First Unified StateThe world’s first unified state was rich in agriculture, trade, and art and was located in Egypt aroudn teh NIle river where the upper and lower kingdom united.
Beginning of Sumer civilizationThe Sumar civilization developed between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers over 5,000 years ago. Akkad arose north of Sumer. Both had great cities, like Uruk, developed art, literature, and complex religions with many gods. Both were conquered by and became the kingdom of Babylonia around 1900 BCE. Babylonia’s rival state was called Assyria. Each of these states had a ruling class of kings and priests, a middle class of doctors, scribes, architects, and a large lower class of farmers.
Start if Indus River CivilizationThe Indus River civilization grew in what is now northwestern India and Pakistan around 2600 BCE. In cities like Mohenjo-Daro, surplus grain, peas, and dates were stored in huge granaries. Houses in the cities had underground sewers and indoor plumbing. The Indus people developed writing, seen on the seal here, but it has not yet been deciphered. Traders and artisans lived in the cities, along with a ruling class that included priests to work in the temples to the gods.
Shang Dynasty StartThe Shang dynasty developed along the Yellow River in northern China. The people farmed rice and millet, and eventually built cities, like the capital of Anyang. Unlike most other early civilizations, the Shang worshiped the spirits of their own human ancestors along with gods. The Shang developed medicine, silk making, and a great bronze industry that created artwork like the mask on this card. The Shang society was ruled by a powerful king who was supported by nobles and priests.
Start of HinduismHinduism doesn't have a set origin and was instead a combination of various beliefs founded in India. It had a great impact on the Cast system, the social structure of India.
Tehir core values include:
-Truth is eternal.
-Brahman is Truth and Reality.
-The Vedas are the ultimate authority.
-Everyone should strive to achieve dharma.
-Individual souls are immortal.
-The goal of the individual soul is moksha.
Period: 2000 BCE to 1000 BCE
Babylonian EmpireThe Babylonian people had settled along the Euphrates River around 2000 BCE, and conquered the Sumerians over the next century.
Origin of JudaismJews trace their ancestry back to a shepherd named Abraham, who lived in Mesopotamia in the land of Ur. The followers of Abraham believed that he was told by God to unite a group of chosen people. Abraham left Mesopotamia with his family and followers and went to Canaan, where the Hebrews lived for many years as nomads.
Start of IsraelThe great Sumerian city of Ur was destroyed in the 19th century BCE by the Babylonians. Those refugees from Mesopotamia who settled in Canaan developed a new society that became ancient Israel. Over the years, the Israelites became monotheists—they worshiped only one god, abandoning the many gods of their ancestors in Ur. They would develop a special relationship with the one true God that set them apart, in their view, from all other people.
Hammurabi Became KingHammurabi defeated his rivals in battle, organized his kingdom under his authority, and created a code of law and posted it throughout his kingdom so that people would know he was the ultimate authority in Babylonia.
Period: 1700 BCE to 1100 BCE
Shang Dynasty (Chinese Empire)Achievements: Bronze work, farming innovations
Fall: Its king was overthrown by a neighboring people.
Start of Olmec CivilizationIt developed where tehre was plentiful rain that could be stored and used to irrigate fields of corn, peppers, beans, and pumpkins. The Olmecs invented the first writing system in the Americas, and probably created the long calendar perfected by the later Mayans as well. Olmec cities like La Venta featured temples to the gods and were controlled by an elite class who likely controlled access to stored water. The people built monumental stone art
Period: 1539 BCE to 30 BCE
Egyptian EmpireSituated along the Nile River, stretched from Sudan up to the Euphrates River in Iraq. Egypt's government was considered authoritarian, ruled by pharaohs.
Narmar laied the fundamentals fo the empire, he was followed by over 300 more during 34 Egyptian dynasties.
The pyramids were examples of Egypt’s architecture, writing and art focus and religious beliefs of the afterlife.
They left behind mummification, pyramids, hieroglyphs, 365-day calendar, irrigation.
Period: 1027 BCE to 221 BCE
Zhou Dynasty (Chinese Empire)Achievements: Developed feudal society, produced writings of Confucius
Fall: Its overthrow led to the 200-year Warring States period.
Rise of RomeThe city of Rome was founded around 753 BCE. It rose to become a dominant city-state, and then a republic. For 500 years, from 27 BCE to 476 CE, Rome was an empire, and at its height, it was the largest empire in the world. At the peak of the Roman Empire in the early 2nd century CE, the Roman eagle was recognized from Asia to Britain.
Start of BuddhismBuddha taught that life on earth consists mostly of pain and that finding peace in the midst of this suffering is the way to heaven, or nirvana. Buddha said that the way to reach nirvana was to become detached from earthly life and to let go of all desires. Buddhist follow the Four Noble Truths: There is suffering. The cause of suffering is wanting. Suffering can end completely. The Eightfold Path is the way to cure suffering.
Period: 628 BCE to 551 BCE
Zoroaster LifeHistorians believe Zoroaster may have been a priest in the polytheistic religion of his society. Somehow, Zoroaster experienced a fundamental revolution in religious thought: He came to believe there was just one god. This god was named Ahura Mazda, and he fought a host of devils led by Angra Mainyu.
Start of Democracy in GreeceAthens went through a chaotic period in the early 6th century BCE. A leader named Solon was chosen to lead the government temporarily and introduce reforms to make it more stable and more fair. Solon dictated reforms that laid the foundation for democracy in Athens. His key idea was to give power to a broader range of citizens. By the time Pericles led Athens (461-429 BCE), all free male citizens of Athens participated in its government.
Start of ZoroastrianismZoroastrianism says that human beings are not supposed to worship God passively through offerings and prayer. They are meant to join the cosmic battle of good versus evil on the side of Ahura Mazda, or good. Humans are meant to do good works, have good thoughts, and speak good words. The religion asked people to change their way of being and be morally good and reject bad nehavior and negative thoughts and speech.
Period: 559 BCE to 224
Persian EmpireThe Persian empire was founded by Achaemenids and their ruler Cyrus the Great.
Main cities: Persepolis and Pasargadae
The three main dynasties:
Achaemenid Dynasty (559–330 BCE)
Parthian Dynasty (247 BCE–224 CE)
Sassanid Dynasty (224–651 CE).
Start of Persian Great CitiesThe glory of the great Persian capitals of Pasargadae, built by Cyrus the Great beginning in 550 BCE, and Persepolis, begun around 515 BCE by Darius the Great.
Start of ConfucianismOriginated from Confucius, the religion believes there are 5 sacred relationships. These five relationships existed between ruler and subject, parent and child, husband and wife, older and younger siblings, and friend and friend. The central and most important relationship was the one between parents and children. The four important virtues are integrity, loyalty, generosity, and politeness. The Confucian tradition dominated Chinese society for more than 2,400 years.
Start of TaoismThe Way of the Tao teaches that people must try to be united with the course of nature in order to be in harmony with the rest of the universe. Lao-Tzu taught that a life of simplicity was the correct way to live, and that simplicity required a person to focus on the "three treasures" in life: love, lack of ambition, and frugality—a willingness to give up the quest for endless wealth and material belongings.
Patrician Strike (Rome)After 494 BCE, plebeians had new opportunities to work as artisans, soldiers, or in other less strenuous positions. New occupations became available to them as the empire grew and lower level jobs were taken by people who were not of Roman ancestry. As a result of new opportunities, some plebeians were able to build wealth and buy property.
Rise of DemocracyPericles was a statesman who was chosen to lead the Athens to glory. Pericles wanted as many people involved in the success of Athens as possible, saying “All kinds of enterprises should be created which will provide inspiration for every art, find employment for every hand. We must devote ourselves to acquiring things which will be the source of everlasting fame.”
Period: 304 BCE to 220 BCE
Mauryan Empire (India)Magadha king Chandragupta Maurya took control of the Indus River Valley and became the first of the Maurya Emperors.The most lasting legacy of the Maurya Empire is the practice of Buddhism, which was adopted by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka around 260 BCE. Ashoka, the ruler, gave up the pursuit of power through conquest of other kingdoms. He also made and carried out a plan demonstrating that he intended to rule his empire according to the Buddhist principle of Dharma, or righteousness.
Period: 221 BCE to 206 BCE
Qin Dynasty (Chinese Empire)Achievements: Produced the first emperor and gave China its name; began the Great Wall
Fall: Overthrown by common people angry over harsh laws and taxes
Period: 206 BCE to 220
Han Dynasty (Chinese Empire)Achievements: Based its government on Confucian principles; less harsh. Increased trade
Fall: Overthrown by regional warlords; led to another period of chaos
Period: 27 BCE to 476
Roman EmpireAs Rome grew in size and power their republic was replaced by a line of emperors, thereby creating the Roman Empire.
Augustus was the first Roman emperor and marked the end of the Roman Republic.
To reflect the new emperor's power Augustus set about renovating the already-old city of Rome. When Rome became and an empire the elements of democracy in the republic disappeared, and the Senate became a mostly figurehead gathering of wealthy men who did the emperor's bidding.
Period: 146 to 323 BCE
Greek EmpireMajor city-states include: Athens, Sparta, Carthage, Thebes.
Greece had a jury system when it came to crime and punishment.
Alexander the Great formed his empire from his teachings in philosophy, science, art, law, and the art of government. He mixed teh cultures of the places he concoured to retain teh Greek couture but also make it last.
Toleration Act of 313At first, Christianity was outlawed in many places, including the Roman Empire, where it continued to be a crime punishable by death until the Toleration Act of CE 313. Under the Roman emperor Constantine, though, Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire. As such, it was spread throughout Europe as the empire grew. Government rulers began to refer to the Christian Church as the Catholic Church because of its universal presence throughout the Roman Empire.