Samuel S Mr.Sehl American History 2015-16 p.7

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    Chapter 1 KBAT Part 1

    Migrate- To move to follow resources
    Adobe - sun dried bricks to build houses, Native Americans, Colonists learned from the Natives how to build houses
    Iroquois legacy- a confederacy of Native American tribes in New York, (Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, Tuscarora), defended us in French-Indian War and influenced the Constitution
    Renaissance - a cultural rebirth in the 17th century, European nations, they traveled the world to find new territories
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    Chapter 1 KBAT Part 2

    Prince Henry the Navigator - 15th century Portugal prince, Portugal, he sent Portugal west of Africa into the Atlantic
    Christopher Columbus - a sailor from Spain in the 15th century, (Spain, Queen Isabella, King Ferdinand), he landed in the Caribbean and found the new world
    Conquistador - a conqueror especially from Spain, (Columbus, Cortes, Mexico, Spain), Spain conquered Mexico and the Aztecs giving the influence of today’s Mexican culture
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    Chapter 1 KBAT Part 3

    Hernan Cortes - a spanish conquistador, (Mexico, Spain, Aztecs), Spain captured Mexico under his control
    Montezuma - the 9th ruler of Tenochtitlan, (Aztecs, Spanish), he was killed when Spain conquered them
    Columbian Exchange - a worldwide transfer of livestock and goods after Columbus’ voyage, Columbus, started to give the rest of the world American species, diseases, resources, etc. and vice versa
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    Chapter 2 KBAT PART 1

    Presidio- A Spanish led community, San Francisco was taken by Spanish, started the creation of borders.
    Mestizo- A person with a Spanish and Native American parentage, mixed up the gene pool
    Northwest Passage- A nautical route between the Pacific Oceans and Northern Atlantic (Arctic region), explored by Europeans, a new and shorter route
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    Chapter 2 KBAT Part 2

    Joint Stock Company- A company that took stock and gave buying people interest, opened stock to colonies, they supported and funded the colonies, but they were also the only funders of the colonies, colonies wouldn’t exist without the companies
    John Smith- New England Admiral, important figure in Jamestown, mapped Chesapeake Bay
    House of Burgesses- 1st form of government in American colonies, representatives were chosen from 11 plantations, 1st form of organized law in the New World
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    Chapter 2 KBAT PART3

    Bacon’s Rebellion- Armed rebellion by Virginian settlers, Nathaniel Bacon was the leader who opposed William Berkeley, colonists are not unified
    Puritan- Protestants who disagreed with the Church of England, persecuted for their religion and left England, 1st colony in New England, Plymouth
    Mayflower Compact- Plymouth’s 1st governing document, written by separatists congressionalist or saints
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    Chapter 2 KBAT Part 4

    William Penn- A Quaker, founded Pennsylvania, refuge for Quakers, this colony was friendly with the Indians, diverse in culture and open to new ideas
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    Chapter 3 KBAT Part 1

    Indentured Servant- Labor system in which people sold themselves to work to pay off debts, usually poor English convicts
    Middle Passage- Sea journey, undertaken by slave ships from West Africa to West Indies
    Magna Carta-Charter that King John issued in june 15 1215 that recognizes the right of persons to certain basic liberties
    English Bill of Rights- Created separation of powers, limits powers of the king and queen, enhances democratic election and bolsters freedom of speech (Dec. 12 1689)
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    Chapter 3 KBAT Part 2

    Habeas Corpus- A writ that requires a person to be brought before a judge or court for investigation of restraint, protection of illegal imprisonment
    Salutary Neglect- Unofficial long term British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of Parliamentary laws meant to keep American colonies obedient to England
    Mercantilism-Economic system where nations seek to increase wealth and power by obtaining a lot of gold and silver and establishing a favorable balance of trade
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    Chapter 3 KBAT Part 3

    Enlightenment- 18th century intellectual movement that emphasized the use of reason and scientific method
    Great Awakening- Revived the religious feelings in the American colonies during the 1730’s to the late 1800s
    Cash Crops- crops that make a lot of money like tobacco
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    Chapter 5 KBATS Part 1

    Bicameral Legislature: A two house legislature for representation of both large and small states. With members based on population. Important because it helped give fair representation for big and small states created by Madison Virginia.
    Articles of Confederation: A new type of government in a set of laws. Two levels of government shared powers. Purpose was to equalize powers and not have one huge monarchy
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    Chapter 5 KBATS Part 2

    Northwest Ordinance: a procedure for dividing the land into territories. Became Confederation’s greatest achievement. Important because it established a blueprint for the future growth of the nation
    Shay’s Rebellion:The farmers protest. Caused pain and dismay throughout the nation. Nation’s reputation in danger caused to strengthen the foundation of the nation and not to be codependent
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    Chapter 5 KBATS Part 3

    Great Compromise: Suggested by Rodger Sherman. Offered a two house congress to satisfy the small and large states and each state gets equal representation to give the state's satisfaction for equality.
    The Federalist: A series of 85 essays defending the constitution appeared in New York newspapers between 1787 and 1788 provided on analysis and an explanation of constitutional provisions that remain important today
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    Chapter 5 KBATS Part 4

    Popular Sovereignty- Rule by the People
    Limited Government: The power of government to intervene in the exercise of civil liberties in restricted by law usually in a written constitution gives the public power to participate in law and reduce monarchy
    Separation of Powers: An act of vesting the legislature executive and judicial powers of government in separation bodies to reduce the power in one section of law and spread equal power.
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    Chapter 5 KBATS Part 5

    Checks and Balances- Provisions of the U.S that prevent any branch of government from dominating any other branch
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    Chapter 6 KBATS Part1

    Cabinet: The cabinet consists of Alexander Hamilton, Henry Knox, and Thomas Jefferson. The cabinet is the President’s advisors through departments like secretary of state or secretary of treasury. The cabinet was important because Washington could get opinions from his most trusted advisors and still have his opinion.
    Alexander Hamilton: He was the secretary of the treasury in Washington’s cabinet. Hamilton was important because he created an economic plan that set the nation's finances
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    Chapter 6 KBATS Part 2

    Tariff: Congress has passed a “protective tariff”. This tariff was an import tax on goods produced in Europe. The tax was meant to encourage American production.
    Loose Construction: The United States founding fathers gave a foundation to the New Land. The founding fathers created the constitution leaving room for improvement and was important because it allowed more freedom and room to grow and improve as well as interpretations.
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    Chapter 6 KBATS Part 3

    Strict Construction: A legal philosophy meaning the constitution is exactly what it says. The constitution was not open to interpretation leaving it exactly what it means. This leaves no room to grow and only has set rules everyone should follow.
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    Chapter 6 KBATS Part 4

    Whiskey Rebellion: Secretary Hamilton put taxes on imported goods but it wasn't enough so he put a tax on whiskey. A tax pt on the manufacturing of whiskey angered farmers and they refused to pay the taxes. Hamilton saw this opportunity for the government to show they could enforce the law along the western frontier.
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    Chapter 6 KBATS Part 5

    Alien and Sedition Acts- Four Measures created by Federalists pushing through Congress. The Alien acts raised the residence requirements for American Citizenship from 5 years to 14 and allowed the president to deport or jail any alien considered undesirable. The Sedition acts set fines and jail terms for anything trying to hinder the operation of the government.
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    Chapter 6 KBATS Part 6

    Marbury Vs Madison: William Marbury, one of the midnight judges James Madison, Jefferson's secretary of state. One of the most important supreme court decisions. Marbury sued to enforce the provision of the judiciary act of 1789. The court decided that the provision of the act was unconstitutional because the constitution did not empower the court to issue these orders.
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    Chapter 6 KBATS Part 7

    Judicial Review: Created after the Marbury Vs Madison trial. the ability of the supreme court declare an act of congress unconstitutional. This was important because before the supreme court could not enforce the Judiciary act of 1789.
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    Chapter 6 KBATS Part 8

    Louisiana Purchase: Monroe and Livingston closed a deal to purchase land. A treaty was signed selling Louisiana to the U.S.. The Louisiana Purchase included all the land drained by the Western tributaries of the Mississippi river. This purchase more than doubled the size of the United States.
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    Chapter 6 KBATS Part 9

    Impressment: A British policy that practiced the seizing of American ships at sea or drafting them into the British Navy. One of these seizings an American captain refused the British right to board their ship, The British fired and killed 3 Americans.
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    Chapter 6 KBATS Part 10

    War Hawks: Was a group of young congressmen from the South and the West. The War Hawks called for war against Britain. This was the start of the Canadian Rebellion against Britain.
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    Chapter 6 KBATS Part 11

    Treaty of Ghent: The treaty that ended the War of 1812
    Hartford Convention-A series of meetings in which the Federalist Party met to discuss the War of 1812
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    Chapters 7-9 KBATS Part 1

    Interchangeable Parts: Eli Whitney demonstrated the first making of interchangeable parts that are exactly alike and can be interchangeable with others. They allowed muskets to work better but still be the same function as before. (1778-1853)
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    Chapters 7-9 KBATS Part 2

    Erie Canal:One of the most impressive projects linking the Hudson river to Lake Erie. It was a canal stretching over 363 miles and took 8 years to make. It was a shorter route from point A to point B. (1807-1825)
    Cotton Gin: Invented by Eli Whitney to make the production of cotton easier and more efficient. This set the South on a different course of development than the North. (1793-1794)
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    Chapters 7-9 KBATS Part 3

    American System: Promoted by Henry clay, this hoped to unite the regions to make them stronger. This was made to make a strong stable economy that could be self sufficient. (1791-1830)
    Henry Clay: He promoted the American System and contributed a great deal in making America a better economy. (April 12, 1777 - June 29, 1852)
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    Chapters 7-9 KBATS Part 4

    Monroe Doctrine: President Monroe wrote this in 1823 making a warning to all outsiders of power not to interfere in the west. This helped keep America independent. (1823-1850)
    Missouri Compromise: Led by Henry Clay, it was a temporary solution of the crisis with a feries of agreements collectively called the Missouri compromise This was a big fix to agreements setting aside to find a permanent fix. (1820-1854)
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    Chapters 7-9 KBATS Part 5

    Indian Removal Act: Passed by Congress. It moved the Indians West so America could take more land. This moved the Indians and payed them off so they wouldn't fight it. (May 23, 1830)
    Jacksonian Democracy: Created by Andrew Jackson, it was a form of democracy in the mid 1800’s that created the beliefs around Andrew Jackson. This provided a group who agreed with Jackson close to power. (1830-1854)
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    Chapters 7-9 KBATS Part 6

    Tariff of Abominations: Referred to by John C. Calhoun, it was an agricultural region dependent on cotton. It was important because this region competed with the South in the world market. (May 19, 1828 - 1832)
    Nullification: A state that refused to recognize an act of Congress. These acts were considered unconstitutional. (1795-1861)
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    Chapters 7-9 KBATS Part 7

    Second Great Awakening: The United States of America created a religious movement revivals to show the idea that making money and practicing religion weren't exclusive (1790-1840)
    Utopian Communities: Some of optimistic religious and social reforms experimentalists groups tried to make an ideal place. (1800s)
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    Chapters 7-9 KBATS Part 8

    Dorothea Dix: Joined the social reform by personal experience and discovered jails. Housed mentally ill people then decided to persuade states to open up mental hospitals. (April 4, 1802-July 17, 1887)
    Nat Turner: Born into slavery in 1800, he was chosen to lead people out of bandage. Got captured by state and federal troops after killing almost 60 white inhabitants. (Oct 2, 1800-Nov 11, 1831)
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    Chapters 7-9 KBATS Part 10

    William Lloyd Garrison: Most radical and white abolitionist took part in religious reform movements and started his own paper “The Liberator”. (Dec 12, 1805-May 24, 1879)
    Abolition Movement: A movement to outlaw slavery given by preachers like Finney (1831-1870)
    Seneca Falls convention: A woman’s right convention by Lickelta Malt and Elizabeth Stanton. (July 19 1820-1848)
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    Chapters 7-9 KBATS Part 9

    \William Lloyd Garrison: Most radical and white abolitionist took part in religious reform movements and started his own paper “The Liberator”. (Dec 12, 1805-May 24, 1879)
    Abolition Movement: A movement to outlaw slavery given by preachers like Finney (1831-1870)
    Seneca Falls convention: A woman’s right convention by Lickelta Malt and Elizabeth Stanton. (July 19 1820-1848)
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    Chapters 7-9 KBATS Part 11

    Elizabeth Stanton: Held a woman’s right movement with Matt given women the first look at quality. (Nov 12, 1815-Oct 25, 1902)
    Manifest Destiny: Many Americans expressed their belief that the US destiny was to expand to the Pacific ocean and Mexican territory. (1843-1845)
    Lone Star Republic: The territory of Texas that had their own army and navy and proudly flew their new flag with a gold lone star. They were sparsely populated. (Nov 2, 1836-1846)
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    Chapters 7-9 KBATS Part 12

    Treaty of guadalupe: Hidalgo signed by America and Mexico, Mexico agreed to the border for Texas and sold New Mexico and California to the US. (1846-feb 2 1848)
    California Gold Rush: Forty miners flocked to California from Asia, South America, and Europe to mine gold that was supposedly the best placed to mine gold at. This made California a very popular place. (Jan 24, 1848-1855)
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    Chapters 7-9 KBATS Part 13

    Gadsden Purchase: Franklin Pierce authorized his embassy to pay Mexico additional 60 million for another piece of territory South of the Gila River. This allowed the US to acquire more land from Mexico. (Dec 30, 1853-1854)
    Marman Movement: Religious community that migrated westward along the Oregon Trail, played a major role in the settling of the West. (1800s)
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    Chapter 10 KBATS Part 1

    Wilmot Proviso: David Wilmot introduced an amendment that slavery nor involuntary servitude should exist. California and territories such as Utah and New Mexico would be closed to slavery forever. It divided the congress along regional lines and created angry people. (August 8, 1846-1850)
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    Chapter 10 KBATS Part 2

    Popular Sovereignty: The North and South involved the ability to vote for or against slavery for their territory. This gives the ability to decide whether a region is for or against slavery naming the state free or a slave state
    Compromise of 1850: Henry Clay worked to compose this compromise. California was admitted a free state, Utah and New Mexico would decide over popular Sovereignty. This created a perfect balance of slave and free states. (Jan 1 1811-Dec 31 1850)
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    CHapter 10 KBATS Part 3

    Underground Railroad: Conductors hid fugitives and the slaves who ran away could be escorted across tunnels to flee from being slaves. This allowed slaves to run away and be free from slavery. (1800-1865)
    Harriet Beecher stowe: She was a student abolitionist and she published Uncle Tom’s cabin, a book about a life of a slave. She predicted the way a slave lived and created an incorrect image of slavery of how the North sees it.
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    Chapter 10 KBATS Part 4

    Kansas Nebraska Act: Douglas introduced a bill to divide an area into 2. It divided the territory into Kansas and Nebraska and it left the fort of new territories to fend for themselves (May 30 1854)
    Dred Scott: A slave from Missouri whose owner died and he began a lawsuit to become a free man because he lived in free territory. He was one of the first slaves to try to win his freedom. (1843-March 6, 1857)
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    Chapter 10 KBATS Part 5

    Harper’s Ferry: Virginia now West Virginia. John Brown led a band of 21 men both black and white into the ferry. He led them to seize the federal arsenal and start a general slave uprising. (Oct 16-18, 1859)
    Confederate States of America: Delegates from the secessionist states met in Montgomery, Alabama. This closely resembled the United States and protected and recognized slavery in the new territories. (1861-1865)
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    Chapter 10 KBATS Part 6

    Battle of Fort Sumter:Lincoln or Confederates attacked on Fort Sumter. The fort was one of the southern forts in Union hands at this time and was taken. This was the first battle of the Civil War. (April 12-14, 1861)
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    Chapter 12 KBATS Part 1

    Reconstruction-The rebuilding of the South begins, Trying to get the South back to normal, Lasted until March 31, 1877,An overall failure, South became a sloppy backwater that ruled through fear and second class citizenship jan 1865
    Radical Republicans-A political party that lasted until the end of Reconstruction in 1877, Strongly opposed slavery and demanded harsher punishment for South, Attempted to impeach Johnson after he didn't agree with their Reconstruction plan.
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    Chapter 12 KBATS Part 2

    Freedmen’s Bureau - Helped black slaves and poor whites in the south after the civil war
    Black Codes - designed to restrict black people's newly founded freedom
    Civil RIghts Act 1866 - gave all male citizens the same rights
    14th Amendment-guaranteed citizenship to all natural born citizens or naturalized citizens within the U.S. except for Indians, State govs. can't deprive anyone of life, liberty, or property without due process of law
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    Chapter 12 KBATS Part 3

    15th Amendment-Gave African Americans the right to vote
    Angered women's rights activists because women of any color still couldn't vote 1870
    Sharecropping-Landowners allow tenants (usually former slaves) to farm and live on a piece of land in exchange for some of the profits 1866
    Ku Klux Klan-A group of white southerners, against ANY minority gaining civil rights, Originally a political group for ex-Confederate soldiers, Used violence and intimidation to frighten blacks, Murdered and lynched
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    CHapter 12 KBATS Part 4

    Enforcement Acts - protected African-Americans' right to vote, to hold office, to serve on juries, and receive equal protection of laws.
    Reparations- war payments to help rebuild/ cover damage
    Carpetbaggers- Northerners that took advantage of Southerners weakness
    Dawes Act- Allowed the President to survey Native American tribal land and divide it up for individual Indians, Introduced by Henry Dawes feb 8 188