Indian Ocean Trade During the Classical Era

Timeline created by abrown101
In History
  • 1,000 BCE

    Bananas

    Bananas
    Bananas came from a tropical plant that was first grown in New Guinea around 8000 or 5000 BCE. Bananas were also in Southeast Asia, India, and came to Africa around 1000 BCE and were used as a crop and food.
  • 1,000 BCE

    Sugar Cane

    Sugar Cane
    Sugar cane was a luxury trade good and was popular for its medicinal uses and sweetening properties.
  • -700 BCE

    Indigo Dye

    Indigo Dye
    Indigo dye was used around 700 BCE and was a valuable resource that was first cultivated in India and exported through long-distance trade. Indigo dye is the color of the blue jeans we wear today.
  • -600 BCE

    Iron Metallurgy

    Iron Metallurgy
    Iron metallurgy was introduced to China.
  • -500 BCE

    Cinnamon and Cassia

    Cinnamon and Cassia
    Cinnamon and cassia entered the trading system around 500 BCE when they arrived in the Gulf of Aden.
  • -500 BCE

    Hanno

    Hanno
    Hanno is famous for his voyage around the western coast of Africa in 500 BCE. During his voyage, he established many colonies along the Moroccan coast. He also made a trading post along the Mauritanian coast.
  • -431 BCE

    Athenian Plague

    Athenian Plague
    The Peloponnesian War started in 431 BCE, and during the second year of the war, one-third of the population died from the Athenian plague.
  • -400 BCE

    Isthmus of Kra

    Isthmus of Kra
    The Isthmus of Kra was a narrow piece of land that separated the China Sea from the Indian Ocean. It connected the Malay Peninsula to Asia, making an easier journey for traders from India. This route helped to avoid dangerous people.
  • -332 BCE

    Alexandria

    Alexandria
    Alexandria was the capital of Egypt and was an important spot for international trade. It is located near the Mediterranean Sea and the Nile River, making it a central location for several trade routes.
  • -300 BCE

    Sri Lanka

    Sri Lanka
    Sri Lanka was a main part of the Indian Ocean trade networks. Sri Lanka was an important port because it connected the eastern and western parts of the Indian Ocean, making it easily accessible to travelers for trading. As Buddhism spread into Sri Lanka, it also increased the amount of trading that took place. Sri Lanka was a popular place for trading because they had ivory, tortoiseshell, and cinnamon.
  • -206 BCE

    Cloves

    Cloves
    Cloves were an important part of the spice trade that were imported by the Romans. Cloves were a luxury spice that was highly sought after and helped bring distant regions into the trade realm.
  • -206 BCE

    Silk Road

    Silk Road
    The Silk Road was an important path for trade around 27 BCE when the Roman empire began to rise, and in 206 BCE when the Han Dynasty began to rise. The Silk Road connected the Mediterranean, Middle East, India, Central Asia, and China.
  • -200 BCE

    Taklamakan Desert

    Taklamakan Desert
    The Taklamakan Desert became an important passageway around 200 BCE when the Silk Road was developed. Since the Taklamakan was along the Silk Road, merchants would often stop in the northern and southern parts of the desert for water and supplies.
  • -200 BCE

    Arikamedu

    Arikamedu
    Arikamedu was founded around 200 BCE and was located on the southeast coast of India. This city was important for the trade market with Rome. They were known for selling glass beads, stone, and pottery. They also imported ceramics that came from Rome.
  • -138 BCE

    Zhang Qian

    Zhang Qian
    Zhang Qian was sent on a mission, known as the Silk Road, to protect his emperor. When his mission almost failed, he kept traveling and ended up discovering Greek and Indian culture. He influenced the people where he landed with his Chinese technology and culture. While he visited, he learned their culture, music, and dance and brought watermelon, walnuts, grapes, and pomegranates back with him to China.
  • -100 BCE

    Silk

    Silk
    Silk was added to the trade system around 100 BCE and was first developed in China. It was considered highly important and used as a form of money. Silk became so popular that it eventually developed a route called the silk road. The silk road connected the Mediterranean, Middle East, India, Central Asia, and China.
  • -100 BCE

    Isidore of Charax

    Isidore of Charax
    Isidore of Charax was a Greek who was famous for documenting the geography of trade routes. Geography was an advancement in technology that lead to an increase in trade and helped the spread of culture.
  • -100 BCE

    Peppercorn

    Peppercorn
    Pepper became a popular spice in the first century and could be found in the center of the Indian Ocean. Since it was in a central location, it attracted merchants from foreign lands. Pepper was worth so much that it was considered of equal value to gold.
  • -64 BCE

    Strabo the Geographer

    Strabo the Geographer
    Strabo is famous for the work Geography that gave the people a picture of the knowledge of the known world.
  • Period:
    1,000 BCE
    to
    -300 BCE

    Barygaza Port

    The Barygaza Port was an important port near the mouth of the Narmada River. Merchants used this port as a place for their exports, such as gems, herbs, and textiles. Goods that were imported were silver coins, gems, glass, wine, and metal.
  • Period:
    1,000 BCE
    to
    -300 BCE

    Palmyra

    Palmyra was a wealthy trading post that connected the Silk Road to the Incense Road.
  • Period:
    1,000 BCE
    to
    -300 BCE

    Navigation by Polaris

    The Phonecians used Polaris as a way to navigate the sea. This advancement in technology, using stars as a navigational tool, allowed merchants to travel longer distances and trade with foreign cultures.
  • Period:
    1,000 BCE
    to
    -1 BCE

    Phoenicians

    The Phoenicians were the leading people of trade during the first millennium BCE. They founded cities such as Tyre, Sidon, Byblos, and Arwad. They were famous for creating the alphabet and for making glass vases. Their imports and exports included olives, olive oil, honey, spices, metals, wheat, cedarwood, and wine. The Phoenicians also had advanced ships that allowed them to travel further than other societies and establish trading colonies.
  • Period:
    1,000 BCE
    to
    -300 BCE

    The Kamal

    The Kamal was a rectangle-shaped device that sailors could use in the Indian Ocean to find the latitude at sea by observing the distance between the horizon and a certain star at the same time every night.
  • Period:
    1,000 BCE
    to
    -300 BCE

    Frankincense and Myrrh

    Frankincense and myrrh were important spices for religious rituals during the Classical Era. They were transported on camels through the deserts of the Arabian Peninsula on a route called the Incense Road. The spices were also shipped to the Roman Empire and Asia.
  • Period:
    1,000 BCE
    to
    -300 BCE

    Kaveripattanam

    Kaveripattanam was a major port city around 100 CE. Some of the goods that were bought and sold there include gold, gems, jewelry, pearls, fine fabrics, and sandalwood. Kaveripattanam also had places for merchants and travelers to stay.
  • Period:
    1,000 BCE
    to
    -300 BCE

    Vyadhapura

    Vyadhapura was the capital of Funan and was an important city because it was where merchants from western Asia, China, and India could meet to trade.
  • Period:
    1,000 BCE
    to
    -300 BCE

    Muziris

    Muziris was an important port in India that was used for the Roman-Indian trade.
  • Period:
    1,000 BCE
    to
    -300 BCE

    Incense Road

    The Incense Road was an important trade route during the Classical Era that went from the Mediterranean port of Gaza to Asia. Spices such as frankincense and myrrh were traded on this route. Merchants traveled this desert path by using camels.
  • Period:
    -610 BCE
    to
    -595 BCE

    Pharaoh Necho II

    Pharaoh Necho II was the ruler of Egypt from 610-595 BCE. He began building a canal that would link the Nile River and the Red Sea, but King Darius I was the one who completed the project. The canal was important for trade development because it made shipping across the water faster.
    Pharaoh Necho II is important because he sent Phoenician sailors on a journey that gave them a better understanding of the geography of the African coast.
  • Period:
    -563 BCE
    to
    -483 BCE

    Buddhism

    The Buddhism religion begins.
  • Period:
    -551 BCE
    to
    -479 BCE

    Confucianism

    Confucianism philosophy begins.
  • Period:
    -510 BCE
    to
    -515 BCE

    Skylax of Caryanda

    Skylax of Caryanda was famous for writing a handbook for mariners that detailed his voyages into the Indian Ocean that took place from 510-515 BCE. This voyage was important because it encouraged others to take expeditions to expand their trading. He sailed from the Indus mouth, the Persian Gulf, Oman, Arabian Peninsula, Yemeni Ports, Suez, and Egypt.
  • Period:
    -500 BCE
    to
    -100 BCE

    Camel Saddle

    The camel saddle was an important advancement in technology that allowed camels to carry heavier loads. The saddle made life easier for the people during this period.
  • Period:
    -356 BCE
    to
    -323 BCE

    Alexander the Great

    Alexander the Great was a famous conqueror who founded the city of Alexandria in Egypt, which later became a central area for trade and art. Wherever his military went, they influenced the opposing land with Greek art and culture. The blending of cultures lasted centuries because of the influence that Alexander the Great had.
  • Period:
    -323 BCE
    to
    -31 BCE

    Hellenistic Period

    The Hellenistic period, which was started during the reign of Alexander the Great, influenced the politics, art, science, literature, and societies of different cultures all over the world.
  • Period:
    -271 BCE
    to
    -232 BCE

    Ashoka

    Ashoka was an Indian emperor who spread Buddhism. He sent people abroad to spread his religion, and while doing so, he gained trade relations.
  • Period:
    -200 BCE
    to
    -500 BCE

    Angkor Borei and Oc Eo

    Angkor Borei and Oc Eo are sites in Funan, Southeast Asia, that map out the moats, canals, branches of the river, housing, and cemeteries of that time. These sites are important because they mark the goods they had, such as pottery, metal, shell tools, and beads. Funan was a place that took trade goods from the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea into inland trade routes.
  • Period:
    -200 BCE
    to
    -500 BCE

    Kushan Gold Coin

    The Kushan Gold Coin symbolizes how trade lead to the blending of cultures and religions.
  • Period:
    -200 BCE
    to
    -500 BCE

    Camels and Date Production

    Between 200 and 500 BCE, the one-humped camel and date palm spread from southern Arabia to North Africa. The popularity of these two items caused trade to spread across Africa and to nomads passing through.
  • Period:
    4
    to
    30

    Jesus Brings Christianity

    Jesus was born between 4 CE and 30 CE and brought Christianity into the world.