renaissances timeline M.L.,1

  • Period: 1091 to 1296

    The Crusades

    The Crusades were a series of religious wars between Christians and Muslims that started primarily to secure control of holy sites considered sacred by both groups.
  • 1097

    The capture of the Nicaea

    The siege of Nicaea was the first major battle of the First Crusade, taking place from 14 May to 19 June 1097. The city was under the control of the Seljuk Turks who opted to surrender to the Byzantines in fear of the crusaders breaking into the city. The siege was followed by the Battle of Dorylaeum and the Siege of Antioch, all taking place in modern Turkey.
  • 1098

    Siege of Antioch

    The siege of Antioch took place during the First Crusade in 1097 and 1098, on the crusaders' way to Jerusalem through Syria. The crusaders then established the Principality of Antioch, ruled by Bohemond of Taranto.
  • Jul 14, 1099

    The Crusaders successfully capture Jerusalem

    During the First Crusade, Christian knights from Europe capture Jerusalem after seven weeks of siege and begin massacring the city’s Muslim and Jewish population. The first crusaders were undisciplined hordes of French and German peasants who met with little success.
  • 1347

    when the black death came

    Once infected, one ship arrives in Constantinople, which loses as much as 90 percent of its population. the plague arrived in France brought by another of the Caffa ships docking in Marseille. it had quickly spread through the country.
  • Period: 1347 to 1353

    Black death

  • 1349

    how many Jews where killed

    One of the worst massacres of Jews during the Black Death takes place on Valentine’s Day in Strasbourg, with 2,000 Jewish people burned alive. In the spring, 3,000 Jews defend themselves in Mainz against Christians but are overcome and slaughtered.
  • 1349

    how many people died

    The plague hits Wales, brought by people fleeing from Southern England, and eventually kills100,000 people there. All total, Europe has lost about 50 percent of its population.
  • Period: 1400 to 1495

    early renaissance

  • 1429

    Cosimo de 'Medici

    Cosimo was initiated into affairs of high finance in the corridors of the Council of Constance, where he represented the Medici bank. He was certainly the wealthiest man of his time, not only in terms of bullion but also in the amount of bank and promissory notes payable to his bank in Florence and its branches operating in all the important financial markets of Europe.
  • Period: 1434 to

    Age of Exploration

  • 1454

    the Gutenbergs Bible

    Johann Gutenberg and his partner Johann Fust published more than 150 large-format copies of the Bible in Latin. This is the book known today as the Gutenberg Bible. Gutenberg may have begun developing a new printing technology as early as the 1430s, and the completion of the Bible demonstrated the viability of a press that used individual pieces of metal type to mass-produce books.
  • Aug 3, 1492

    Columba's went to America

    Italian explorer Christopher Columbus started his voyage across the Atlantic Ocean. With a crew of 90 men and three ships the Niña, Pinta, and Santa Maria he left from Palos de la Frontera, Spain. Columbus made it to what is now the Bahamas in 61 days. He initially thought his plan was successful and the ships had reached India. He called the indigenous people “Indians,” an inaccurate name that unfortunately stuck.
  • Aug 12, 1492

    Christopher Columbus lands in the Caribbean

    Inspired by Portugal's early success in navigation, Spain finances Christopher Columbus' voyage to find a western trade route to Asia. Columbus landed in the Caribbean in 1492, convinced he has reached East Asia. His voyage opens the Americas to later European explorers.
  • Period: 1495 to 1527

    High renaissance

  • May 20, 1498

    Vasco da Gama

    Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama reaches India after rounding the southern tip of Africa. Although the Portuguese lost half their ships and many sailors died on the voyage, the venture is highly profitable and he returns with a cargo of spices. His voyage shows Portugal can access Asian markets directly, instead of through indirect overland routes.
  • 1502

    Da Gama

    Thanks to his success in India, da Gama can outfit a new fleet, and in 1502 he forces a treaty of cooperation on the ruler of Calicut. He then leaves Portuguese merchants in Calicut to set up trade with spice merchants.1528 3rd trip he was killed and eaten by natives of the Lesser Antilles- the Virgin Islands to Grenada
  • 1504

    Michelangelo finish David

    David, a marble sculpture executed from 1501 to 1504 by Michelangelo. The statue was commissioned for one of the buttresses of the cathedral of Florence and was carved from a block of marble. After Michelangelo completed the sculpture the Florentine government decided instead to place it in front of the Palazzo Vecchio.
  • 1508

    Da Vinci paints Mona Lisa

    The Mona Lisa is also called Portrait of Lisa Gherardini. The painting was commissioned by a rich Italian merchant. Francesco del Giocondo wanted to place a portrait of his wife, Lisa, in their new home. it took Da Vinci four years to finish the painting.
  • 1513

    Machiavelli publishes “The Prince”

    Niccoló Machiavelli wrote "The Prince" in 1513. It wasn't published until 1532, five years after his death. The main theme of "the prince" was accepting that the aims of princes, such as glory and survival can justify the use of immoral means to achieve those ends.
  • 1517

    Language Barrier

    Most uneducated people didn’t understand Latin but knew the local common language or “vernacular”. Almost all Bibles were written in LATIN before the Reformation. The church clergy's job was to translate the Bible to lay people.
  • Period: 1517 to 1555

    Protestant Reformation

    Protestant Reformation was a religious movement in the 1500s that split the Christian church in western Europe and led to the establishment of a number of new churches.
  • Oct 31, 1517

    Martin Luther

    Father of the Reformation. German monk and professor of theology at the University of Wittenberg. Became a monk after a near-death experience in a lighting storm. Believed in salvation by Faith alone (Church=Good Works). Objected to the methods of Tetze. Nailed 95 Theses to the door of the Wittenberg Castle Church
  • Period: 1527 to

    Late renaissance

  • 1543

    The Heliocentric theory & The Geocentric Theory

    Nicolaus Copernicus- Polish scientist, first to write that the sun (not the earth) was the center of the universe the heliocentric theory. Copernicus made his discoveries before the invention of the telescope. The Geocentric Theory is when people believe that the earth was the center of the universe.
  • Period: 1550 to

    Scientific Revolution

    Is the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology, human anatomy, and chemistry transformed views of society and nature.
  • 1555

    Lutherans split with the Church

    Holy Roman Emperor Charles V passed measures to suppress Luther’s writings. Lutheran princes in Germany issued a protest. Hence the term Protestant. Charles V goes to war against Lutheran princes. Peace of Augsburg in 1555. Each German leader could decide the religion of the state.
  • 1555

    the peace of Augsburg

    is a temporary settlement of the religious conflict in the Holy Roman Empire. Each prince could now decide whether Lutheranism or Roman Catholicism was to prevail in his land. The sides began fighting again in 1618 in what became the Thirty Years' War.
  • 1562

    the wars of religion

    The French Wars of Religion were a series of eight conflicts between Protestant and Catholic factions in France. Lasting 36 years and concluding with the Protestant King Henry IV converting to Catholicism in the interests of peace.
  • May 20, 1570

    first modern atlas is published

    Atlases have traditionally been bound into book form. In addition to presenting geographic features and political boundaries, many atlases often feature geopolitical, social, religious, and economic statistics. They also have information about the map and places on it.
  • Pascal's Calculator

    In 1642 Blaise Pascal invented the Pascal's Calculator. Pascal got the idea to create the calculator because his father's job required laborious arithmetical calculations. After 50 prototypes he presented his creation to the public. In 1649 king Louis the XIV of France gave Pascal a royal privilege. This calculator performed multiplication through repeated addition or subtraction it also added and subtracted
  • Isaac Newton

    English scientist, revolutionized physics as he proved the law of universal gravitation and the laws of motion, and invented a new form of mathematics called calculus. Newton's accomplishments at the age of 24 are simply astonishing.