 500 years of a divided India, a new empire came, the Gupta empire. They promoted Hinduism, and soon India became prosperous again. The first emperor was Chandra Gupta I, he took most of northern India. Samudra Gupta was Chandra Gupta's son. By the time he died, he almost taken control of the whole Ganges River Valley. Hinduism was then the most popular religion. Chandra Gupta II continued to expand their empire, however the Huns came at the 400s, ending the Gupta empire.
  • 400

    Lesson 17.1 - Europe - Geography of Europe

    Europe is usually called a continent, however it is part of Asia which makes it a supercontinent called Eurasia. Europe’s shape and elevation of land is different from place to place, such as Southern Europe that has high mountains like the Alps, but in Northern Europe the land is flat.
  • Period: 400 to 1200

    Chapter 17 - The Early Middle Ages

    The Early Middle Ages was ran by Feudalism and Christianity. This was a time when only some lucky people get the chance to get a better job and life by becoming a lord or knight.
  • 500

    Lesson 15.1 - Japan - Early Japan

    The Ainu was the first Japanese people, they lived near seas, which forced them to learn to fish and cook seafood. They lived in clans or extended families, each clan had its own leader to listen too. The Early Japanese believed in Shinto, Shinto talks about different parts of nature, such as the Sun and Animals, have kami. They believed that kami protects the from harm, in return they make shrines to worship them. The Yamato clan took over and Prince Shotoku lead Japan.
  • Period: 550 to

    Chapter 15 - Japan

    Japan is four islands put together Kyushu, Shikoku, Honshu, and Hokkaido. During early Japan, the Japanese lived near coasts and big seas, the first Japanese were the Ainu, since they lived near sea, they spent most of their time fishing and finding seaweed. They were sorted into clans and each clan had its own leader.
  • Period: 550 to

    Chapter 12 - The Islamic World

    The Islams were very similar to the Christians in many religious ways. They never allowed any type of human or animal idol to be in their temple where they worshiped in the mosque. However, their rituals were quite different, if you had the opportunity, Muslims encourage pilgrimage, which means a journey to a sacred place, to Mecca.
  • 570

    Lesson 12.1 - Arabia - The Roots of Islam

    There were two types of people in Arabia, a desert land, nomads and sedentary. Nomads traveled around the desert in search of food and water to stay for awhile, however sendetary people found an oasis, wet fertile area in the desert, to live for a long period of time. Arabs worshipped many Gods until Muhammad discovered a new religion called Islam, Muhammed was a prophet for this new religion, he collected messages and made the Qur’an. Inside was many rituals a Muslim must follow.
  • Period: 589 to

    Chapter 14 - China

    The Chinese were one of the most influential people in history thanks to their many achievements, such as paper, which lead on to more paper-related inventions.
  • 618

    Lesson 14.1 - China - China reunifies

    When the Han dynasty fell, the period of disunion started from 220 to 589. Yang Jian ended the disunion and made the Sui dynasty. During this time the construction of the Grand Canal began. The Golden Age of Chinese civilization was under the Tang dynasty. They had the first book by woodblock printing, gunpowder and the compass. After they fell and 53 years of disorder broke out, the age of Buddhism started when the Song Dynasty came to power. It influenced Chinese life and culture like art.
  • 632

    Lesson 12.2 - Arab - Islamic Beliefs and Practices

    The Qur’an states that there is only one God-Allah- and that Muhammed is his prophet. The Qur’an not only shows Muhammed’s teachings, but guidelines for behavior as well. In addition, it guides them to live their daily lives. The Jihad was another book the Muslims use, it talks about inner struggle all people go through. The Five Pillars explains how Muslims must live: say the statement, pray five times a day, give to the poor, fasting during Ramadan, and travel to Mecca at least once on a hajj.
  • 634

    Lesson 12.3 - Arab - Islamic Empires

    Abu Bakr was the next leader of Islam after Muhammad's death, he was the first caliph, the highest leader of Islam. He fought many battles to unite Arabia together, however it only happened when he died. The empire continued to grow until Abbasids came to power. Then the Safavid empire took over, they were lead by Mehmed 2, there were two different types of beliefs, the Shia said that you could only be a caliphs if you were a descendant of Muhhamed and Sunni the opposite. Then the Mughal Empire.
  • 794

    Lesson 15.2 - Japan - Art and Culture in Heian

    Heian had courts or a group of nobles who served and advised the ruler. Nobles dressed in thick clothing with a lot of layers, they enjoyed hosting parties together and making poems while they were there. One of the greatest writers in Japanese history is Lady Murasaki Shikibu, she wrote Japan’s first full-length novel, The Tale of Genji. It is basically about a prince needing to find his princess. Noh was also a form of Japanese art that had a mixture of singing, talking, and dance.
  • 800

    Lesson 17.2 - Europe - Europe after the Fall of Rome

    When Rome fell outside began to claim land and the name “king”, because of this Europe was separated into many small kingdoms, this started the Middle or Medieval Age. Christianity started to spread to the North of Europe by missionaries and monks. In the 480’s a group called the Franks conquered Gaul. Charlemagne was the most powerful Frank ruler, he fought wars often along with his soldiers. He conquered many places and was crowned a Christian king in 800 by Pope Leo III
  • 800

    Lesson 13.2 - Ghana - Trade

    The Soninke were the first people in West Africa, they banned together for protection and formed Ghana. Ghana was located near the Niger River, in addition they also had access to salt and gold mines. They traded their goods through silent bartering, it is the same as normal trading but the two people do not actually meet face to face. They also charged taxes to merchants who passed by Ghana, since Ghana was a shortcut to other places instead of going through the Sahara desert.
  • 800

    Lesson 17.3 - Europe - Feudalism and Manor Life

    Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims attacked the Frank empire, slowly the empire fell, nobles had to fight to protect their own landm because the king couldn’t. Gradually, nobles became as powerful as a king, but still respected the king. Nobles hired knights to protect the land, this was called a vassal. This created the Feudal system. Lords would give land to the knights, and the knight would serve him. Soon lords had manors with peasants, knights, and serfs. The population grew and manors fell.
  • 868

    Lesson 14.2 - China - Tang and Song achievements

    One of the most important crops for China is Rice. The farmers would work on large areas of land to collect and harvest rice. The dragon backbone pump was an invention that made the work of many something that one person could do easily. This portable pump allowed farmers to pour water into irrgation canal easily. The Chinese also created paper, which inspired new inventions such as paper money and moveable type.
  • 1000

    Lesson 18.1 - Europe - Popes and Kings

    The later middle ages' power shifted between the popes and kings. The popes were considered to be one of the most powerful people in Europe, because people believed that they were the representatives of God, they would decide when people were disobeying the church and could excommunicate them. Kings were put on the throne after their fathers had died, some kings had very little power. The most powerful kings ruled England, France, and the Holy Roman Empire. Kings and popes began to fight.
  • Period: 1000 to 1500

    Chapter 18 - The Later Middle Ages

    The later Middle Ages was a battle for land and power, for example during the mid 1000 popes began to fight for power, because they thought that they should have the authority over eastern bishops. Soon enough, the "want" of power from the popes, began to interfere with the power the king already had. The main evidence that proves that the later middle ages was a fight for land as well, is because of the crusades where the Muslims and Christians fought over Palestine, or the Holy Land.
  • 1100

    Lesson 15.3 - Japan - Growth of Military Society

    In other parts of Japan the samurai and shoguns were beginning to take over the rest of Japan. Samurai were trained, professional soldiers, who were masters at swords. Even though they trained vigorously, they never encountered a battle. The daimyo decided to hire the samurai to protect their land, as their pay, samurai would receive large amounts of land, money or food. Shoguns ruled Japan for the emperor, this made the emperor a figurehead. Samurai and Shoguns followed the Bushido code.
  • 1147

    Lesson 18.2 - Europe - The Crusades

    The Crusades was four small wars fought to take over the Holy Land. The Holy Land belonged to the Muslims, however in the late 1000s Turkish Muslims went inside and captured Jerusalem. Soon the first crusade started with the help of Pope Urban II, 5000 soldiers were sent to fight in 1096. The Second Crusade for a failure, because of the poor planning made, the Third Crusade, fought solely by Richard I lost to the Muslim leader Saladin, the Fourth Crusade was also a failure.
  • 1184

    Lesson 14.3 - China - Confucianism and government

    Confucianism is based of the teachings of Confucius, he thought his two main principles, ren (the concern for others) and li (proper behavior and ethics). He believed that if everyone were to follow ren and li their society would be better. However, during the Qin dynasty, nobody liked the idea and the government surpressed it. The people of the Tang Dynasty became in Confucianism again, but thought there should be some spiritual aspects, so they created Neo-Confucianism.
  • 1200

    Lesson 18.3 - Europe - Christianity and Medieval Society

    Life in the Middle Ages were centered around the church, it gained political power and land, land from people who died and left it for them, in fact the church is one of the biggest landholders in Europe. Some clergy were so involved with politics that people started to complain that the clergy needs to get more involved with the church. The monks of Cluny were a group of monks that only were interested in religion, which began the religious order. Friars were part of the religious order.
  • 1206

    Lesson 14.4 - China - Yuan and Ming dynasties

    Genghis Khan united the separate tribes of the Mongols, they were usually not challenged, because they were very ruthless and violent. They would kill a whole town’s population and would not spare anyone. When Genghis Khan died his grandson, Kublai Khan took over, he attacked China and took over, however he didn’t force the Chinese to follow what they do. The Mongols wanted Japan but were destroyed by a storm on the way there, majority of the Mongols were on the ships, the empire weakened.
  • 1215

    Lesson 18.4 - England - Political and Social Change

    Magna Carta was people rights that a king could not ignore, this created the Parliament, a law-making body, soon membership was open to knights and town leaders. Later, kings had very little to do without the Parliament's support. In 1328, a French king died with no sons, so a French man and the King of England fought for the throne, in the end, the French man won. The English king attacked France and started the 100 year war. After the war, the Black Death began and lasted from 1347-1351.
  • 1250

    Lesson 18.5 - Europe - Challenges to Church Authority

    During 1100, Christians began to question the church's teachings, because the clergy focused more on money than God, this made people to preach their own ideas, this is called heresy. In the early 1200, Pope Innocent III thought that heresy was a big threat, he called a crusade against the heretics and encouraged the king of France to rid of them too. Christians took land away from the Moors called the Reconquista, they won many victories. Portugal became independent and Spain conquered Granada.
  • Period: 1270 to

    Chapter 19 - The Renaissance and Reformation

    The Renaissance started after the end of the Black Death. The few people that were alive, used the remaining farmland, building, ships, and, machines to start a new life. As new produces were produced with those materials, trade increased, especially Asia.
  • 1274

    Lesson 15.3 - Japan - Growth of a Military society (continued)

    Shoguns managed to lead Japan well, however people began to challenge their authority, which made Japan’s Government fall. The Mongols saw that Japan was weakened, so they attacked, the samurai were ready for a fight, but a great storm washed away many of the Mongol ships, defenseless the Mongols had to retreat. After they left, internal rebellion began and the Shoguns lost their power again. In the 1500s, people fought for power in Japan, however Oda Nobunaga won the battle for power with guns.
  • 1300

    Lesson 13.3 - Mali - Mali

    Sundiata made Mali an empire, he took over the salt and gold traders, made new farmlands for crops, in addition he also founded cotton. Sundiata took power away from his local leaders called “mansa”, he then named himself mansa. Mansas had power in both political and religious areas and since Sundiata became the only mansa he gained even more power. Mansa Musa was the next leader for Mali, he believed in education. He sent scholars to Morocco, the scholars then started schools in Mali.
  • 1300

    Lesson 19.1 - Europe - The Italian Renaissance

    The end of the Black Death caused the European people to start a new life, however they had the remaining, unharmed buildings, farmland, ships, and machines were used to make new products. Marco Polo returned to Europe he brought Asian ideas and goods with him, the products interested the Europeans, with that the trade between them increased. The top four trade cities in Italy are Florence, Genoa, Milan, Venice. Two of the most famous artists were Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci.
  • 1325

    Lesson 16.2 - Mexico - The Aztecs

    The Aztecs were people who migrated from the north to central Mexico. The Aztecs conquered their neighboring villages and demanded for a tribute. They lived on an island that had four causeways to connect it to the rest of their empire. One of their greatest achievements were the chinampas, which were floating gardens, they helped people farm on water since they had minimul space left on their island. Spanish people from conquered them in the late 1400s, led by Hernán Cortés.
  • 1353

    Lesson 13.4 - West Africa - Griots

    A griot is a storyteller that preserved West African history. They did this by telling other griots about the story. This action was called an oral history. There was a risk of details changing over time when doing or sharing an oral history, but unfortunately West Africans never developed a written language.
  • 1400

    Lesson 19.2 - Europe - The Renaissance beyond Italy

    The scientists thought that math could help them understand the universe. They managed to find formulas to help them strengthen buildings. Petrarch taught that we should not forget the lessons of history. Johann Gutenberg made the first printing press, with that he printed many copies of the Bible in Latin, which then became translated into many other languages.People began to feel that the church was corrupt, Desiderius Erasmus, believed that we should listen to the teachings of Jesus.
  • 1400

    Lesson 16.3 - South America - The Incas

    In the mid 1400s a ruler named Pachacuti expanded the Inca empire. The places he conquered all had leaders, when he conquered them he would replace that ruler with one of his own people he trusted. Their government ran on a economy called mits or distribution, they will collect all the profits and share it around their empire. Francisco Pizarro came to the Inca empire and the
    wanted to take over the Incas, however he did by tricking the Incas by lying to them.
  • Period: 1400 to

    Chapter 20 - Science and Exploration

    After the Reformation, new people began to discover or predict many things about our solar system and how it works. This was called the Scientific Revolution. Usually only ancient Greek writers or Catholic Church officials would explain things to the people, however the more educated people began to question the old beliefs.
  • 1492

    Lesson 20.2 - Europe - Great Voyages of Discovery

    People wanted to trade with Asia, because of all the spices they had, so they started to find ways to sail there. Da Gama found a sea route to Asia around Africa and to the bottom of Africa. In 1492, Columbus thought he had found a faster way to Asia, sailing across the Atlantic, but he just found America, and thought it was Asia. Later on Magellan circumnavigated the world for the first time in history. Drake was stealing from Spanish ships, so the Spanish attacked England, but got wiped out.
  • 1500

    Lesson 19.3 - Europe - The Reformation of Christianity

    People began to complain about the Catholic Church, which ignited the Reformation. They felt that the church was getting to rich and into politics. Martin Luther believed that the Catholic Church was wrong and nailed his Ninety-Five Theses on the door of the Catholic Church. The Council of Trent formed, which was a group Catholic leaders that felt that more change was needed, they rejected what the protestants asked for and made a few other changes. In 1562, the thirty year war broke out.
  • 1500

    Lesson 20.3 - Europe - New Systems of Trade

    The Colombian Exchange started, it was a trade between the New World and the Old World. On both sides they introduced new crops too each other, the Europeans also brought new technology with them and thought about Christianity while they were there. Mercantilism was a system that the government controls all economic activity, this makes the government richer and stronger, this was the main system from 1500 to 1800. Market economy is when individuals choose what they buy and sell.
  • 1543

    Lesson 20.1 - Europe - The Scientific Revolution

    Many educated people began to question the old beliefs that the Catholic Church gave them. Ptolemy thought that the solar system revolved around the Earth in “loop” motions. Aristotle thought that everything revolves around the Earth but like an onion. Copernicus predicted that the Sun was the center and the Earth was going around that. Kepler expanded on that and said that it moved in elliptical orbits. Galileo created the first telescope to study the solar system and confirmed Kepler’s theory.
  • Lesson 12.4 - Arabia - Cultural Achievements

    The Islam made a big contribution to science and technology, they advanced greatly in astronomy. When they learned to calculate time and location, explorers and merchants began to travel. They also made advancements in Math, they combined their Indian numbers with Greek science of Mathematics. Medicine was also something that Muslims made an advancement in they made one of the best medicine books in history.
  • Lesson 21.1 - Europe - Ideas of the Enlightenment

    The Age of Reason started and more and more people began to use reason to think, these ideas came from the Romans and Greeks. Enlightenment thinkers thought that the Enlightment was secular, so this made them humanists. French philosophers spread the ideas of the Enlightenment, one philosopher, Voltaire, made fun of religion and the government, he said that humans could improve their own life. Diderot edited the Encyclopedia, but was banned by the king and pope, however was spread in the salon.
  • Period: to

    Chapter 21 - Enlightenment and Revolution

    Scholars started to challenge old beliefs about science, government, and religion. These new scholars used reason and logic to explain why things worked and how people believed that with this meat had they could achieve knowledge, freedom, and happiness, this period is called the Enlightenment or the Age of Reason.
  • Lesson 21.3 - Europe - The Age of Revolution

    Parliament in England wanted to be respected, but the monarchy wanted to rule from divine right, this led to a civil war in 1642, Oliver Cromwell took over the country from Charles I. The people kicked Cromwell out and invited Charles II to lead them, he agreed to be fair with the parliament. 1689, the English Bill of Rights was approved. A mob attacked Bastille and stole guards' guns and the French Revolution began, soon the leaders made the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
  • Lesson 21.2 - Europe - New Views on Government

    Kings and queens were chosen by divine right, King Louis XIV of France thought that he was the entire state and government. King’s and queens had privileges, but other groups had some too, nobles paid very few taxes and clergy paid no taxes at all, however the common people paid very high taxes. They applied Enlightenment thoughts and rulers became despots, a person with all power.
  • Lesson 17.4 - Europe - Feudal Societies

    The Japanese society is very similar to the European feudal system. For example, knights and samurai are the same, because they are on the same rank on each other's social hierarchy, and they both have a code to follow like the Bushido (samurai) and chivalry (knights). Many linguists in Japan and Europe write about these warriors. Even though they are quite similar, they differ as well, European art is more focused on Christianity, but Japanese art is focused towards nature.
  • Malaysia- 29.8.2005

    I was born!!!! Yay!!!!!!
  • Modern Day Connection - Chapter 6

    The Chinese inspired transportation with the wheelbarrow. I think that without this creation we wouldn't have trucks or carts.
  • Modern Day Connection - chapter 8

    The Greek people created the Olympics as a running competition when it started out, however thanks to them the Olympics has grown and has more than ten events today, without this event countries can't come together and compete.
  • Modern Day Connection - Chapter 11

    If Constantine didn’t convert to Christian, there wouldn’t have more temples for Christians to worship in. Without these temples, Rome would have an entirely different religion today. However, Rome has many Christians living in Rome today.
  • Modern Day Connection- chapter 3

    Hammurabi's code inspired our countries to have laws and rules to keep their country civil.
  • Modern Day Connection- chapter 4

    They explored Tutankhamen' tomb, which helped them improve our mordern architecture, and know more about ancient Egyptian architecture as well.
  • Modern Day Connection- chapter 5

    Without India's improvement in arts and sciences, we wouldn't have inoculation, and without inoculation many people would have died, because our doctor didn't know how to help them. In addition, it helped doctors make new medicines.
  • Modern Day Connection - Chapter 9

    Without the Parthenon and it's pillars, we would not have advanced in our architecture designs. Buildings also have copied the Parthenon's pillar designs, some have even modified it to make it nicer.
  • Modern Day Connection - chapter 10

    Rome made a way to balance power between people working in the government call checks and balances. Many governments use this method such as America to balance power between people. Without this type of system, there might be more governments in the world who will have problems in keeping order.
  • Modern Day Connection - Chapter 12

    Without the creation of the medicine encyclopedia by the doctor known in the West as Avicenna, many people in Europe would have died from sickness they didn't know how to cure. In addition, a doctor in Baghdad found a cure to treat smallpox which was critical that time.
  • Modern Day Connection - Chapter 16

    If the Early Americans did not know how to work stone, we might not have advance so quickly to iron and metal tools, because we would still be figuring out how to make things with stone.
  • Modern Day Connection - Chapter 15

    If later Japanese emperors didn’t command Japan to isolate themselves from the rest of the world, the samurai period would have been shortened, which would probably mean that Japan would have a longer time to catch up with the new technology that was not known too them.
  • Modern Day Connection - Chapter 18

    The Magna Carta caused a drastic change to people during that time and now, because if this wasn't signed then, we still could be discriminated by people of higher ranking. Our rulers had the power to possibly do whatever they wanted with us.
  • Modern Day Connection - Chapter 19

    The ninety five thesis cause many other new religions to come up, for example the Lutherans, without the ninety five thesis, we may have less types of religions or Christian groups.
  • Modern Day Connection - Chapter 13

    African slaves who were brought to America to work sang songs they had in Africa. The people in Memphis enjoyed this music, so they made their own similiar songs, which are now called today “blues”.
  • Modern Day Connection - Chapter 14

    Without the invention of paper, we would have advanced in many things. We will still be using coins that get bigger and heavier, and we will most probably still be drawing to copy books or documents instead of using woodblock printing or moveable type to print, which lead to mordern day printers.
  • Modern Day Connection - Chapter 17

    If the missionaries during that time didn't manage to spread Christianity, then today we might not have as many churches and Christians in Europe today.
  • Modern Day Connection - Chapter 20

    Without the earlier astronomers we most probably would be behind on knowing about the universe, and we would still be trying to figure out how to get a man on the moon.
  • Modern Day Connection - Chapter 21

    Without the many documents of rights that the governments of Europe made, many revolutions might last much longer, due to the fact that there is nothing to calm the people down.