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2017 Saidah Ly Dalat World History

By sjly
  • Period: 10,000 BCE to 500 BCE

    Ch. 3-Early Fertile Cresent People

    Sumerians, Akkadians,Babylonians, Hittites, Kassites, Assyians, Chaldeans, Phoencians
  • 7000 BCE

    Mesopotamia-First Farm Settlements

    Mesopotamia-First Farm Settlements
    Hunter- gatherers settled in Mesopotamia and the first farm settlements started. They learned to grow their own food.There was a food surplus.
  • Period: 4500 BCE to 350

    Ch. 4-Egypt and Kush

    Ancient Egypt-4500 BC to 3500 BC
    Old Kingdom- 2700 BC to 2200 BC
    Middle Kingdom-2500 BC to 1750 BC
    New Kingdom- 1550 BC to 1050 BC
  • 3300 BCE

    Sumer- Invention of Writing

    Sumer- Invention of Writing
    The Sumerians created cuneiform, the world's first system of writing. They wrote with sharp tools called styluses to write on clay tablets.
  • 3300 BCE

    Ancient Egypt- Egyptian Writing

    Ancient Egypt- Egyptian Writing
    One of the first writing systems known in the world are Egyptian hieroglyphics. This writing system used over 600 symbols that you could put together which made it hard to read. They wrote on papyrus. The key to fugure the meaning of these hieroglyphics was the discovery of the Rosetta Stone.
  • 3100 BCE

    Egypt- Menez Unifies Egypt

    Egypt- Menez Unifies Egypt
    Egypt's first pharoah named Menez unified Upper and Lower Egypt. He also founded the first dynasty in Egypt. He wore a crown of red and white to show he ruled both Upoer and Lower Egypt.
  • 2500 BCE

    Egypt-First Pyramids

    Egypt-First Pyramids
    Egyptians made special monuments for their ruler's tombs. They believed burial practices were really important. The most impressive were pyramids. A pyramid is a large stone structure with triangular shaped walls that meet with a pointed top. These pyramids were hard to make. The top was pointed to the gods to make the pharaohs have a good afterlife. The largest pyramid is the Great Pyramid of Khufu. They began making pyramids in the Old Kingdom.
  • 2500 BCE

    Egypt- Khufu's Rule

    Egypt- Khufu's Rule
    The most well known pharoah of the Old Kingdom was Khufu. He's is famous for his monuments. He wasn't kind and gracious but his workers had food to eat.
  • 2300 BCE

    Southern Mesopotamia- Sargon Defeats Sumer

    Southern Mesopotamia- Sargon Defeats Sumer
    The Sumerians who were the first civilization were defeated by Sargon and turned into the Akkadian Empire.
  • Period: 2300 BCE to 320

    Ch.5- Acient India

    The Aryans, Harrapans, Mauryas, and the Gupta
  • 2000 BCE

    Phoenicia- The Developement of the Alphabet

    Phoenicia- The Developement of the Alphabet
    The Phoencians greatest achievement was the alphabet, a set of letters that can combine and form words. It made writing simpler and easier, it also made a huge impact on our world today.
  • 2000 BCE

    India- Aryans Arrive In India

    India- Aryans Arrive In India
    The Aryans migrated from the Caspien Sea to India after the Harrapan civilization ended. They became one of the major leading groups in India.They lived in small communities that differed from the Harrapan Society.
  • Period: 2000 BCE to 500 BCE

    Ch. 8-Ancient Greece

    Minoans 2000 BC-1400 BC
    Mycenaeans 1400 BC- 1200 BC
    Greeks 900 BC- 500 BC
  • 1850 BCE

    Egypt-Middle Kingdom

    Egypt-Middle Kingdom
    The Old Kingdom was done, the nobles fought each other, pyramids were expensive, and there was chaos. Finally a man named Mentuhotep II, unified all of Egypt and became the start of the Middle Kingdom. There was no more fighting and Egypt was calm. Eventually there was invaders like the Hyksos and the kingdom fell apart. That was the end of the Middle Kingdom.
  • 1792 BCE

    Mesopatamia- Hammurabi's Rule

    Mesopatamia- Hammurabi's Rule
    Hammurabi was a great monarch and war leader. He also brought prosperity and increased trade. Hammurabi's greatest achievement was Hammurabi's code a set of laws that set the foundation for the laws today.
  • 1500 BCE

    Kush- Egyptian Rule

    Kush became a powerful kingdom that Egypt feared. So Egypt attacked Kush and it became apart of Egypt. Egypt had a great influence on Kush. Many of Egyptian culture became the Kushite culture.
  • 1500 BCE

    6.1, Northern China, Shang Dynasty

    6.1, Northern China, Shang Dynasty
    The Shang Dynasty is one of China's first dynasties. Shang rulers were stronger in the Huang He Valley, but moved around to northern China. During the Shang period rulers were most important in the social heirarchy and slaves at the bottom. They also developed China's first writing system, which includes Chinese symbols that influenced China's current writing system.
  • Period: 1500 BCE to 220

    Ch. 6- Acient China

    Xia Dynasty 2200 BC
    Shang Dynasty 1500s BC
    Zhou Dynasty 1050-400 BC
    Quin Dynasty 221-206 BC
    Han Dynasty 206 BC - AD 220
  • 1300 BCE

    Egypt- New Kingdom

    The New Kingdom began with Ahmose who drove the Hyksos out of Egypt. The New Kingdom was a time of power and wealth. They took invaders down and built Egypt into an empire. They traded with other lands and became rich and wealthy. They had a strong military.
  • Period: 753 BCE to 27 BCE

    Ch. 10- The Roman Republic

    Roman Kings 753 BC- 509 BC
    Republic 509 BC- 27 BC
  • 750 BCE

    8.1, Greece, Greek's City-States

    8.1, Greece, Greek's City-States
    After the Mycenaeans the Greeks developed city-states that was built around an acropolis and had walls for safety and protection. The activity was around the marketplace where farmers brought food. All the people in the city were included in making decisions for their own welfare. The Greeks began to feel protected and they had aspirations of their own.
  • 750 BCE

    8.3, Greece, Homer Writes Poems

    8.3, Greece, Homer Writes Poems
    Two of the earliest Greek writings where epic poems by a poet called Homer. He wrote the Iliad and Odyssey. They were both written about the Heroes of the Trojan war. The Iliad is written about the last years of the Trojan war. The Odyssey is written about the journey back from the Trojan war. They are both considered great works of literature. Back then people memorized parts of the poems as lessons. His poems were influential to later poems and the way we look at Greece's history.
  • 690 BCE

    India- The Development of Buddhism

    India- The Development of Buddhism
    A man named Siddartha Guatama wondered why people suffer. He left his rich home and wandered for many years searching for answers. He meditated and fasted and one day under a tree he gained insight on human suffering, that is where he reached enlightenment. He was known from then on as the Buddha. Many people followed Buddhism because it didn't follow the caste system. Many Buddhism beliefs include things like nirvana and obeying to four noble truths.
  • 600 BCE

    India- Developement of Hinduism

    Many of Hindusim's beliefs come from a mixture of different kingdoms. The Hindus believed in many gods. They believe that according to your karma which is the way your actions effect you, that you would be reincarnated. That means coming to earth again. Hinduism strongly believed in the caste system.
  • Period: 550 BCE to 30 BCE

    Ch.9- The Greek World

    Persians 550 BC-380 BC
    Spartans 600 BC-350 BC
    Athenians. 600 BC-404 BC
    Macedonians 359 BC-60 BC
  • 530 BCE

    9.1, Persia, Cyrus Builds an Empire

    9.1, Persia, Cyrus Builds an Empire
    Cyrus II led a successful revolt against the Medes who had ruled them and that victory started the Persian Empire. Cyrus conquered most of Asia Minor and Mesopotamia. At that time Cyrus had ruled the largest Empire people had seen. He did it with a well organized army with Immortals who who specifically chose and his cavalry. We call him Cyrus the great because people respected him, he let people he conquered keep their own customs. After his death son Cambyses took over but was soon defeated.
  • 509 BCE

    10.1, Rome, Monarchy to Republic

    10.1, Rome, Monarchy to Republic
    Rome started out with the first king named Romulus. They were many other kings after Romulus, but the last king was cruel and unliked by the people. The Romans created a government where people elect leaders to govern them called a Republic. The officials elected were rich and wealthy but they could only stay in that position for one year, to prevent a person from becoming too powerful.
  • 500 BCE

    8.2, Athens, Democracy

    8.2, Athens, Democracy
    A man named Cleisthenes founded the first democracy. He came from a rich family, but didn't like the way aristocrats ran the government. He developed democracy which at the time was a completely new way to do things. The democracy at the time was direct, meaning men had a say in making decisions for the city by voting. The people were encouraged the come to gatherings and participate, and sometimes they were made to go. Cleisthenes is sometimes called the father of democracy.
  • Period: 500 BCE to 1580

    Ch. 13-Early African Civilizations

    Soninke 300 AD-1070 AD
    Almoravids 1060 AD-1200 AD
    Mali Empire 1230 AD- 1500 AD
    Songhai 1300 AD-1591 AD
  • 459 BCE

    10.2, Rome, City Laws

    10.2, Rome, City Laws
    Roman officials made the city’s laws, but people did not know about them because they weren’t being written down. People were being punished for breaking laws they didn’t know about, they became unhappy about the situation. The solution was to write the laws on these 12 bronze tables and put them in the Forum where everyone could see. The Forum was where many people gathered.
  • 431 BCE

    9.2, Greece, Sparta Takes Over

    9.2, Greece, Sparta Takes Over
    The Athenians controlled the alliance of the Delian League. Other cities of Greece feared them and finally Sparta declared war against the Delian League. Sparta was apart of the Peloponnesian League, along with other cities in Southern Greece. Then Sparta started the Peloponnesian War, a war between Sparta and Athens. For ten years no one had got an advantage. Then the Spartans waited for Athen’s weak point. Sparta gained control and became the most powerful city state in Greece.
  • 400 BCE

    6.2, China, Confucius Teachings

    6.2, China, Confucius Teachings
    A man named Confucius developed the ideas about how to make China prosper again. He thought the people of China were disrespectful and China was chaotic. He wanted China to become orderly again by making people follow these basic principles of life and family. His ideas majorly effected China and even it's ways nowadays.
  • 350 BCE

    9.4, Greece, Aristotle's Philosophy

    9.4, Greece, Aristotle's Philosophy
    Aristotle was a significant Greek philosopher, he was a student of Plato. Philosophers believe in our human minds to think, and explain different aspects of life. Aristotle taught about a balance in life. He said that we could infer facts based on the ones we already knew, which inspired later scientists. He believed in reason and moderation, an made advances in logic.
  • 334 BCE

    9.3, Central Asia, Alexander Attacks

    9.3, Central Asia, Alexander Attacks
    Son of Philip II, Alexander was a strong leader. He had a strong army that was used the phalanx formation. Alexander conquered many areas making his empire huge. We call him Alexander the Great because of all his great empire. Alexander crossed the Indus River, but his soldiers were so tired from all the battles that they headed back. He was one of the greatest conquerors that the world had seen. He also spread Greek cultures throughout his empire.
  • 264 BCE

    10.3, Sicily, Punic Wars

    10.3, Sicily, Punic Wars
    The Punic Wars was many wars against Rome and Carthage. Carthage was a city in Northern Africa. A war first broke out on the island of Sicily. Hannibal lead attacks against Rome which he had hated. Hannibal was a brilliant military leader, but Rome’s army had defeated them and Zama, Hanibal’s home town. At the end Rome took control of Northern Africa.
  • 221 BCE

    6.3, China, Unification

    6.3, China, Unification
    During the Qin dynasty the emperor named Shi Huang Di made a large influence on China. Shi Huang Di was a strict ruler that made everyone follow his laws. He conquered and unified all of China. He developed a new political system that some people didn't agree with but it gave him all the power.
  • 206 BCE

    6.5, China, Trade Expands

    6.5, China, Trade Expands
    During the Han Dynasty trade increased widely. They produced much silk and many people wanted it, it was expensive and owned by the wealthy. China would trade many items that they produced and in return China became rich. The traders used a route called the Silk Road. They would sell their items to different traders along the way, and the product would end up in faraway places like Rome.
  • 140 BCE

    6.4, China, Wudi Government

    6.4, China, Wudi Government
    Emperor Wudi was the first common person to become emperor because of the Mandate from heaven. He changed the political government and the social hierarchy. The peasants were now higher on the ranks. He also made the official government philosophy Confucianism, which made the importance of family go up.
  • 27 BCE

    11.1, Rome, Augustus the Emporer

    Octavian was Julius Caesar’s adopted son, later to be called Augustus. Octavian and the former assistant of Caesar named Marc Antony, wanted to kill the killers of Caesar. When Antony married Cleopatra after marrying Octavian’s sister, Octavian got angry and before he got to Antony, Antony committed suicide. After that Octavian became the ruler of Rome and gained much power. The Senate gave him the name Augustus that means “revered one” and that was considered the start of the Roman Empire.
  • Period: 27 BCE to 1453

    Ch. 11, Rome and Christianity

    Roman Empire 27 BC- AD 476
    Eastern Empire 523-1453
  • 1 CE

    11.2, Judea, Christianity Forms.

    The new religion first appeared in Judea. It was similar to Judaism, but was a separate faith and religion. When Jesus was born, may people considered him the Messiah, and that was what the Christian religion is based Christians have a Bible that is made up of two segments, the New Testament and the Old Testament. After Jesus’s death His apostles spread his teaching to many areas. His apostles were twelve disciples that were specially taught by Jesus.
  • 100

    India- Medical Advancement

    Indian scholars became skilled at many sciences, but one of them was medical sciences. They knew how to make medicine with plants and minerals, that cured people from sickness. Inoculation was one of the bigger achievements and that was to put a small amount of disease in the person, so the person's body was stronger. They could also do surgery.
  • 200

    13.1-West Africa- Gold and Salt

    Gold and salt were valuable trade resources to West Africans. Salt was used as a preservative to keep food fresh. Gold was highly valued and a tool for trading.
  • 200

    16.1, Social Position, Mesoamerica

    Mayans were polytheistic . They believed that their king was related to the gods. Their king was the highest in their hierarchy. The next were piests, merchants, and noble warriors. Along with the king these people were apart of Maya”s upper class and held authority. The lower class were farmers and paid the rulers with food. Most of the population were in the lower class.
  • Period: 200 to 1537

    Ch 16, The Early Americas

    Mayans AD 200- AD 1500s
    Aztecs AD 1325-AD 1521
    Incas mid-1400s- AD 1537
  • 300

    13.4, West Africa, Griots

    The griots were storytellers that preserved the history of West Africa. They did this by sharing stories to other griots and this is called an oral history. They also shared proverbs and wise sayings. They shared the oral history because they didn’t have a written language. Also they sometimes expressed this through music and dance.
  • 320

    India- Gupta Dynasty

    The first Gupta Ruler was Candra Gupta I. India prospered under the Gupta rulers. They were Hindu so Hinduism increased, but the also supported Buddhism. The caste system came back and the empire began to grow. Gupta society were rich and wealthy at the time.When the Huns invaded the Gupta rule ended.
  • Period: 430 to 1066

    Ch 17, The Early Middle Ages

    Frank Empire. 700s AD- 800s AD
    Feudalism 1000s- after 1000s AD
  • 500

    13.2, Ghana, Silent Bartering

    Silent bartering is the procedure in which people trade with out meeting face to face. This is important because it prevented people from stealing gold and salt. It conducted trade peacefully.
  • 500

    17.1, Europe, Geography has different effects

    Since Europe has many different landforms and climates, each region was different. Southern Europe is filled with mountain ranges that’s why some mountains get snow and glaciers. The Northern European plains has many rivers. The climate also differs causing parts of Europe to have different agriculture.
  • 500

    15.1, Japan, Influences from China and Korea

    The early Japanese civilization was isolated from China and Korea however they were influenced by them. The Japanese decided they wanted to learn more about other cultures. In order to do that they sent Japanese to China and Korea and welcomed them also to their land. This taught the Japanese new ideas and philosophy like a new written language and government.
  • Period: 550 to

    Ch.15, Japan

    Yamato c. 500s
    Zen Buddhism 1100s
    Shogun 1192-1800s
    Prince Shotoku 573-621
  • Period: 550 to

    Ch. 12- The Islamic World

    Ottoman Empire 1200-1800
    Safavid Empire 1501-1700
    Mughal Empire 1526-late 1600s
  • Period: 589 to

    Ch. 14, China

    Sui Dynasty AD 549-618
    Tang Dynasty AD 618- c. 918
    Song Dynasty AD 960-1279
    Yuan Dynasty AD 1279-1368
    Ming AD 1368-1644
  • 610

    12.1,Mecca, Muhammad Is Chosen.

    12.1,Mecca, Muhammad Is Chosen.
    Muhammad was born in Mecca, he would become very important. Muhammad went to pray in a cave, where Muslims believe he was spoken to by an angel. They believe God had made him a prophet. Muslims believe Muhammad received many messages from God, this early messages are the basis of the religion Islam. Muhammad began to teach his messages and gain followers. He believed in the one god Allah.
  • 618

    14.1, China, Golden Age

    The Tang Dynasty is considered the golden age of China. During this time many things happened. China grew larger and included most of Eastern Asia and some of Central Asia. Taizong and Xuanzong were well known rulers of the time. Culture grew and It include the only woman ruler of China named Empress Wu.
  • 622

    12.2, Arabia, Five Pillars of Islam

    12.2, Arabia, Five Pillars of Islam
    All Muslims are required to do the five acts of worship shown by the Five Pillars of Islam. The first pillar makes them state their faith. The second pillar makes them pray five times a day. The third pillar makes them give to the poor and needy. The fourth pillar makes them fast during Ramadan which is a holy month for Muslims. The last and fifth pillar says to travel to Mecca at least once in their lives. That is called a hajj.
  • 634

    12.3, Arabia, Empire Forms

    12.3, Arabia, Empire Forms
    When Muhammad died, Abu Bakr was the next leader of Islam.Before his death he had turned Arabia into a unified a Muslim state. Their armies were strong and won many battles. Whoever they conquered they did not force them to become Muslim. Many cultures were the result of the growing cities apart of the Islamic Empire. Baghdad later become the capital.
  • 700

    17.2, Europe, Charlemagne’s Empire

    Charlemagne was a strong leader, he lead the Franks in building a large empire. He was Christian and spent a lot of time at war. He conquered different parts of the old Roman Empire that collapsed. He also was interested in education and built many schools.
  • 900

    18.3, Europe, Start of Religious Orders

    A group of French monks started a monastery of Cluny. They followed strict rules. This led to a start of religious orders which are groups of people who follow sets of rules and live their life by religion. Some monks created a stricter way of living. Women joined convents which were communities of nuns.
  • 960

    14.2, China, Growth in Agriculture

    The Chinese civilization was based on agriculture. During the Song Dynasty farmers grew much more crops and fast ripening rice. Chinese farmers grew largely because of new irrigation techniques that helped grow crops faster and more efficiently. Chinese farmers weee becoming experts and soon produced an abundance of food. This led to an increase of population which led to cities and towns.
  • 960

    14.3, Neo-Confucianism

    A man named Confucius had many wise ideas that spread across China and later became a government philosophy. The ideas of Buddhism spread and soon outfavored Confucianism. During the Song Dynasty the philosophy Neo-Confucianism was introduced. It included the basic behavior of Confucianism but also taught about spiritual belief. Neo- Confucianism became very influential and became the official teaching of the government.
  • 1000

    17.3, Europe, Feudalism Forms

    After William the Conquerer feudalism began to spread because he gave his knights large estates of land later called fiefs. The knights needed a farmer for his land this became the role of peasants.The rest of the land was given to serfs who couldn’t leave the land.
  • 1066

    17.4, Europe and Japan, The Similarities or Fuedalism.

    Japan and Europe had similiar governements they both had feudal societies.Knights and samurai swore loyalty to their lords. They both had to follow rules in Europe it was chivalry and in Japan it was bushido. They also had their differences caused by religion. Most of Europe was Christian and that reflected in their art. Japan had a blend of Buddhism, Shinto, and Confucianism.
  • Period: 1066 to 1492

    Ch. 18, The Later Midde Ages

    The Holy Roman Empire starts mid 900s.
    The church split: 1054 AD
    First Crusade:1096 AD-1099 AD
    Second Crusade: 1147 AD-1148 AD
    End of Crusades: 1291 AD
    Black Death: 1347 AD- 1351 AD
  • 1100

    15.2, Japan, Religion Changes

    The traditional religion of Japan is Shinto but when the Chinese brought their religion Japan was affected. Buddhism was more common. Buddhism was popular among nobles but the common people couldn’t pay for rich ceremonies. This resulted in different types of Buddhism. Common people favored Pure Land Buddhism because it required chanting instead of expensive rituals. Zen Buddhism was also common among warriors, they practiced self discipline and meditation.
  • 1100

    15.3, Japan, Importance of Samurai

    Samurai were professional warrior paid with food and land to protect the land owned by the daimyo. Samurai were powerful and often were expensive. The shogun were leaders of the samurai and ruled in the emporer’s name. Samurai were honest and had to follow a set of laws by the name of Bushido. Today some people still learn how to fight like samurai in Japan.
  • 1215

    18.4, Europe, Magna Carta

    Nobles wanted their rights to be respected by the king. They forced King John to sign the Magna Carta which meant he also had the respect the rights of others. The Magna Carta protected the people’s rights. One of the rights were habeas corpus which meant that people can’t go to prison for no reason. This caused the kings power to lessen, and the Parliament’s power to grow. Everyone had to follow the laws and that is still a basic principle of the English government today.
  • 1260

    14.4, China, Kublai Khan’s Rule

    Kublai Khan was the grandson of the universal ruler Genghis Khan. He became emperor of China and ruled the large Mongol Empire that Genghis Khan had formed. The Mongols ruled all of China which was unknown in history. The Chinese weren’t forced the be like the Mongols, but heavy taxes were placed on them. The taxes paid for the work of many projects, like reconstruction of the Grand Canal.
  • Period: 1271 to

    Ch. 19, The Renaissance and Reformation

    1400-1700 The Renaissance
    Michelangelo 1475-1564
    Leonardo da Vinci 1452-1519
    Printing press 1455
    Catholic Reformation 1500s
  • 1290

    18.5, Europe, Discrimination to Jews

    King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella were Christian, and they only wanted Christians in their kingdom. They formed the Spanish Inquisition which a group of priests who punished those who practiced other beliefs. People blamed Jews for bringing the Black Death and Jesus’s death. Many Jews were forced to leave their homes and countries.
  • 1291

    18.2, Europe, End of Crusades

    After the failed attempt to take back the Holy land from Muslim armies the crusades were over. It brought many changes to Europe. Trade increased between Europe and Asia. Europeans learned about many different products from the Holy Land. Kings gained power. Lastly the Muslims and Christians learned about each other and exchanged ideas.
  • 1320

    12.4, Islamic World, Advancements

    12.4, Islamic World, Advancements
    Many Muslim scholars contributed to the achievements of the Islamic culture. In Muslim cities the scientists studied astrology which later on helped with a better understanding of time and improvement to the astrolabe. Studying astrology helped Muslims understand geography. Many explorers began to travel the world. Muslim geographers made better maps for those explorers.
  • 1325

    16.2, Sacrifice, Mesoamerica

    The Aztecs worshipped many gods. They believed they had to have human sacrifices every day to present to their gods. Soldiers would conquer people and bring them to use as human sacrifices. The Aztecs believed they pleased the gods with human hearts. The victims were mostly slaves or battle captives. This made other people hate them.
  • 1400

    19.2, Northern Europe, Renaissance Spreads

    In Northern Europe humanism had spread. Humanism is the emphasis on human abilities. They created Christian humanism and blended Christian and humanist beliefs. In art, they did more realistic looking paintings compared to Italians. They painted daily life and broader subjects rather than biblical scenes.
  • 1431

    13.3, West Africa, Mali Falls

    13.3, West Africa, Mali Falls
    After Mansa Musa who was the most famous ruler of Mali, his son took over. His son Maghan did not lead as a strong ruler. The raiders came in and destroyed many great schools and buildings that were built under the rule of Mansa Musa. Mali became weak and soon it was only a small area.
  • 1434

    19.1, Italy, the Renaissance Begins

    19.1, Italy, the Renaissance Begins
    Cosimo de’ Medici was very rich, and he valued art and education. He wished for Florence to be a beautiful city so he hired architects and painters to work in the city. Florence had become centered around art, literature, and culture. Other cities were also beginning to find interest in arts and learning. This became the beginning of the renaissance which means “rebirth”. This period came after the Middle Ages. Many Italian writers and artists became known as they produced amazing pieces.
  • 1453

    11.3, Roman Empire, The End of the Empire.

    The Roman Empire had grown larger over the years, making it hard to protect, and hard to manage. There were two parts of the Empire to govern it more effectively. Due to a number of causes the Roman Empire had fell. One reason is corruption in the government. Officials abused their power and met their own needs. Another reason is taxes, and attacks. The taxes got higher, make it the citizens suffer and attacks became more common. Even as people tried to unite the empire others had invaded.
  • 1492

    20.2, Spain, Columbus the Sailor

    Christopher Columbus was an Italian sailor that wanted to make the journey to India in order to gain more riches. He believed there was a quicker way to get to India by going through the Atlantic Ocean. He went to Ferdinand and Isabella the Spanish monarchs with his plan. They agreed to pay for his voyage in return for riches and territory. He landed in North America which he believed was Asia. This created a whole opportunity for the Europeans to trade and live in North America.
  • 1500

    16.3, Strong Econamy, South America

    One of the reasons why the Incas thrived was because of their well organized econamy. Many common people like farmers and villagers did things for the government which controlled the economy. People paid taxes with labor instead of money which is a system called mita. The government distributed goods instead of markets where people could buy items. In a way their system was like communism.
  • 1500

    19.1, Europe, The Church Splits

    The people in Western Europe thought the pope was the head of the church but others in Eastern Europe did not think the same. In Eastern Europe bishops delt with religious topics sometimes without the pope. Pope Leo IX thought all popes had to have control over religious officials. Leo decided to excommunicate the bishop that didn’t see his authority. That caused the split in the Christian church. The Roman Catholics agreed with Leo, the Orthodox Church did not.
  • 1500

    19.3, Europe, The Reformation

    Martin Luther nailed complaints about the church called the 95 thesis. This upset Catholics and that got him excommunicated. Some followed his ideas and they became Protestants who were against the Roman Catholic Church. Some people believed that anyone could read the Bible and others fought that only clergy could read it to them. The church split and Catholics were doing what they could to turn people away from Protestantism. Change was made and the Catholic Reformation created division.
  • 1500

    20.3, America and Europe, The Columbian Exchange

    The Columbian Exchange took place between Europe and America. America was considered the New World and Europe was called the Old World. Europeans took many of their plants and animals to America which weren’t seen before in that area. They also took plants and animals from America they hadn’t seen. Europeans introduced their culture and technology to the New World. Portugal and Spain earned money from America through plantations and mines they had set up. Many people were seeing new things.
  • Period: 1540 to

    Ch. 20, Science and Exploration

    Scientific Revolution: 1540-1700
    Galileo Galilei: 1564-1642
    Sir Isaac Newton: 1642- 1727
    European Exploration: 1487-1580
    Mercantilism: 1500-1800
  • Period: to

    Ch. 21, Enlightenment and Revolution

    Kings, queens, emporers ruled Europe: 1600s-1700s
    John Locke declares go1vernment power should be limited: 1690
    Montesquieu claimed government should be in branches: 1748
    Rousseau stated government should express people’s will: 1762
    English Bill of Rights: 1689
    Declaration of Independence: 1776
    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen: 1789
  • 20.1, England, Scientist Sir Isaac Newton

    Sir Isaac Newton was an important scientist to the scientific revolution. His theories and experiments contributed to the laws of the physical world that we call Netwon’s laws. He studied gravity and how the physical world worked. His laws were the basic principles in which scientists used to do other things.He published a book called Principia Mathematica in 1687. He’s considered one of the greatest scientists who ever lived.
  • 21.1, France, Voltaire

    The Enlightenment was a time where people used reason to think about politics, philosophy, and society. Many French philosophers focused on the ideas of the Enlightenment. Voltaire was one of them. He wrote about humans improving their existence instead of God making improvements. Some of his writings got him in trouble, so Voltaire spoke out against censorship. He argued for the ideas of freedom and thought in his writings.
  • 21.2, America, Enlightenment Effects Politics

    Benjamin Franklin was an example of how the politics where affected by the Enlightenment. The ideas of John Locke, Charles-Louis Montesquieu, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau had spread through Europe and to the British colonists in America. Benjamin Franklin went to London to argue that the British government should not be allowed to tax the colonists when they had no representative in Parliament. There were riots that supported Benjamin Franklin and the British government got rid of the Stamp Act.
  • 21.3, America, Declaration of Independence

    Colonists were unhappy with the king and the Parliament. They thought the British laws were unfair. Colonists wanted independence from the British and better laws that protected them from the British. The British troops began to fight with the militia that protected the colonists. Later Thomas Jefferson met with the colonial leaders and wrote the Declaration of Independence. It included ideas from John Locke, and Rousseau and set them free from the British. The U.S.A was born.
  • Ch. 6- Modern Day- Confucianism Philosophy, 2017

    Ch. 6- Modern Day- Confucianism Philosophy, 2017
    Today's China was impacted on the teachings of Confucius. Family and respecting each other is a big part of Chinese culture because of how big Confucianism was to them. It once was the dominant way of thinking but now even though it's not as huge, you can still see different aspects of it in Chinese culture today.
  • Ch. 8,Modern Day,Democracy Impact, 2017

    Ch. 8,Modern Day,Democracy Impact, 2017
    When Cleisthenes founded democracy that made a huge impact on the government today. In the United States the type of government is Democratic Republic. Without democracy many countries would have a different government. Even though there is differences between the Ancient Greek democracy and the democracy in the United States, the main points are similar, like people have a say in the government.
  • Ch. 9, Modern Day, Euclid the Mathematician, 2017

    Ch. 9, Modern Day, Euclid the Mathematician, 2017
    Euclid was a important mathematician from Alexandria, Egypt. He studied geometry, and many other subjects. Today a lot of the geometry rules that are taught, come from his writings. Without Euclid we might not be able to explain as much about lines, angles, and shapes.
  • Ch. 11, Modern Day, Christianity Today, 2017.

    Constantine had impacted Christianity back then, which affects our world today because now Christianity is known widely all across the globe. If Christianity hadn't spread during those times, we might not have as many believers. If their were still laws against Christianity, maybe today it wouldn't exist.
  • Ch. 12, Modern Day, Arabic Numerals, 2017

    Ch. 12, Modern Day, Arabic Numerals, 2017
    Muslim scholars developed the Arabic numerals. They combined the Indian number system, and Greek ideas. A Muslim mathematician wrote books that impacted our number system and foundation for modern algebra. We call our numbers that we use today Arabic numerals because of their advancement. Without the same number we use today, we might’ve still used Roman numerals which would make math very different.
  • Ch.13, MD, Music Today, 2017

    Ch.13, MD, Music Today, 2017
    Some of the music we listen to came from griots who were west African storytellers. Music like jazz, and blues originally come from Africa. When people came from West Africa to America to be slaves they sung songs they had known in Africa. This is how we get some of the modern music today.
  • Ch 14, MD, Paper Money, 2017

    The first paper money was made during the Somg Dynasty. Before paper money was made trade was conducted using coins. That became inconvenient for people with a lot of money. That connects to today because al most all of the money used is made of paper or contains paper inside.
  • Modern Day- Hammurabi's Code and Laws

    Hammurabi was an impressive leader. He was well known for his Hammurabi's code that were a set of strict laws people followed. That set the foundation of laws today we must follow.
  • Modern Day- Architecture today

    The pyramids and temples of Acient Egypt are impressive and have great structure. Architects today are trying to figure out how to build like that.
  • Modern Day- Math System Today

    The Gupta scholars made a major advancement that impacted our math system today. The Indian scholars used the same numbers we use today called Hindu-Arabic numerals which math would look very different without. They created the number zero. The modern day math would be very different from now without zeros.
  • Ch.10, Modern Day, Roman Influence, 2017

    Ch.10, Modern Day, Roman Influence, 2017
    The government in the United States has similar aspects to the government of the Roman Republic. As an example the government in the US has three branches and a system of checks and balances. The three branches are the president, the Congress, and the federal court system. If Rome hadn’t done their government like this than the US government would potentially be much different.
  • 15 MD, Japan, Samurai, 2017

    Even as samurai aren’t used in fighting today Samurai had a big impact on the values of Japan. There are some martial arts still learned today like sword fighting. Much of the respect, loyalty, and hard work, that the Japanese value comes from the age of Samurai.
  • Ch 16, MD, Mayan Calendar, 2017

    The Mayans made many advancements in science and astronomy. They made a calendar with 365 days. This connects to today because our calendar has 365 days, and because that calendar guided farming activities this led to our knowledge of seasons and when to plant things.
  • Ch. 18, MD, Universities, 2017

    The first universities were created in the Middle Ages. Some of them taught about the church and teachers were members of the clergy. Others taught law, medicine, astronomy, and other courses. Students were taught in groups and followed a schedules like schools today. This connects to today because without the development of universities in the Middle Ages some of our regular tasks would be different.
  • MD, Ch. 19, Printing Press, 2018

    Johann Gutenberg created the first movable type printing press. It saved billions of hours because it was faster to use than handwriting a book. Today we have printers which are a much more advanced type of printing. Without the Gutenberg’s inventions we might have a very different type of printer.
  • MD, 20, Europe, Banking, 2018

    There was much trading going on, which caused a need for banks. The Dutch and the English set up banks after they saw the need for them. With banks people could trade money. Banking produced more international trade since they exchanged different currency. They helped create economic growth. This effects today because without banks there would be less trade between different countries.
  • MD, 17, Europe, Spread of Christians

    The pope sent our many missionaries causing a lot of people to convert to Christianity.There was also different people like St. Patrick who converted many people to Christianity. This connects to today because without the pope and these different missionaries Christianity wouldn’t be as well known and popular.
  • MD, 21, America, Independence, 2018

    When colonists were unhappy with the British, the leaders met up and Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence, which stated they were free from British rule. That created the the United States. This impacted today because if that didn’t happen, America could still be under British rule today. It created a whole new nation that is now very established.