Coin

World History

By DTime
  • 8000 BCE

    Start of Neolithic Era (end Paleolithic Era)

    Paleolithic Era: 2.5M-8000 BCE. 1) Devel of hominids into humans; 2) discovery of agriculture; 3) birth of earliest cultures. Milestones: FIRE (warmth, cook meat, protection from predators); TOOLS (cutting and chopping); Mostly hunter gatherers living in small kinship groups. With fire, and end of Ice Age (10000 BCE), humans migrate from E Africa. Neolithic Period begins (8000 BCE). Warmer climate allows for agriculture, etc. We're now in interglaciation period as of ~11,000 BCE
  • Period: 8000 BCE to 3500 BCE

    Neolithic Era: 8000-3500 BCE

    Domestication of animals + agriculture and farming enable food storage and lead to permanent settlements along river valleys and first civilizations. Surplus food leads to specialization of labor, complex economies, political bureaucracies. Major cities stratify into orgs. governed by priests and gov't elites. Also: rise of trade routes. Also: wheel appears. Preceded by Paleolithic Era (2.5M BCE to 8000 BCE). Cave painting; ancestor worship; burial of the dead; early weaving and pottery
  • 6400 BCE

    Great flood (theoretical)

    Glacial melt raises sea levels, incl. Mediterranean Sea (3m). Causes flooding in Black Sea and large human migration in all directions. Accelerates spread of agriculture and civilizations. Proto-Indo-European language (spoken 6400 BCE) spreads. Some settle in Fertile Crescent and found Sumerian Civilization.
  • 4500 BCE

    Birth of Civilization (Mesopotamia)

    Mesopotamia saw agriculture on a larger scale, with canals for irrigation. Enables more acreage to be planted. More plants and animals can be domesticated.
  • 4000 BCE

    Log highways (England)

    Log highways (England)
    Appear in England 6000 year ago (4000 BCE)
  • 4000 BCE

    Paved streets (Fertile Crescent)

    Appear in Fertile Crescent. Laborious and short roads only. Road-building becomes easier with bronze tools (e.g, Egyptians, 2600 BCE)
  • 4000 BCE

    First calendar (Egypt)

    Regular, predictable flooding of Nile may be reason why first calendar appeared in Egypt. Calendar: 12 mo, 300 days w/ extra 5 sacred days at end of year.
  • 4000 BCE

    Harappa (Indus River Valley Civilization)

    Emerge on banks of Indus River. Harappa culture absorbed invaders' culture. Influenced by Indo-Europeans (aka Aryans) as Aryans moved to subcontinent. Aryans' religious culture, Vedism, merged w/ Harappa culture to create early Hindu traditions.
  • Period: 4000 BCE to 2000 BCE

    Sumer & Birth of Civilization: 4000-2000 BCE

    Mesopotamia saw lg-scale agriculture, with canals for irrigation. Can plant more acreage. More plants and animals domesticated. Sumer settled ~4500 BCE and lasted 4000-2000 BCE. Highly religious (driven by chaos of nature). Uruk one of earliest known cities. Ur: also ancient city, possibly founded by Ubaids (preceded Sumerians). Ziggurat at Ur: ~2100 BCE. Ziggurats are step pyramids with temple to a deity on top. Akaddians (Sargon the Great) defeated Sumerians in 2334.
  • 3500 BCE

    Horse riding (Eurasia)

    Steppe nomads of Eurasia successfully break/ride horses
  • 3500 BCE

    Wheel invented

    Wheel invented
  • Period: 3500 BCE to 1200 BCE

    Bronze Age: 3500-1200 BCE

    Bronze: tin + copper. Harder/stronger than either. Roads now built faster. Cities connected (e.g. Egyptian paved roads, 2600 BCE). Good material for weapons (arrow-proof armor). But: heavy to wear. Bronze enables chariots (lighter, rounder, less friction) and war horses (pull chariot). Chariots synonymous with EMPIRE
  • Period: 3100 BCE to 2700 BCE

    Early Dynastic Period, Egypt (3100-2700 BCE)

    Also called Archaic Period. Political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. 1st and 2nd dynasties unify Nile Valley to build Kingdom of Egypt. Memphis is capital. Canals, roads, cities, centralized bureaucracies, well-developed written language, centralized religion used syncretism to combine opposing gods into single deity (avoids relig conflicts; Mesop suffered these). Polytheistic, semi-anthropomorphic gods. Powerful priestly class.
  • 3000 BCE

    Writing (Sumer)

    Writing first appears in Ancient Sumer, civilization in Mesopotamia. First: Cuneiform & hieroglyphs; later: Alphabet (Phoenicians, then Hebrews, Greeks, Romans)
  • 3000 BCE

    Shekel

    Shekel is the earliest currency, based on a unit of barley.
  • 3000 BCE

    Complex civilizations

  • 3000 BCE

    First paper (papyrus in Egypt)

    Egyptians learned to take papyrus pith, spread it and dry it out to make basic paper. Papyrus grows only along the Nile. Sumerians, by contrast, used sticks and clay tablets. Later, other cultures see value of papyrus; Egypt exported it to ancient world.
  • 2750 BCE

    Epic of Gilgamesh (Sumer)

    Epic poem: long poem about hero's exploits. Provides glimpse of society. Adventure, love, friendship. Gilgamesh is a son of the Uruk king and goddess Ninsun. 2/3 god, 1/3 human. Unmatched by other humans. Enkipu, created by gods, is his companion and equal. Pattern of epic poetry: heroic deeds of demigods; long journey thru dangerous lands; confront monsters; divine assistance/interference; prophetic dreams; descriptions of afterlife; celebration of epic's culture; struggle to find immortality
  • 2700 BCE

    Height of Minoans (Crete)

    Crete, ~2700 BCE-1450 BCE. Bronze Age traders around Med Sea. Traded: Saffron, tin for bronze. Art: murals, bull jumping, axes. Writing: Linear A & B. Linear B was 1st writing system found among Greeks. Linear A still a mystery. Decline: 1) Iron Age: demand for tin falls; 2) Rise of Mycenae (dominated Crete); 3) Explosion of Thera volcano (SW Santorini) and tsunami.
  • Period: 2700 BCE to 2200 BCE

    Old Kingdom, Egypt (2700-2200 BCE)

    3rd through 6th dynasties. Apex of pharaonic absolute power. Laid groundwork for one of longest-lasting civilizations in history. Pharaoh is god, all Egypt his property. Used supreme authority to build fabulous tombs (Great Pyramid, Sphinx of Giza: 2500 BCE)
  • 2500 BCE

    Monumental architecture (Great Pyramid, Sphinx, Zigg. of Ur)

    Great Pyramid & Sphinx of Giza (Egypt), 2500 BCE. Ziggurat of Ur, Sumer, 2000 BCE
  • 2334 BCE

    Sargon the Great (Akkadian Empire)

    Sargon the Great (Akkadian Empire)
    Sargon the Great: 2334–2279 BC. First ruler of Semitic-speaking Akkadian Empire known for conquests of the Sumerian city-states. Successors to Akkadian Empire: Babylon & Assyria
  • Period: 2334 BCE to 2154 BCE

    Akkadian Empire

    Akkadian Empire (2334–2154 BC) saw Akkadian Semites and Sumerians of Mesopotamia unite under one rule. Akkadians attained ascendancy over Sumerians and dominate much of ancient Near East. Akkadian Empire sometimes viewed as world's 1st empire. Akkadian language related to Arabic, Hebrew and Aramaic. Sargon the Great: 2334–2279 BC. First ruler of Semitic-speaking Akkadian Empire known for conquests of the Sumerian city-states. Successors to Akkadian Empire: Babylon & Assyria
  • Period: 2200 BCE to 2050 BCE

    First Intermediate Period, Egypt (2200-2050 BCE)

    4 short-lived dynasties. Decline of Pharaoh's power. Regional governors vie for power. 150-yr civil war.
  • 2100 BCE

    Code of Ur Nammu (Sumer)

    Code of Ur-Nammu is the oldest known law code surviving today. It is from Mesopotamia and is written on tablets, in the Sumerian language c. 2100–2050 BCE. Written by King of Ur. 57 laws (26 remain). Some laws reasonable, others draconic.
  • Period: 2050 BCE to 1700 BCE

    Middle Kingdom, Egypt (2050-1700 BCE)

    11th & 12th dynasties. Capital to Thebes then Lisht. Some temple building (not grand). Ended with invasion of Hyksos (chariot-driving people from N.)
  • Period: 1894 BCE to 1595 BCE

    First Babylonian Dynasty (Amorite)

    Babylon: Was an Amorite-ruled provincial town during Akkadian Empire. Rose to greatness under Hammurabi, 1792-1750 BCE, 6th king of 1st Babylonian Dynasty. H seen as living god, avatar of Marduk. 1792 BCE: armies created empire thousands of mi. long. Babylonian Emp. broke up after H (no natural boundaries) but city bc impt. religion/culture ctr for 1000 yrs. Code of Hammurabi (1754 BCE) focused on physical punishment of perpetrator vs. Code of Ur-Nammu, which focused on compensating the victim.
  • 1754 BCE

    Code of Hammurabi (1754 BCE, Babylon)

    1754 BCE. Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia. Focused on phys. punishment of perpetrator (Code of Ur-Nammu: compensating victim). One of oldest deciphered writings of length in world. Partial copies exist on 7.5 ft stone stele. 282 wide-ranging laws (commerce, pricing, inheritance, emancipation) w/ scaled punishments (eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth). Graded on status (slave versus free man or woman). Why laws? Establishes stability; trade can flourish; leader seen as fair.
  • Period: 1700 BCE to 1550 BCE

    Second Intermediate Period, Egypt (1700-1550 BCE)

    Struggle btw native Egyptian dynasties in south and Hyksos in north. Hyksos finally driven out by military genius, Ahmose, who establishes self as pharaoh (18th dynasty and New Kingdom)
  • 1600 BCE

    Hittites sack Babylon

    Hittites, warlike people from Anatolia (chariots, iron). Didn't attempt to establish themselves in Babylonia after conquering it. Kassites from southern Mesopotamia ruled Babylonia shortly thereafter, establishing longest lasting Babylonian dynasty (600 yrs).
  • Period: 1600 BCE to 1155 BCE

    Kassite Babylonian Empire

    Ruled Babylon after Hittites conquered 1st Babylonian Empire. Longest-lasting Babylonian dynasty. Kassites were members of a small military aristocracy but were efficient rulers and not locally unpopular. 500-year reign laid essential groundwork for development of subsequent Babylonian culture. The horse, which Kassites worshipped, first came into use in Babylonia at this time.
  • Period: 1600 BCE to 1050 BCE

    Shang Dynasty, China (1600-1050 BCE)

    Shang: 1600-1050 BCE. Emerges on banks of Huang He River. A rapidly growing, conquest-oriented state by 1600 BCE. Bronze Age, warrior aristocracy. Chariots. Traded jade and silk via Indus River people who traded with Mesop. Pictographs and Chinese writing emerges during Shang. Divination and ancestor worship (reinforced patriarchalism). Saw selves as center of the world - a superior "Middle Kingdom"
  • 1550 BCE

    Book of the Dead (Egypt)

    The Book of the Dead is an ancient Egyptian funerary text, used from the beginning of the New Kingdom (around 1550 BCE) to around 50 BCE.
  • Period: 1550 BCE to 1100 BCE

    New Kingdom, Egypt (1550-1100 BCE). Height of power

    Apex of territorial power. Took terr. on eastern Med. Took Levant, Palestine, parts Anatolia. Stopped by Hittites (fought 300 yrs until treaty 1274 BCE). 18th dynasty: many temple complexes (Karnak, Luxor) but fewer lg tombs & pyramids: 1. Lack absolute power of Old Kingdom pharaohs 2. Pyramids vulnerable to invaders 3. Afterlife now open to all (Book of the Dead: for commoners; incantations, instructions to enter afterlife). After New Kingdom, Egypt cont. but shell of former glory.
  • 1500 BCE

    Hinduism: key elements

    Brahman: cornerstone of Hinduism. Unifies all reality and sustains universe. Central divine entity. All Hindu deities manifestations of Brahman. 3 main gods (Trimurti): Brahma (creator; created universe), Vishnu (preserver; keeps/restores order, bal good/evil), Shiva (destroyer; destroys world's imperfections; purposeful destruction). Hinduism is mono- + polytheistic. Aman: eternal self. Karma: actions in life affect fate in next. Dharma: moral force sustains universe (thru personal duty)
  • Period: 1500 BCE to 500 BCE

    Vedic Period, Indian subcontinent, 1500-500 BCE

    As Indo-Europeans (Aryans) moved to subcontinent, their religious culture (Vedism) merged w/ Harappa culture to create early Hindu traditions. By AD 100 or 200, different sects of Hinduism emerge, worshipping own deity, but still part of larger Hindu umbrella. Vedas are liturgical texts containing details of life during this period that have been interpreted to be historical. Upanishads: part of Vedas; ancient Sanskrit texts w/ central philos. tenets of Hinduism.
  • 1400 BCE

    Height of Mycenae (Greece)

    Height: 1400-1200 BCE. Around from 2300 BCE. Pwrful city by 1750 BCE. Def Minoans ~1450 BCE and helped enable its collapse (+ volcano/tsunami). Took writing from Minoans. Sacked Troy 1400 BCE. Led 200 yrs but accomplished much: 1) est. essentials of Gk culture/ relig; 2) spread Gk lang + version of Phoenician alphabet (Linear B); 3) Mycenaen culture & myth (Perseus, Odysseus, Achilles, etc). Decline: Dorian Invasion (1200 BCE) w iron weapons; lacked culture. Greece enters Dark Age, 400 yrs.
  • 1375 BCE

    First monotheism, 1375 BCE (Egypt)

    Amarna Period, Egypt (1375 BCE). Pharoah Amenhotep IV decides to worship only Aten, god of the sun. Suppresses other gods, shuts down temples. Brief (priests abolish monotheism). NB: Polytheism: conflicting gods allow for flexibility. You'll always anger one god. Moderation bc impt. (what u do matters less vs how much you do it). Life sometimes reqs you to act in diff. ways, sometimes contradictory. Monotheism: lg bodies of law cover complexities of life. Restrictive system can lead to extremism
  • Period: 1365 BCE to 609 BCE

    Assyrian Empire: 1365-600 BCE

    Warrior culture in Mesop. Used art & architecture to display power. Prev. part of Akkadian Empire, but later indep. Became expansionistic/warlike in 1300s BCE. By 1077 BCE conquered to Syria and Med.; put Babylonia into vassalage. After brief decline Assyria recovered (Neo-Assyrian Empire). 911-612 BCE was most pwrful empire in MidEast, from Egypt to Persia. Had stone and iron, yet giant palaces of mud brick to emulate Sumerians. Art: vivid colors, relief carvings, cylinder seals, ziggurats.
  • 1200 BCE

    Bronze Age Collapse, 1200 BCE

    Invasions from all sides tore apart Bronze Age civilizations. Trade ground to halt; population plummeted; literacy close to zero. Civilization teetering on destruction. Hittites vanish totally. Surviving civilizations took 300 years to recover.
  • 1200 BCE

    Israelites out of Egypt

  • 1200 BCE

    Dark Age of Greece

    1200 BCE-800 BCE. 400 years after fall of Mycenae (to Dorians) and Bronze Age Collapse. No trade, low literacy, cities abandoned. Kings merely warlords leading autonomous villages. People needed to be self-sufficient without trade. Similar collapses happening in Asia Minor (Turkey/Anatolia), Mesopotamia, Egypt. Iliad and Odyssey composed shortly after Bronze Age collapse. Greek villages devel fierce independence and autonomy = foundation of later city-states.
  • Period: 1200 BCE to 600 BCE

    Iron Age: 1200-600 BCE

    Bronze age collapse in 1200 BCE made tin hard to come by (collapse of trade networks). Iron had been around for a while, but not much better than bronze until discovery of steel (iron + carbon). Steel is one of the hardest substances on the planet; far stronger than bronze. Less steel needed make effective tools, weapons or armor, making steel a lighter alternative. Also, steel holds an edge better than bronze.
  • Period: 1200 BCE to 400 BCE

    Olmec people

    Southern Mexico. Developed first written language and numbering system in Mesoamerica. Weathy, built cities. Influenced other cultures' development. Artifacts: giant stone heads
  • 1050 BCE

    Phoenician alphabet

    Phoenicians did away with symbolic pictographs
    Changes in writing: Cuneiform (every word has own drawing; 1000s of characters) -> Phonemes (symbols represent sounds; ~400 characters) -> Phoenicians: simple characters represent sounds (22 characters, 1 for each consonant). Phoenician alphabet soon replace all other western writing forms.
  • Period: 1050 BCE to 256 BCE

    Zhou Dynasty, China (1050-256 BCE)

    Zhou: 1050-256 BCE. Founded by herding society that rebelled against Shang. Feudalism and iron weapons (600 BCE). Mandate of Heaven and strong bureaucracy. Crumbled from within. Decline starts 800 BCE. Weak monarch loosely governs decentralized, militarized political units - feudalism. Ended with Warring States period, 475-221 BCE, approx when Confucius lived (551-479).
  • 1004 BCE

    King David (Kingdom of Israel)

    Son of King Saul. David carved out borders of Kingdom of Israel, with Jerusalem as capital. Stability short: by 950 BCE, 10 of 12 tribes of Israel rebelled against extravagant kings. Kingdom splits N/S into Kingdom of Israel (N: 10 tribes) and Kingdom of Judah (S: ruled by David's son Solomon). Division left Israelites vulnerable.
  • Period: 1000 BCE to AD 1

    Bantu Migration, Africa

    Bantu-speaking peoples migrated from Western Africa near modern-day Nigeria southward and eastward, spreading out across all of the southern half of the African continent. Spread the Bantu language (early Swahili)across subsaharan Africa. Also spread knowledge of iron working (600 BCE) and agriculture.
  • 911 BCE

    Peak of Assyrian Empire (Neo-Assyrian): 911-609 BCE

  • 800 BCE

    Greece exits Dark Ages; Greek colonies form

    Need to write down Iliad and Odyssey leads to improved Greek alphabet. Better alphabet leads to greater literacy, flourishing of culture and economy. Villages become central towns. Towns become cities then city-states. Literacy up. Populations up. Cities swell, but scarce resources lead to colonization of lands beyond Greece (in Italy, Sicily)
  • 800 BCE

    Hesiod writes Theogony (Greek creation story)

    Hesiod writes Theogony (Greek creation story).
  • 753 BCE

    Rome founded, 753 BCE

    Etruscans in North, Greeks in South (post Dark Age colonies). Founded by Latin invaders from north who violently displace Etruscans. Myth: Romulus and Remus raised by wolves (Romulus slays Remus). 753-510 BCE: pwrful but limited monarchy, checked by Senate. First 7 kings culturally Etruscan. 510 BCE: Republic. Citizens choose reps to govern on behalf.
  • 738 BCE

    Lost Tribes of Israel

    Kingdom of Judah allies with Assyrians against Kingdom of Israel. Kingdom of Israel wiped off map, with 10 Tribes of Israel lost. Only the two tribes of Kingdom of Judah remain.
  • 730 BCE

    Homer's epic poetry + Greek literacy

    The Iliad & The Odyssey. Mythic tales of Bronze Age Mycenae and Troy. Iliad: 1) Xenia (hospitality to strangers); 2) Wrath of Achilles (he's mortal and must die so will seek glory as next best thing). Odyssey: O smart; brilliance is divine. Need to write down Homer epic poems led to improvements in Gk alphabet: added 7 characters for vowel sounds. With easy alphabet, literacy up in ancient Greece. Unmatched in ancient world. Nuanced language -> enables philosophy, history, poetry, tragedy/comedy
  • Period: 730 BCE to 280

    Classical Antiquity (730 BCE-280 CE)

    Classical Antiquity: Homer 8th c BCE to Third Century Crisis (280 CE)
  • 700 BCE

    First coins

    Invented independently in Aegean, India, and China. More portable. No weights and measures required. Increases trade. But: reduces supply of precious metals (Rome). Counterfeiting (brass v gold; bits cut off)
  • 650 BCE

    Phalanx (Greece, 650 BCE)

    Hoplites (Greek citizen soldiers) used a pike and a round wooden shield (hopla) and bronze armor. Heavy, so cannot use Mesopotamian hit and run tactics. But line up in a row eight deep and very dangerous. This is the phalanx (lit: “roller”). Adopted by Greek city-states in 7th c. BCE. Phalanx battles short, brutal, decisive. Citizen soldiers can go back to attend their lives. Phalanx redefined warfare in Western history
  • Period: 650 BCE to 330 BCE

    Achaemenid Empire, Persia (550-330 BCE)

    King Cyrus II (the Great) rebelled, conquered ruling Medes, 549 BCE. Then took Babylonia. Under Cyrus people conqd by Babylonians may go home (eg exiled Jews). Darius the Great (522-486 BCE) also enlightened (Cyrus' son ruled briefly; Darius a distant relative). Rebuilt empire, roads, relig freedom, more autonomy to kingdoms, fair taxation. Xerxes (486-465 BCE) battled Sparta at Thermopylae, lost to Greeks at Salamis (480 BCE) and Palatea (479 BCE). 330 BCE: Persians defeated by Alex. the Great.
  • 600 BCE

    Presocratic philosophers (600-400 BCE)

    6th and 5th century BCE Greek thinkers who intro'd new way of inquiring into the world and place of human beings in it. Recognized in antiquity as first philosophers and scientists of the Western tradition. Perhaps the fundamental characteristic is commitment to explain the world in terms of its own inherent principles. Reason & observation. Ex: Milesian School (eg, Thales): sought first constants (principles). Anaximandes, Pythagoras, Heraclitus, the Eleatics, Pluralists, Atomists (Democritus).
  • 563 BCE

    Siddhartha Gautama (563 BCE) and Buddhism

    Buddha: "enlightened" or "awakened one." Buddhism encourages "middle way" btw indulgence + self deprivation. Balanced, moderate approach to life. Pleasure fleeting & asceticism no fun. Moderation leads to happiness. 8-fold path: list of do's/don'ts to live justly, in moderation. Buddha's teachings: The Dharma. Branches: Theraveda: strict, monastic. Mahayana: less strict; enlightenment available to all. Vajrayana: "thunderbolt"; fastest way to nirvana (yet strict); many view as part of Mahayana.
  • 551 BCE

    Confucius, 551 BCE

    Analects: Confucius' teachings compiled after his death. Philosophy rather than religion (non solid belief of divine being or afterlife). Confucius lived during Warring States Period of Zhou Dynasty. Turbulent. Said we need righteous gov't with strict moral code (humility, loyalty, diligence, filial piety: respect for ancestors & elders). 5 key relationships: Ruler to Subject; Father to Son; Husband to Wife; Elder to Younger; Friend to Friend. Key principal: Jen, a desire to seek good in others.
  • 550 BCE

    Cyrus the Great founds Achaemenid Empire (Persia)

  • 522 BCE

    Darius the Great, Persia (522-486 BCE)

    Darius the Great, Persia (522-486 BCE)
    Ruler of Persian Achaemenid Empire, 522-486 BCE. Tremendous expansion of empire during reign, checked only by Greeks. In 30 yrs, Persians went from obscure pastoralists to leaders of most powerful empire in history. NB: Darius saw empire needed efficient organization. Divided into 20 satrapies, or provinces, each paying fixed rate of tribute to Persia. Each satrapy run by a centrally appointed satrap, or governor, often related to Darius. Reign included battle vs Athens at Marathon, 490 BCE.
  • Period: 509 BCE to 27 BCE

    Roman Republic, 509-27 BCE

    Republic after 250 years of monarchy. Citizens choose reps to govern on behalf. Successful bc: location (Alps to N, seas all around); mil strategy (defeat enemy, then appeasement/respect for local traditions; pp have better quality of life under Rome); well-formed political structure (Patricians/nobles; Plebians/commoners, 2 Consuls rule, elected to 1-yr terms by Assembly; Senate: 300 patrician law-makers; Assembly incl plebians) . By 290 BCE, Republic controlled almost all Italian peninsula.
  • 500 BCE

    Apex of Greek Tragedy

    Tragedy enables exploration of deep, serious questions. Examine heroes from moral perspective. Chorus acts as moral compass. 3 key tragedians: Aeschylus (The Oresteia), Sophocles (The Theban plays), Euripedes (The Bacchae). Comedies and tragedies enabled Athenian culture to stay relevant and dynamic.
  • 490 BCE

    Battle of Marathon, 490 BCE

    Persia (Darius the Great) vs. Athens. Athens appeals to Sparta and other city-states but no help coming. Phalanx of Greeks defeats individualistic slave-warriors of Persian horde. Greeks marched 26 miles to deny Persians landing at Athens. Persians lost 6400 men, Athens lost 200. Battle detailed by Herodotus (Greek, "Father of History")
  • 480 BCE

    Battle of Salamis, 480 BCE

    Greeks defeat Persians (Xerxes I). Xerxes retreated to Asia with much of his army. Remainder of Persian army decisively beaten at Battle of Plataea (479 BCE) and Persian navy at Battle of Mycale. Persians made no further attempts to conquer Greek mainland. Salamis and Plataea mark turning point in Greco-Persian wars: Greek poleis now take offensive. Some see Persian victory would have slowed devel of Ancient Greece and thus western civ. Salamis thus one of most significant battles in history
  • 480 BCE

    Golden Age of Athens (480-404 BCE)

    5th c. after defeat Xerxes I at Palatea (479 BCE). Athens leads Delian League (alliance). Gk city states eventually pay tribute to Athens to build/maintain navy. Pericles (494-429 BCE) ruled Athens 30 years. Holds DL together by force. Uses DL treasury to rebuild Athens. Mil superiority. Radical democracy. Influ. cultural artifacts of W tradition. End: DL states rebel, appeal to Sparta. Thus Pelop. War. Athens stripped of empire, radical dem ends. But democ bc way of life: free, prosper, pwrful.
  • 470 BCE

    Socrates (Greece, 470-399 BCE)

    Greek philosopher. Father of philosophy. Major contribution: Socratic Method, way to ask questions. Est. higher standard for truth (truth must be logically consistent). Distinction btw knowledge and belief. Danger to religion bc faith's contradictions lead to failure of this standard of truth. 399 BCE brought to trial for corrupting the youth. Sentence: death by hemlock. Left no writings, ideas passed by friends/students. Plato (student) wrote "Dialogues" that feature Socrates debating others.
  • 450 BCE

    12 Tables of Rome

    Roman law now codified and written down. Rulings of judges used as precedents. All subjected to same law, rich and poor.
  • 447 BCE

    Parthenon built, Greece (447 BCE)

    Built on Acropolis, holiest part of the city ("high city")
  • 431 BCE

    Peloponnesian War (Athens v Sparta), 431-404 BCE

    Historical account from Thucydides (a general). Beginning: Athens heads Delian League and controls vast maritime empire. End: Athens w/o empire and not in control of itself. Sparta led Peloponnesian League (mainland city-states). Athens surrenders 404 BCE bc: disease (incl Pericles), poor leadership (demagogues follow the rabble rather than lead), changing strategy. Both powers weakened at end. Soon ruled by other Greeks (Thebans then Macedonians)
  • 428 BCE

    Plato (Greece, 428-348 BCE)

    Greek philosopher. Student of Socrates. Teacher of Aristotle. Took Socrates' high standard for knowledge and enshrines as ideal (Platonic Idealism). Knowledge must be logically consistent, universally true (universal truths, or constants, may not be apparent to senses). Founded Academy. Ideas: Allegory of the Cave (we are blind to true knowledge if trust only our senses, insist on opinions), Realm of Forms, Nature of the Soul, the Ideal State (Republic, ruled by philosopher kings.
  • 400 BCE

    Zhou Dynasty & Mandate of Heaven

    Chinese emperor is Heaven's rep on earth. Emperor's obligation: promote peace. Similar to the European concept of the divine right of kings; however, unlike European concept, it does not confer an unconditional right to rule. It's ok to rebel against an unjust ruler. NB: natural disasters occur when emperor doing something wrong and needs to improve.
  • 384 BCE

    Aristotle (Greece, 384-322 BCE)

    Greek philosopher from Macedonia. Student and teacher at Academy in Athens. Student of Plato. Teacher of Alexander the Great, who spread his ideas. Founded Peripatetic School. Ideas: Syllogism (logical reasoning; if a=b, b=c then a=c); Causation (relat btw 2 events); Mean (middle btw 2 extremes; man should live in moderation; virtue to extreme can be a vice; controlled courage: excessive courage can lead to recklessness.)
  • 336 BCE

    Alexander the Great (356-323 BCE)

    King of Macedonia, 336-323 BCE. Son of Philip II, who moved Macedonia into power following Pelop. War. Est. League of Corinth (allies) with most Greece (not Sparta). Respected Gk cultural achievements, wanted to lead Gks, not conquer. Assass'd and Alexander in power. AG: lightning campaign of conquest (10 yrs, world largest empire). Asia Minor, Levant, Syria, Egypt, Fertile Crescent, Persia, east to Pakistan across Indus R. Men mutiny, turns back. Died in Babylon.
  • 332 BCE

    Alex the Great def. Egypt, 332 BCE

    After Alexander's victory over Persian-controlled Egypt, Egypt ruled by line of Macedonian kings, starting with Alexander's general, Ptolemy. Ends with Cleopatra VII, who surrenders to Roman armies of Octavius (Augustus) in 31 BCE
  • Period: 323 BCE to 31 BCE

    Hellenistic Period, 323-31 BCE

    Spreading of Greek culture and language following death of Alexander the Great. Unifies disparate civilizations. Greek bc language of empire. Efficiencies. Establish Greek-style cities. Alex's empire split into 4: Macedon, Pergamon (Asia Minor/Turkey), Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Selucid Empire (Far East). Library of Alexandria (3rd c BCE) uses army of scribes, Egyptian papyrus. Many philosophers come to access 1000s books (Euclid: geometry; Archimedes: inventions and measurements).
  • 320 BCE

    Maurya Empire, India (320-185 BCE)

    First major Indian historical empire and largest in Indian history. Arose with Chandragupta Maurya, who took over state of Magadha (NE India). Stability and prosperity. Grandson: Ashoka (the Great) Maurya (268 BCE) embraced Buddhism after bloody conquest of Kalinga (260 BCE). Ashoka ruled during Buddhism's height in India. Built monasteries all over Asia. Empire collapsed after Ashoka's death (diverse, hard to manage)
  • 300 BCE

    Birth of Taoism in China: 300-200 BCE

    Based on writings of Lao-Tsu, "Old Master". Chinese philos. stresses living simply and honestly in harmony with nature. Taoism = "The Way": return to state before clutter of life/experience (a blank slate). Pu: "uncarved block" - basis of Taoist belief. Nature is at its best before prejudice occurs, development of right/wrong, good/bad. Devoid of judgment or concerns. Texts: Tao-te Ching (possibly by Lao-Tsu, meant to advise rulers of China) & Chuang-tzu (sermons of Lao-Tsu; allegories, stories)
  • 300 BCE

    Stoicism founded in Greece, 300 BCE

    Founded by Zeno of Cintium. Teaches the development of self-control and fortitude to overcome destructive emotions. It does not seek to extinguish emotions but rather seeks to transform them by a resolute Asceticism (a voluntary abstinence from worldly pleasures), which enables a person to develop clear judgment, inner calm and freedom from suffering (which it considers the ultimate goal).
  • 264 BCE

    Punic Wars (Rome v. Carthage, 264-146 BCE)

    Carthage in N.Africa, colony of Phonecia. Controlled S. Spain, Sicily, Med. islands. 3 wars. Rome ult. takes all Carthage possessions. 1st Punic War: Rome wins 240 BCE. Takes Sicily, forces reparations. 2nd Punic War: Carthage gains power in Iberia. Rome decl war 218 BCE. Hannibal of Carthage, mil genius, goes over Alps to attack from N. Italy. But no siege engines, can't take Rome. Rome def. Carthage 201 BCE. 3rd War: C paid off R; Rome no longer need C: destroyed Carthage 146 BCE.
  • Period: 221 BCE to 206 BCE

    Qin Dynasty, China (221-206 BCE)

    Qin: 221-206 BCE. Ended feudal decentralization of Warring States period after Zhou and united north and south China. Centralized, bureaucratic state. Built first part of Great Wall. Modern army. Ended slavery and serfdom (so peasants could serve in army; pay taxes). Harsh laws: legalism, a philosophy similar to realpolitik and Machiavellianism. Must keep inherently wicked people in line. Heavy taxes lead to rebellions and end of dynasty
  • Period: 206 BCE to 220

    Han Dynasty, China (206 BCE-220 CE)

    Han: 206 BCE-220 CE. Into pwr after uprisings. Centralized, efficient gov't. Incl most of China, parts of Vietnam, Korea, Manchuria, Mongolia. Warrior emperors. Est. tributary system over areas didn't rule directly. Postal system. Confucianism bc official polit philosophy of Chinese state & bureaucracy (140 BCE) - civil service exams.. Strong econ aided by ag. tech (irrigation, horse collar). Dominated silk production & Silk Rd trade. Decline: poor leaders, corruption, disease from West (100 CE)
  • 175 BCE

    Confucianism dominant political ideology, China, Han Dynasty

    Encouraged by Tung Chung-Shu, high official in Han Dynasty. He also helped unify China under a single authority. Tung a devout follower of Confucius and influenced the emperor. Peace over power, moral code, Jen, righteous rulers (humility, loyalty, benevolence). In 136 CE, Confucian principals served as foundation for Civil Service Exams in China.
  • 133 BCE

    Gracchi bros elected Consuls

    Brothers elected Consul in succession. Both murdered by Senate for helping plebians.
  • 73 BCE

    Spartacus leads slave revolt

    By 150 BCE, slaves ~1/3 of Italy's urban population. 134 BCE: 70,000 slaves revolt in Sicily. 73 BCE: Spartacus, a gladiator (knows how to fight) and 70,000 slaves defeat many Roman legions. Defeated 71 BCE. Rome kills thousands of slaves to send a message.
  • 63 BCE

    Cicero elected Consul of Rome, 63 BCE

    Cicero 106 BCE-43 BCE. Greatest mind of his age. Politician, orator, lawyer, philosopher. Still influential today. His philosophy brought Greek philos to Rome where transmitted across medieval Europe. Attempted to use pen/oration to protect Roman Republic against ambitious generals who desire to rule as tyrants. Death 1 year after ass'n of Julius Caesar (44 BCE)
  • 49 BCE

    Julius Caesar crosses Rubicon, 49 BCE

    Julius Caesar returns from Gaul and marches on Rome. Had been part of First Triumvirate with Pompey the Great and Crassus. Then Consul of Rome and popular with plebians. Pompey turned against him and declares him an outlaw while JC is in Gaul fighting. JC returns and defeats Pompey. Senate names Julius Caesar dictator for 10 years, then dictator for life (44 BCE).
  • 44 BCE

    Death of Julius Caesar, 44 BCE

    Assassinated by the Roman Senate (Brutus). Marks an endpoint of Roman Republic and later founding of Roman Empire (27 BCE)
  • 31 BCE

    Cleopatra of Egypt surrenders to Rome

    Cleopatra VII surrenders to Roman armies of Octavius (Augustus) in 31 BCE
  • 27 BCE

    Octavian becomes Augustus, Rome 27 BCE

    Octavian ruled with Second Triumvirate (Octavian, Marc Antony, Lepidus) from 44-27 BCE following Julius Caesar's death. 27 BCE named by Senate as Augustus (27 BCE-14 CE). De facto first emperor of the Roman Empire. Augustus keeps many of Republic's offices; not an outright dictator. Enacted laws to restore ancient morality, customs of Rome. Transformed Rome with pubic works. Named Father of the Nation in 2 BCE (Pater Patriae)
  • Period: 27 BCE to 1453

    Roman Empire, 27 BCE-1453 CE

    395: Theodosius I permanently divides Roman Empire (E&W); 476: Fall of Rome, end of Western Roman Empire (395-376); 1453: Fall of Constantinople, end of Eastern Roman Empire, aka Byzantine Empire (395-1453)
  • Period: 20 BCE to 180

    Pax Romana, 20 BCE-180 CE.

    Peace of Rome. War virtually unknown. Provinces gradually Romanized. Roads, running water, culture, theaters, schools monuments. Starts when Octavian named Augustus Caesar, 27 BCE.
  • AD 1

    Birth of Jesus

    Christianity now largest religion with 2B+ followers. Builds on Judaism with Jesus Christ as central figure. Judaism & Islam don't view JC as Messiah/deity. Islam: 1.3B followers. View Torah & Gospels as incomplete (Prophet Mohammed provided last and most complete revelations from God, collected in Qur'an).
  • 117

    Height of Roman Empire, 117 CE

    Under Emperor Trajan. 70M people, 5M sq miles. 21% of world population.
  • 161

    Marcus Aurelius, Emperor of Rome

    Last and most famous of 5 Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Pius). Remembered for beliefs (Stoicism). Wrote Meditations: You have power over your mind, not outside events. Realize this, and you will find strength. Self-control is key.
  • 235

    Third Century Crisis, Rome 235-284 CE

    3rd c. crisis: marks beg. of Late Antiquity in W, or transition from Classical Antiquity (Homer 8th c BCE) to Mid Ages. In E., Late Antiquity beg w/ Muslim Conq, mid 7th c CE. Roman Empire collapsing. Feuding, factions, funding, for. invasions, disease. Econ depression. Parts of emp break away: Gallic Empire (Gaul, Spain, Britain), Palmyrene Empire (Syria, Palestine, Egypt). 3rd part: Roman Empire (Italy-centered). Crisis ends: Aurelian (270-275 CE) reunites emp; Diocletian's reforms (284 CE).
  • Period: 250 to 900

    Maya, 250-900 CE

    Southern Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras. Highly developed written language, math, astronomy, calendar. Pyramids (Tiklal). Ruled by aristocratic nobility. Maya are still here - but they left cities (800-900 CE) bc of overpopulation, famine, disease.
  • 284

    Diocletian takes power in Rome (284-305 CE)

    Diocletian pulls Empire from Third Century Crisis. Reforms include: Tetrarchy and E-W administrative division. 4 rulers across empire to keep laws and maintain order. 2 in E (ruler and subruler) and 2 in W (ruler and subruler).
  • Period: 284 to 622

    Late Antiquity, 284-622

    Period of late antiquity was accompanied by an overall population decline in almost all Europe, and a reversion to more of a subsistence economy. Long-distance markets disappeared, and there was a reversion to a greater degree of local production and consumption, rather than webs of commerce and specialized production. Period begins with end of 3rd Century Crisis in Rome (284) and ends with 1) Fall of Rome (476) and 2) early Muslim Conquests (622-750)
  • 300

    Cult of Mithras, Rome (300s-200s CE)

    Influenced by Zoroastrianism. Popular among Roman soldiers. Secretive, ritualistic. Mithras a lesser god of Zoroastrianism who ruled earth. Hierarchical, structural (impt. influence on Christianity)
  • 300

    Height of Teotihuacan, 300-550 CE

    Teotihuacan (city) dominated Mesoamerica, 300-550. Destroyed by fire in 600 CE and abandoned.
  • 313

    Catholicism gains dominance (Constantine, Theodosius)

    Edict of Milan: Constantine accepts Christianity as approved religion (313 CE). Christianity sole authorized religion in Eastern Roman Empire (Theodosius I, 380 CE)
  • 320

    Gupta Empire & Golden Age of India, 320-550 CE

    Great but mixed record. Also from Magadha region. Height of classical civilization. Golden Age of India (famous literature, science). Zero used here first. Chess invented. Astronomical and mathematical theories. But caste system very rigid. Collapse: invasions and power shifted to local rulers outside Ganges valley.
  • 330

    Constantine moves Roman capital to Constantinople, 330 CE

    Political power moves with Constantine. Constantine reigned 324-337 CE. Eastern empire becomes known as Byzantine Empire.
  • 395

    Roman Empire permanently divided (East & West), 395 CE

    395: Theodosius I was last emperor to rule over both East and West. After Theo, permanent division. 476: Fall of Rome, end of Western Roman Empire (395-376); 1453: Fall of Constantinople, end of Eastern Roman Empire, aka Byzantine Empire (395-1453)
  • 476

    Fall of Rome, 476 CE

    476: Fall of Rome and end of Western Roman Empire (395-376). Rome invaded by Alaric and Visigoths (410) and then by Oadocer who claimed all Italy. Oadocer forces out last Roman emperor, Romulus Augustalus. After fall: 1) Germanic power increase; 2) decline of urban populations for 600 yrs; 3) decline of systems of gov't and communications. Religion one of only unifying factors (Papal pwr increases; includes admin functions and foreign affairs). Works until Renaissance, more free thinking
  • 476

    Feudalism in Europe begins

    Starts with fall of Rome. Feudalism: system of govt where pwr based on land ownership. To contend with chaos, kings gave land (fiefs) to nobility in exchange for allegiance and military service. Nobles bc vassals of the king. Vassals then offer protection to peasantry (serfs) who farm land. Issue: vassals raise armies there is much warring among themselves. Also: manorialism, self-sufficient communities (farm, hunt, church, village) + trade specialization (early tradesmen, middle class)
  • Period: 476 to 1450

    Feudalism in Europe

    Fifth to 15th centuries. In 15th c. feudalism declines. Crusades over and E-W trade routes established. Towns and cities established along routes; these can survive w/o feudal lands. Towns become centers of freedom, merchants. Re-emergence of Euro monarchial power in 15th c. Merchants are new tax base for kings, enabling standing armies (not rely on arist for troops). Commoners used in bureaucracy, leading to parliaments.
  • 496

    Clovis converts to Catholicism, 496

    First king of Franks to unite all Franks under one ruler. Converts to Catholicism in 496.
  • 528

    Code of Justinian, Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emperor

    The Justinian Code or Corpus Juris Civilis (Corpus of Civil Law) was a major reform of Byzantine law created by Emperor Justinian I (r. 527-565 CE) in 528-9 CE. Clarify/update Roman laws, eradicate inconsistencies and speed up legal processes, Not only used as a basis for Byzantine law for over 900 years, the laws therein continue to influence many western legal systems to this day.
  • 570

    Birth of Mohammed, 570 CE

    Qur'an revealed to Mohammed in 610 CE. Declared prophet in 621 CE and accepted by Arab tribes from Medina then Mecca (following battle). Now based in Mecca (traditional center of worship, at Kabba). Dies in 624 CE; Abu Bakr (friend and confidant) bc leader over Ali, Mohammed's cousin and son in law. Ult. leads to schism in Islam (Shiites: followers of Ali; Sunnis: followers of Abu Bakr). Islamic 5 pillars: Shahada (declaration of faith); pray 5x/day; charity; fasting; Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)
  • Period: 586 to 618

    Sui Dynasty, China (586-618 CE)

    Sui: 586-618 CE. China reunified after 6 Dynasty period. Borders spread. China's first great canal system, which created a northeast-southwest link from Huang He (Huang had a northern course) to the Huai River, was built beginning in 605
  • Period: 618 to 906

    Tang Dynasty, China (618-906 CE)

    Tang: 618-906 CE. Cultural flowering in China. Buddhism appears. Economy up. Like Han, forced neighbors (Korea, Japan, Vietnam) into tributary system. Dom of world silk trade brings big profits. Indian Ocean trade. Falls because of resentment to elite.
  • 624

    Islam spreads, 7th c. CE

    Mohammed dies, 624 CE. Abu Bakr takes Arabian Peninsula (d: 634). Umar & 2nd Caliphate: 634-644. Internal unity = success. Takes Damascus, Jerusalem, Babylon, Alexandria, Umar (Sassanid Emp). Terr now as lg as Tang Dynasty China. 3rd Caliphate: 644-656 then Ali (656-661) then Umayyad Dynasty (661-750). Overthrown by Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258; Islamic Golden Age). Vast Abbasid empire diff to control, falls to Mongols (1258). Next 300 yrs: frag'd Islamic world til unified by Ott. Turks in 16th c.
  • 651

    Muslim conquest of Persia, 651 CE

    Muslim conquest of Persia ended Sasanian Empire and led to decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia. Zorastrianism predecessor/foundation for major religions (Christianity, Islam, Judaism). Zoroaster was Persian prophet. Zorastrianism not fully monotheistic (recognizes add'l gods) but brings worship under one most powerful god. Z: people free to choose good vs. evil. There's an afterlife that's affected by your life choices (heaven or hell). Angels, demons, saviors. Sacred text: Avesta.
  • 800

    Holy Roman Empire founded

    Charlemagne crowned by Pope Leo III after he came to aid of Pope (had been attacked). Early ex. of polit and religious ideology of Divine Right of Kings. Carolingian Renaissance: greater literacy, art. Charlemagne united much of W and Central Europe during early Middle Ages. First recognized emperor to rule from W Europe since fall of W Roman Empire 300 yrs earlier. Frankish state he founded called Carolingian Empire. Considered "father of Europe".
  • Period: 960 to 1279

    Song Dynasty, China (960-1279 CE)

    Song: 960-1279 CE. China separates into separate states. Song is most powerful, in E-Central region. Age of tech advancements: gunpowder, compass, paper money. Hierarchical doctrine of Neo Confucianism (a more rationalist and secular form of Confucianism; rejects superstitious and mystical elements of Taoism and Buddhism that influenced Confu'ism during and after Han Dynasty
  • 962

    Otto I & transfer of HRE to Germans

    Charlemagne's Frankish successor emperors faltered under poli and mil challenges, and his inheritance was permanently divided in 887. After 924 the western empire again without emperor until coronation of Otto I, duke of Saxony in 962. Coronation seen to transfer the Roman imperial office to heirs of the East Franks, the Germans. The position of emperor remained among the Germans until the Holy Roman Empire was abolished in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars in 1806.
  • 1000

    Extensive Viking trade routes

    Raids of Vikings from Scandinavia increase in 8th c., when Charlemagne uniting Franks into Carolingian Empire. Feudalism was in many ways instituted to protect against these raiders. Extensive trade routes by 1000 CE, 500 years before Columbus. Early 900s, France gives Normandy to Vikings as a payoff. Attacked England, S Italy, Holy Land from here.
  • Period: 1050 to 1300

    Medieval warm period, urban rev, 12th c renaissance

    Warmer, drier climate=ag. rev in Eur. Crop yields, life expect, pop up. More land tilled. Better ag tech (plow, horse collar); crop rotation. Food surpluses. Towns/cities re-emerge. Crafts, tradesmen; some soc mobility. More stable in Eur as Vik raids cease (can farm now). Trade up after Crus. Coinage back. Ital merchs: 1st commerc capitalists (contracts, credit). More need for literacy. Non-church schools (univers) teach how to reason, interpret (use Classical predecessors). Soon: Ren, Enl, IR.
  • 1054

    Great Schism of 1054

    East-West schism in Christian church divides Christianity into Western Catholicism and Eastern Orhodoxy. Pople Leo IX and Patriarch of Constantinople excommunicate each other.
  • 1059

    Investiture conflict, 11-12c CE

    Pope and Holy Roman Emperor clash over rights to appoint church officials. Prev., HRE chose pope, bishops, etc. and pope chose HRE. 1059 CE, church creates College of Cardinals to choose pope. 1079, HRE can't choose bishops. Leads to conflict btw HRE Henry IV and Pope Gregory VIII. Results in decline of imperial power (Holy Roman Empire) and divisions within Germany until 18th c. Weakens HRE authority in Italy. Papacy grows stronger, setting stage for Crusades and religious vitality of 12c.
  • 1066

    Battle of Hastings, 1066 CE

    William the Conquerer from Normandy crosses English Channel and and defeats Harold II of England. Harold killed in battle. William crowned King of England Dec 1066.
  • 1095

    First Crusade, 1095

    Surprisingly successful. Create 4 Crusader States, incl Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099). Arab disarray is why lost. Beg: Byz Emperor want lands lost to Turks. Pope no send mercs but horde of crusaders. Crusaders motivated by 1) relig; 2) oppty to carve out estates in Holy Land. NB: all other crusades fail. One by one, Crusader States fall to Muslims. By 13 c. popes launch crusades vs Christian kings. Fourth Crusade, 1202-04: Constantinople attacked. Venetians supply $ (trade rivals to Const)
  • Period: 1185 to

    Shoguns & Daimyos: Military rule in Japan

    Japan led by emperors but de facto rule by Shoguns. Kamakura period (1185–1333) withstood two Mongol invasions, but toppled in 1333 by a rival claimant to shogunate, ushering in Muromachi period (1333–1568) and rise of daimyos. These regional feudal warlords grew in power (hired samurai armies) at expense of Shogun. Daimyō era ended soon after the Meiji Restoration (1868). Tokugawa Shogunate governed during Edo period (1600–1868): peaceful, but strict class society and cut off from world.
  • 1215

    Magna Carta, England 1215 CE

    King John of England had levied harsh taxes on barons who'd fought in Crusades. Leads to civil war. John loses, forced to sign Magna Carta. Places legal limits and restrictions on king's authority. Charter of the Forest (1217) complements MC. Provides legal rights for commoners, incl guaranteed access to previously private royal lands. Further limits on king's auth with Provisions of Oxford (1258). Reforms Eng govt, adding new councils and advisors.
  • 1250

    Impact of Crusades: Italian city-states big winners

    W society sees inferiority vs adv cultures of E. Venice, Florence, already well off from trading with East, see appetite for goods way up. E. Med trade routes up as Arabs driven out. Byzantines out of the way. Massive wealth among Ital city states (armies go E, goods go W). Crusaders bring back Classical texts. Give rise to Renaissance. Pwr of monarchs up (better taxation, bureaucracy). Papal pwr down (no success after 1st Crus; crusades to fight polit enemies; indulgences) leads to Prot Ref
  • 1265

    Thomas Aquinas & Summa Theologica, 1265

    Most important figure of Catholic Church during Middle Ages. First to combine an objective study of philosophy with devoted study of theology. Was a great thinker who adopted teachings of Aristotle to defend the Church. Foremost proponent of natural theology. Summa Theologica: attempt to prove existence of God and importance of Cath Church using Aristotelian logic (the same logic that had threatened the church). Leaves Church more agile, reflexive.
  • Period: 1279 to 1368

    Yuan Dynasty, China (1279-1368 CE)

    Yuan: 1279-1368 CE. Mongol Empire rule. Reunified China. Pax Mongolica: peaceful. Key to reopening Silk Rd after fall of Roman Emp. Provided Chinese tech to Eur (gunpowder, compass, paper money, printing press). Took ideas/culture from empire, put to use. Kublai Khan meets Italian Marco Polo. Wealthy: tribute system on other states. Uses local traditions and culture. Hit by 1st wave of Black Death before it hit MidEast, Eur. 30-40% pop. dead. Labor shortage, falling econ, rebellion. Dynasty ends
  • 1302

    Dante's Divine Comedy, 1302

    Dante Alighieri from Florence writes long poem; visits heaven, purgatory, hell (9 circles). Comedy because happy ending (meets Mary, Holy Trinity, God shares knowledge, Dante's soul at one with God). Uses mythology, politics, philos, Christian doctrine in conversation with various souls. Poem bc very popular. Influenced development of common Italian language (prev books only Greek or Latin)
  • 1337

    100 Years' War, 1337-1453 (Eng v France)

    France won but lands devastated. Still, result was unified, cent. state, decline feudalism, adv military. Eng King Edward III claims Fr. throne after Fr. King Charles IV dies (1328). But: Philip IV bc King of Fr (nobles say no to matrilinear descent or foreign king). Dynastic conflict led to Fr & Eng nat'lsm, adv weapons/tactics (eg., artillery over cavalry), first standing armies in Euro since Rom Emp. Fr won (kept most lands) but high cost (pop. down: civil wars, famine, bandit mercenaries).
  • 1347

    Black Death in Europe, 1347-1352

    Over one-third of Europe's population dies in under 10 years. Spread by rat fleas. Death in under 5 days. People lived close proximity to animals, poor hygiene. Combined w/ deaths from famine (Little Ice Age cooling) pop. not back for >100 yrs. Leads to: increased cost of labor (lower workforce). Peasants gain some freedoms. Feudalism in decline. Revolts in Europe bc of high taxation, suppression by aristoc (Black Death, famine, taxes, church confict, war damages - all lead to revolt).
  • Period: 1350 to

    Renaissance (Italy and Europe)

    Marks transit. from Mid Ages to Modern era. Spreads to rest of Eur. Devel of capitalism, banking, mercantilism, accounting. Explorers from Ital maritime republics serve Euro monarchs (Age of Discovery). Rediscover Humanism & Greco-Roman culture. Lit, paint, sculpt, arch, music: huge impact on evol of arts; Ren wars bring big changes in hist of diplo, warfare; Ital univs play signif role in start sci rev; More Papal pwr brings Reformation, Counter-Ref, Rom Inquisition, Euro wars of religion.
  • Period: 1368 to

    Ming Dynasty, China (1368-1644)

    Ming: 1368-1644. Builds Forbidden City in Beijing. Large, effective army. Expanded borders. Tribute system w 50 states, thanks to a navy (Admiral Zheng He, 1405-1433; great mariner; 7 voyages). Trade, world knowledge up. Prosperous but authoritarian structure cannot compete with challenge from West (cultural and military).
  • 1378

    Western Schism, 1378

    1305, Pope Clement V elected pope and creates 9 new French cardinals. Not popular decision. Escapes to Avignon, France. 6 more popes there til 1376. "The Babylonian Captivity". 1377 papal court back in Rome. Gregory XI dies. New Pope Urban VI, Italian, not pop w/Fr cardinals. They elect own pope, Clement VII, who goes to Avignon. 1409 Council elects a new pope but old ones not resign. Now, 3 popes. Non-Roman popes=antipopes. Great Schism ends 1414. New pope elected (Martin V), other popes out.
  • Period: 1400 to

    Age of Exploration & Columbian Exchange

    For gold, God, and glory. Weath was prime motivator (access to trading routes). Also adventure and religion. Sp and Port first, then Fr, Eng, Dutch. Columbian Exchange (Grand Exchange): Goods btw Old/New Worlds. Horses, pigs, livestock to New World. Maize, potatoes, tomatoes to Old World. Also to New World: smallpox and disease; enslavement of natives in New World. Spain soon controlled gold/silver of New World and money flows into Euro banks. Soon, Eng and France follow.
  • 1453

    Fall of Constantinople, 1453

    1453: Fall to Ottoman Turks, end of Eastern Roman Empire, aka Byzantine Empire (395-1453). Byz Empire had declined. Early empire, pop of freemen get land for mil service. Paid taxes. Then, rich nobles claim land, place poor into serfdom and tie to land. Allegiance now to noble, not empire. Tax base, mil power fall. Byz Emp rely on costly mercenaries from W. Lost Battle of Manzikert to Seljuk Turks (1071) marking end of Byz Emp as mil viable state. By 1400, Turks had taken much of Eastern Europe.
  • 1478

    Spanish Inquisition, 1478-1834

    Jews prev persecuted in Spain. Some convert (conversos). But anti-Jewish sentiment strong, espec in Seville, a city recently incorp into Christian kingdom of Castile. 1473: riots vs conversos in Cordoba. Pope Sixtus IV issues bull authorizing creation of Inquisition. Trials of Muslims, Jews, Prots, more. First public trials (auto de fe, act of faith) in 1481. Many vs wealthy Jews. Ferdinand II of Aragon + Isabella of Castile soon spread Inquisition across domains. 16th c: Inquis loses steam
  • 1492

    Columbus reaches Americas

    Italian explorer working for Spain (Ferdinand II and Isabella)
  • 1500

    Cabral reaches Brazil

    Pedro Alvares Cabral, Portugal.
  • 1500

    Encomienda system

    Rewarded conquerors with the labor of particular groups of subject people. A grant of people, not land. Led to systemic oppression and exploitation. Natives required to pay tribute in return for protection, relig instruction. Bartolomé de las Casas works to reform system, argues against in Valladolid Debates. Later repealed but damage done. Empires destroyed, pop falls from war and disease, survivors essentially slaves.
  • 1508

    Da Vinci and Michelangelo

    Da Vinci paints Last Supper, 1498. Michelangelo paints Sistine Chapel, 1508
  • 1509

    Henry VIII of England

    Reigned 1509 until 1547 (death). Followed VII, first Tudor king, who ushered in era of stability. Major accomplishments of HVIII: 1) Gave credibility to Parliament, including in major decisions; 2) Increased Eng's power worldwide (Royal Navy, trade & commerce); 3) Act of Supremacy, 1534 marks beg of English Reformation. Golden Age of England starts with Eliz I (1558) daughter HVIII (reigned after Jane Grey and Mary I).
  • 1517

    Martin Luther, 95 Theses, & start Protestant Reformation

    ML nails 95 Theses to door Church of Wittenburg. Start of Prot Reformation. Luther: Bible holds authority as much as Church. Also: wants Church stop sell indulgences (remiss. of punishment for sins). Done since 1095: Pope Urban II sold to crusaders. Now, Pope Leo X, a son of Lorenzo de' Medici, wants sell to build Peter's Basilica. ML refuses recant at Diet of Worms, 1521. ML's friends hide him. Translates Bible into Germ. 1526: Lutheran Church. Prot Ref spreads to Neth, Fr, Eng. Soon relig war.
  • 1517

    Protestant Reformation: Causes

    1) Abandonment of Rome by Popes (Avignon popes, 1309-1379). Seesaw battle of popes/antipopes weakened idea of Pope as central authority; 2) Rise of nat'lsm after 100 years' war (1337-1453) weakened religious bonds; 3) Black Death led to crisis of faith; 4) Rise of vernacular over Latin; 5) Church corruption (indulgences, simony). By 16th c. Europe a powderkeg.
  • 1519

    Magellan circumnavigates globe

    Ferdinand Magellan, Portugal.
  • 1520

    Suleiman I and Ottoman Golden Age, 1520

    Suleiman the Magnificent becomes Sultan, 1520. Selim I (father) had expanded empire. Unlike father, Suleiman rules with kindness. Wants more territory. Improves military. Expands Janissaries (elite Turkish warriors) and navy. Reigns 1520-1566. Apex of Ottoman power and start of Ottoman Golden Age. Patron of arts, mosques, schools, infrastructure. Revered by people.
  • 1521

    Cortes def Aztecs, 1521; Pizarro def Inca, 1532

    Hernan Cortes, Spain. 1521, conquers Aztecs in Mexico with only 600 men. Attacked Tenochtitlan (now Mex City) and took Montezuma captive. Devastates Aztec Empire. Francisco Pizarro, Spain. 1532: Conquers Incas of Peru. Captured Inca ruler, Atahualpa, and holds for ransom. Then executes him anyway. Spanish advantages: disease, firearms, strategy (rallied Inca enemies as allies)
  • 1525

    Calvin & Zwingli, Protestant reformers

    John Calvin: 1541, Geneva becomes a center of Protestant world under John Calvin. Doctrine of predestination (to heaven or hell). Believed in simple worship. Christ present in Lord's Supper but spiritual only, not physical. Zwingli from Zurich. Wrote 67 Articles. Salvation via faith only; human works don't count. Cath traditions unnecessary. Christ not in eucharist; only symbolic. Zwingli killed 1531 leading Prot troops to meet Catholics in battle outside Zurich.
  • Period: 1526 to

    Mughal Empire, India (1526-1858)

    Muslim empire. 2nd-lgest on Indian subcontinent, ~4M sq km. #2 to Maurya (~5M sq km). Indo-Persian: Persianate culture + local Indian influ. Classic per. beg. w/ Akbar the Great (1858) and son Jahangir. Mughal Empire brings proto-industzn and ~17th c Mughal India bc world's lgest econ (24% world GDP). Mughal Empire was India's last "golden age". Decline: 18-19c as sm states rebel. Indian Rebellion (1857) led to Govt of India Act (1858): British Crown assumes direct control of India (British Raj)
  • 1533

    Ivan the Terrible, Russia 1533

    Marks beginning of centralized government in Russia. Ruled with iron fist, killing many nobles (boyars). Expanded territory into Siberia. Built St. Basils Cathedral, Moscow. Died 1584, yet famine, war, disease left Russia in disarray.
  • 1534

    Act of Supremacy, England 1534

    England separates from Catholic Church. Henry VIII becomes head of Church of England. Demonstrates decline of Church power. France: 1438 Charles VII and Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (Pope no longer ultimate auth over Fr church. But Church strong in Spain (Ferdinand and Isabella).
  • Period: 1543 to

    Scientific Revolution, 1543-1687

    Changed views of nature, knowledge. No longer accept Christian "revealed truths." Use sci method, observation, empiricism, to form reproducible basis for knowledge. Copernicus (heliocentric univ, 1543) to Isaac Newton (law of gravity, 1687). Francis Bacon use sci experiment unlock nature's secrets,1620 (debt to Aristotle). Galileo: supports helio; discovers Jupiter moons. Renee Descartes, 1650: father mod philosophy. I think therefore I am; mechanistic God create perfect univ, no need intervene
  • 1545

    Council of Trent 1545-1563, and Counter Reformation

    Ecumenical council in Trento, Italy. Church survives Reformation. Reforms increase interest in Cath Church. Start of Catholic Counter-Reformation, aka Catholic Revival. Lasted until Thirty Years' War (1648)
  • 1555

    Peace of Augsburg, 1555

    HRE Charles V decrees that each German state may determine official religion of its people (Catholic or Lutheran). Briefly stops unrest in HRE from Prot Reformation. De facto divides German states into Cath and Protestant until reunification in 1860s.
  • 1562

    French religious wars, 1562-1598 & Edict of Nantes, 1598

    Religious wars between French Calvinists (Huguenots) and Catholic League, 1562-1598. 3M people die from violence, famine, disease. 2nd deadliest religious wars in Europe after 30 Years' War (8M lives). Edict of Nantes, 1598, issued by Henry IV of France: Catholicism national religion but Huguenots may worship publicly.
  • 1568

    80 Years' War, 1568-1648

    Dutch war of independence against Spain. William of Orange leads N provinces to rebel. Eng (Eliz I) joins vs Spain, 1585. (1588: def of Spanish Armada hurts Sp finances). Ended with Peace of Munster, part of Peace of Westphalia. Dutch Republic definitively recognized as independent. 1648 marks start of Dutch Golden Age. Neth becomes known for religious tolerance.
  • Period: to

    Tokugawa Shogunate, Japan (1600-1868)

    Presided over peaceful period (Edo Period, 1600-1868) yet imposed strict class system and cut off nearly all contact with outside world. Ended following 1853-54 Admiral Perry expedition (trade caused inflation, economic decline) in 1868. Fall of Shogunate and return of emperor. Succeeded by Meiji Period, with transformation of Japan from isolated feudal country to western-modeled world power and empire.
  • 30 Years' War, 1618-1648

    Deadliest Euro relig war. 8M dead. Prot v. Cath in HRE bc genl Euro conflict (Con't of Fr-Habsburg rivalry: Fr encircled by Habs powers, Sp. & HRE, so fought w/ Prots). Start: Ferdinand II HRE & King Bohemia, imposes Cath on domains. Prot nobles in Bohemia & Austria rebel. Ends w/ Treaty of Westphalia, 1648. Altered political order of Euro. Rise of Bourbon Fr, curtailing of HRE/Habs ambition, + rise of Sweden as great power. France strengthened + increasingly dominant in latter part 17th c.
  • English Civil Wars, 1642-1651

    English angry with Charles I (dissolved Parliament in 1629 for 11 yrs; married Cath, raised $ from fines on wealthy: Star Chamber). Charles raises army after unsuccessfully marching on Parliament, 1642. Royalists do well until Oliver Cromwell restructured military (New Model Army). NMA wins at Naseby, 1646. Charles flees but turned over to Parl. Charles I executed, 1649. Cromwell dissolves Parl; bc Lord Protector of England, 1653-1658 (death). Charles II returns as King, 1660.
  • Louis XIV of France, r. 1643-1715

    Reigned 72 yrs, 1643-1715. "Sun King". Most influential French monarch. Advisors: Cardinal Richelieu, Cardinal Mazurin; Jean-Baptiste Colbert. Expanded Fr territory in Europe, N. America (Canada, Louisiana). Centralization of authority in monarchy. Mil & administrative reforms sap nobility of auth. Mil based on merit. Collected old taxes (state bc wealthy). Opulent court life at Versailles
  • Period: to

    Qing Dynasty, China (1644-1912 CE)

    Qing: 1644-1912. Manchu dynasty. Cont developments of Ming. Prosperous. Dream of Red Chamber - high point of Chinese fiction. But new territories strain state. Auth structure unable to compete vs mil & cultural challenge of an expansive West.
  • Protest Reformation: Effects

    Reformation: 1517 (ML) to 1649 (End 30 Years' War/Peace of Westphalia). Religious wars in France, HRE, elsewhere. England est Church of England. Clergy loses power while secular rulers gain. Peasants: no maj change. Middle class: Marked beg of indiv thought on relig; later: free thinking in politics, econ, social structure. More education for all (clergy, children: Protestants need to read/interpret scripture). Start of mod age (w/ Age Discov + Ren)
  • Social contract theory, 1650

    Implicit agreement among members of society to cooperate for social benefits, e.g., sacrificing some individual freedom for state protection. Theories of social contract became popular in 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries among theorists incl Thomas Hobbes (1651), John Locke (1689), and Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1762), as a means of explaining origin of govt and obligations of subjects. Locke: ideal govt is republic; state protects natural rights; Hobbes: ideal is monarchy, and state prevents chaos.
  • Glorious Revolution & Bill of Rights, 1688

    1688: Glorious Revolution: Parliament invites William of Orange an Mary to rule England (but may leave no heirs). James I flees (bro of Charles II, Catholic). 1689: Bill of Rights signed by William further subjugates monarchy to authority of Parliament.
  • Peter the Great, Russia, 1696-1725

    Becomes sole Tsar in 1696 after brother Ivan dies (joint Tsar). Turned Russia into a major power in a single generation. Westernization of Russia. Shipbuilding and navy. Power away from boyars. Moved capital to St Petersburg, 1712.
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    The Enlightenment, 1715-1789

    Age of Reason. Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau. Rights of man and people emphasized over divine right to rule. Social contract.
  • Frederick the Great, Prussia, 1740-1786

    1740-1786. Prussia greatly increased its territories and became a leading military power in Europe under his rule. Achieved: mil victories, reorganization of Prussian armies, patronage of the arts and the Enlightenment in Prussia, and final success against great odds in 7 Years' War.
  • Period: to

    Industrial Revolution

  • Period: to

    2nd Industrial Revolution

    Followed 1st IR (growth of industries such as coal, iron, railroads, textiles) with expansion of electricity, petroleum, steel industries and technological innovations (steel replaces iron, rail more competitive, transportation lines spread). 1876: Alexander Graham Bell and telephone; 1878: internal combustion engine; 1886: Benz and first car; 1879: Edison perfects light bulb; 1896: Ford's Model T assembly line; 1901: Marconi and radio; 1903: Wright Bros & fixed-wing plane
  • Admiral Perry expedition, Japan (1853)

    Ended Japanese isolation (by force).
  • Crimean War, 1854-1856

    Upends old bal of pwr set in 1815 in Treaty of Vienna after Napoleonic Wars. Vulnerability of Ott Empire partly to blame. Ends w/ Treaty of Paris, 1856. Winners: GB, Ottoman Empire, France, Results: Russia loses, realizes needs to modernize its troops. Tsar Alexander II (to power 1855) est reforms at home. Facilitates creation of Germany under Prussian leadership and Italy under Sardinian leadership (fought w/ allies). Austria loses big (terr, power); soon a dual monarchy w Hungary; lost terr).
  • New states: Italy & Germany

    1861, Kingdom of Italy, under Sardinian leadership: King Emanuel and Prime Minister Cavour. 1871, German Empire, under Prussian leadership: Kaiser Wilhelm I and Chancellor Otto von Bismarck.
  • Boxer Rebellion

    Chinese nat'lists murder 100s foreigners to rid China of outside influ. By late 1890s, Boxers attacked fors. + Chinese Christians. B's blamed foreigners' colonization for poor living stnd 1890s: China gave terr & econ concessions to several Euro nats). When Boxers reach Beijing's for. district, Qing Empress Dowager declare war on foreign nats with diplo ties in China. Rebellion ended by 20K for troops from mult. nations incl US. China pays $330M, forts destroyed, etc. Qing weakened, ends 1912
  • Period: to

    Republic of China (1912-1949)

    Follows Rev of 1911 (Xinhai Rev). 6 y.o. emperor abdicates. Sun Yat-sen, revolutionary, bc 1st provis. Pres of Republic (Father of Nation.) Soon, hands pwr to popular general. Nationalist government (1928) tries bring all country under control; leads to revolts, Japanese occup (1937-1945). Western influ: science, democ during new culture movement. Weak central gov't. Long March (forced Communists on march for 12000 km; only 8000 of 40000 survive). Natlists flee to Taiwan after defeat to Comm.
  • Joseph Stalin becomes Russian leader

    After Lenin's death (1924) and a 5-yr succession struggle vs Trotsky, Stalin takes power. Overturns the New Economic Police (NEP, 1921-1928) and starts 5-Year Plans, with collectivization of agriculture and full centralization of economy to bring about rapid industrialization. 1932-33: Great Famine (4-6M dead) from grain confiscations in s Russia, Kazakh, Ukraine. 1936-38: Purges (show trials, mass executions) led to 1M dead and millions more sent to labor camps (gulags).
  • Japanese invasion of Manchuria

    Followed by war with China, 1937-1949.
  • Operation Barbarossa (Axis invades USSR)

    Axis invasion of USSR. 4M Axis personnel along 1800 mi front. Largest invasion force in history. Initially successful (took Ukrainian SSR) but stalled at Battle of Moscow and USSR's counteroffensive pushed Germany back. Became war of attrition. Failure by Germany was a turning point in fortunes of Third Reich. Eastern front was site of some of largest battles, most horrific atrocities, highest casualties for Soviet and Axis units. Germ captured 5M Red Army troops - few survived.
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    PRC: Peoples Republic of China (1949-present)

    Mao Zedong. Communist government. Great Leap Forward and Cultural Rev were disasters. Since 1978, econ reforms. Now, country is single-party rule but largely a capitalist nation.