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A Brief History Of Time

  • Period: 10,000 BCE to 3200 BCE

    The Stone Age

    Started 2,5 million years BCE
  • Period: 6000 BCE to 1100 BCE


    "The cradle of civilization", it is in Mesopotamia we see the earliest evidence for human civilization, with the emergence of urban centres. Mesopotamia is modern-day Iraq.
  • Period: 5000 BCE to 332 BCE

    Ancient Egypt

    Spanning almost 30 centuries, Ancient Egypt was one of the greatest ancient civilizations in the Mediterranean world. Ancient Egypt is divided into different time periods.
  • 3500 BCE

    Invention Of The Wheel

    Invention Of The Wheel
  • 3400 BCE

    Invention Of The Nail

    Invention Of The Nail
    The earliest known use of this very simple but super-useful metal fastener dates back to Ancient Egypt, about 3400 B.C. If you are more partial to screws, they’ve been around since Ancient Greeks (1st or 2nd century B.C.).
  • Period: 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE

    The Indus Valley Civilization

    Located in modern-day Pakistan and Northern India, the Indus Valley was of the world's earliest civilizations. Here, we see developed urban planning and technical innovation.
  • Period: 3200 BCE to 1200 BCE

    The Bronze Age

  • Period: 1600 BCE to 1046 BCE

    The Shang Dynasty

    The earliest dynasty of China, and the beginning of the Bronze Age in China, the Shang Dynasty saw developments in maths and military technology.
  • Period: 1200 BCE to 600 BCE

    The Iron Age

  • Period: 1200 BCE to 12 BCE

    The Celts

    A collection of tribes who originated in Central Europe. Celtic tribes lived across Europe and Britain and shared a common language, religious beliefs and culture. The Celtic culture is the most prominent today in Ireland and Great Britain.
  • Period: 1046 BCE to 771 BCE

    The Zhou Dynasty

    The longest-lasting dynasty in China’s history, the Zhou dynasty saw further cultural developments.
  • Period: 776 BCE to 323

    Ancient Greece

    Another one of the Mediterranean world’s greatest civilizations, Ancient Greece saw significant developments in philosophy, politics and science with the formation of city-states.
  • Period: 753 BCE to 476

    Ancient Rome

    With the establishment of the Roman Empire, this period encompassed most of Europe, northern Africa and Western Asia. Here we see developments in human civilization, from public health to architecture, roads and the Julian Calendar.
  • 250 BCE

    Invention Of The Compass

    Invention Of The Compass
    this navigational device has been a major force in human exploration. The earliest compasses were made of lodestone in China between 300 and 200 B.C.
  • 100 BCE

    Invention Of Paper

    Invention Of Paper
    invented about 100 BC in China, paper has been indispensible in allowing us to write down and share our ideas.
  • 4 BCE

    The Birth Of Jesus

    The Birth Of Jesus
  • 29

    Crucifixion of Jesus

    Crucifixion of Jesus
  • 142

    Invention Of Gunpowder

    Invention Of Gunpowder
    Gunpowder was invented in China sometime during the first millennium AD. The earliest possible reference to gunpowder appeared in 142 AD during the Eastern Han dynasty when the alchemist Wei Boyang, also known as the "father of alchemy", wrote about a substance with gunpowder-like properties.
  • Period: 395 to 1453

    The Byzantine Empire

    After the fall of Rome, this was a continuation of its empire in the East. The Byzantine Empire became a leading civilization and its capital, Constantinople, a centre for trade.
  • Period: 475 to 1500

    Medieval Period

    Also known as the Middle Ages, this time period in history falls between the fall of the ancient civilizations and the beginning of the Renaissance. This period marked the end of a centralized European authority but increased mass migration, development of world religions and the formation of new kingdoms.
  • Period: 600 to 1066

    Anglo-Saxon England

    England was divided into various kingdoms until it was united in 927 CE. The Anglo-Saxons were a Germanic group who migrated to England. During the 7th century CE, Christianity began to spread.
  • Period: 750 to 1300

    The Islamic Golden Age

    During the Middle Ages, Islam grew larger, conquering parts of the Middle East. During the golden age, Baghdad was the world's largest city and there were impressive cultural and economic developments.
  • Period: 793 to 1066

    The Viking Age

    This period marked the large-scale raiding of Britain and large parts of Europe by Scandinavian Norsemen. Voyaging as far as North America, Vikings settled in Britain and other parts of Europe, co-existing with Anglo-Saxons.
  • Period: 1096 to 1291

    The Crusades

    The Catholic Church began military expeditions to spread the influence of Christianity and claim the Holy Land in the Middle East, under the control of Muslims. Religion became increasingly important and influential.
  • Period: 1400 to

    The Age of Exploration

    Europe embarked on extensive overseas exploration. The Americas were discovered and colonialism becomes an important part of European countries’ politics.
  • 1450

    Invention of the printing press

    Invention of the printing press
    This improved communication and cemented ideologies, whilst allowing them to spread more quickly.
  • Period: 1450 to

    The Renaissance

    Falling within the Early Modern Period of history, the Renaissance was the time period in history that saw increased European explorations, the invention of the printing press, and the development of international trade. There is significant economic, political, cultural and religious developments across the world, with military expansion occurring alongside increasing conflict between nations.
  • Period: 1558 to

    Elizabethan era

    Known as the ‘Golden Age’ in English history, the reign of Elizabeth I oversaw international expansion, economic growth and the re-emergence of Classical philosophy.
  • Period: to

    Age of Revolution

    The late modern time period in history is between the Industrial Revolution and the end of World War II.
  • Discovery Of Electricity

    Discovery Of Electricity
    Electricity was discovered and understood by many scientists. Benjamin Franklin is given the credit for discovering electricity. In the year 1752, Benjamin Franklin conducted an experiment using a kite and key on a rainy day. He wanted to demonstrate the relationship between lightning and electricity.
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    The Industrial Revolution

    Developments in manufacturing, including machinery and factory systems across Europe and the United States began around 1760. This revolutionized the industry, the economy and increased the population significantly.
  • Invention Of The Steam Engine

    Invention Of The Steam Engine
    invented between 1763 and 1775 by Scottish inventor James Watt (who built upon the ideas of previous steam engine attempts like the 1712 Newcomen engine), the steam engine powered trains, ships, factories and the Industrial Revolution as a whole.
  • Period: to

    French Revolution

    This movement overthrew the French monarchy and replaced it with a government. It resulted in Napoleon Bonaparte becoming an absolute monarch.
  • Period: to

    Victorian era

    Under Queen Victoria, Britain experienced industrial progress, the first railroad line and significant changes to politics and society.
  • Invention Of The Internal Combustion Engine

    Invention Of The Internal Combustion Engine
    the 19th-century invention (created by Belgian engineer Etienne Lenoir in 1859 and improved by Germany’s Nikolaus Otto in 1876), this engine that converts chemical energy into mechanical energy overtook the steam engine and is used in modern cars and planes. Elon Musk’s electric car company Tesla, among others, is currently trying to revolutionize technology in this arena once again.
  • Invention Of The The Telephone

    Invention Of The The Telephone
    Several inventors did pioneering work on electronic voice transmission - many of whom later filed intellectual property lawsuits when telephone use exploded - but it was Scottish inventor Alexander Graham Bell who was the first to be awarded a patent for the electric telephone on March 7 1876 (his patent drawing is pictured above).
  • Inventions Of The Light Bulb

    Inventions Of The Light Bulb
    Several inventors were instrumental in developing this revolutionary technology throughout the 1800s; Thomas Edison is credited as the primary inventor because he created a completely functional lighting system, including a generator and wiring as well as a carbon-filament bulb like the one above, in 1879.
  • Invention Of The Car

    Invention Of The Car
    cars completely changed the way we travel, as well as the design of our cities, and thrust the concept of the assembly line into the mainstream. They were invented in their modern form in the late 19th century by a number of individuals, with special credit going to the German Karl Benz for creating what’s considered the first practical motorcar in 1885.
  • Invention Of The Airplane

    Invention Of The Airplane
    invented in 1903 by the American Wright brothers, planes brought the world closer together, allowing us to travel quickly over great distances. This technology has broadened minds through enormous cultural exchanges—but it also escalated the reach of the world wars that would soon break out, and the severity of every war thereafter.
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    World War 1

    The first global war in history, the Allied powers fought against Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire. This led to the fall of dynasties and further destruction and war.
  • Invention Of Penicillin

    Invention Of Penicillin
    It's one of the most famous discovery stories in history. In 1928, the Scottish scientist Alexander Fleming noticed a bacteria-filled Petri dish in his laboratory with its lid accidentally ajar. The sample had become contaminated with a mold, and everywhere the mold was, the bacteria was dead. That antibiotic mold turned out to be the fungus Penicillium, and over the next two decades, chemists purified it and developed the drug penicillin.
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    World War 2

    The second global war was fought between the Allies and the Axis. This resulted in millions of deaths, due to the conflict and the Holocaust. The war resulted in the fall of Nazi Germany, the creation of the United Nations and the beginning of the Cold War.
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    Contemporary History

    Contemporary, or modern, history is mostly considered beginning post-World War II up until present day.
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    The Cold War

    In the aftermath of WW2, increasing tension between the United States and the Soviet Union became known as the Cold War. This involved no fighting between the two, but the two remained oppose due to the United States being democratic and the Soviet Union being communist.
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    The Space Race

    The Cold War also encompassed the Space Race. This was the competition between the United States and the Soviet Union to see who could achieve spaceflight and reach the Moon first. After this, space exploration continued to progress and develop.
  • Invention Of The Internet

    Invention Of The Internet
    The internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that is used by billions of people worldwide. In the 1960s, a team of computer scientists working for the U.S. Defense Department's ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) built a communications network to connect the computers in the agency, called ARPANET, the predecessor of the internet.
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    The Digital Age

    Also known as the information age, the digital age is defined by the significant development of computer, informational and digital technology and the shift this caused within the economy.