End of the Predynastic Period and the Beginning of the Early Dynastic Period
Memphis is the capital and scribes are using papyrus.
Imhotep builds the first step pyramid for Djoser in Sakkara.
The Khufu and Khafre pyramids have a north-south orientation
The 365 days per year system is introduced, but it lacks leap years.
The oldest bronze is made of 9 parts copper and 1 part tin.
End of the Early Dynastic Period and the Beginning of the Old Kingdom
Snefru spends a lot of Egypt's resources changing the way pyramids are built.
The 9 gods in the Pantheon at Heliopolis
Nut, Geb, Nephthys, Seth, Osiris, Isis, Atum-Ra, Shu, and Tefnut are included.
Causes for downfall of the Old Kingdom
Noblemen gain power and the monarch loses it.
End of the Old Kingdom and the Beginning of the First Intermediate Period
People begin writing of the fall of the empire due to loss of centralized power.
The First Intermediate Period
The period was a time of drought and rebellion. The Book of the Dead rises in popularity.
Thebes gains power through the tough times.
Cats are domesticated.
The Egyptian cat obsession begins!
End of the First Intermediate Period and the Beginning of the Middle Kingdom
Thebes manages to consolidate power.
Lower Nubia is conquered in the Middle Kingdom
End of the Middle Period and the Second Intermediate Period begins.
The Hyksos attack and place themselves in positions of power. However, they continue Egyptian traditions while bringing more advanced technology. Chariots become a weapon for Egypt.
Amun-Ra's influence grows.
End of the Second Intermediate Period and the Beginning of the New Kingdom
This period features Hatshepsut, Akhenaten, Nefertiti, Tutankhamen, Rameses I, Rameses II, and Rameses III. Egypt is taken back from the Hyksos with the Hyksos' own technology! The capital is once again Memphis.
Pyramid production stops in its tracks and tombs are guarded against robbers.
Big tombs, the necropolises, begin to be built! The Valley of the Kings is one such example.
Palestine and Syria are taken over.
Akhenaten comes into power; No more religious freedoms!
Cults other than that of Aten are suppressed. Amarna comes into being and becomes the center of Egypt.
Pharaohs begin mingling!
Pharaohs begin coming into contact with other cultures. Marriage between nobles and such increase friendliness between neighbors.
Tutankhamen returns religious freedoms and returns to Thebes.
Amarna becomes reduced to dust as Thebes becomes favoured. Also, people are thankful for their religious freedom.
Religion gains traction with the masses and its importance rises.
Pharaohs are depicted kneeling to gods in Egyptian art following the return of power to the religious cults.
Peace with the Hittites!
Peace is brokered between Egypt and the Hittites.
The Pharaoh is with an outsider!
Ramesses II marries a Hittite princess for better relations.
The Temple of Ramesses II is built.
Inauspiciously, around the same time, Books of the Dead are found depicting the beliefs of the Egyptians regarding a trial prior to entering the afterlife proper.
Iron becomes favored over bronze.
Iron hits with full force, demonstrating its merits.
Corn becomes unusable.
A definite indicator of poor civilization health occurs.
End of the New Kingdom and the Beginning of the Third Intermediate Period
Egypt once again falls into disarray. It becomes split into the North and the South. The North favors Tanis and the South crowns Thebes as its capital.
Shoshenk reunites Egypt, but not fast enough.
On the way to reuniting Egypt, Lebanon and Israel was lost.
End of the Third Intermediate Period and the Beginning of the Late Period
Egypt is on a decline, and will be soon attacked. Multiple times.
Ahmose II is the last native ruler.
In this period of turmoil, Tanis of the north finally makes a move for the top spot in the hierarchy, but battle over Egypt would soon ensue.
715-332 BC, a time where the Assyrians would attack, followed by the Persians
End of the Late Period
It is the year 332 BC and Egypt is now Persian. After a lot of breaking off, reunification, and great architectural feats, Persian now controls what is left of Egypt.