Renaissance Timeline, T.H., 2

  • Period: 1095 to 1291

    The Crusades

    The Crusades were a series of religious wars between Christians and Muslims started primarily to secure control of holy sites considered sacred by both groups. The ruthless conflicts enhanced the status of European Christians making them liable players for the fight of land.
  • Jun 7, 1099

    Seige of Jerusalem

    The Siege of Jerusalem was the decisive event of the First Crusade, then after achieving several successes in the lands surrounding Jerusalem, the Crusader forces finally converged on Jerusalem and laid siege to the city. Fatimid Caliphate had control of the city at the time. On July 15, 1099, Crusader forces were successful in breaching city walls and forcing an entry, and this led to a successful assault in which Fatimid forces were defeated and most of the city inhabitants put to the sword.
  • Jul 3, 1187

    Battle of Hatin

    The Battle of Hattin took place after the Second Crusade and just before the Third Crusade. The battle was fought between the Ayyubid forces of Sultan Salah-ud-din Ayyubi and the Crusader forces with figures like Raynald of Chatillon, Guy of Lusignan, and Gerard de Rideford in it. In the battle, Muslim forces used strategic devices to first weaken the Crusader army and then inflicted a crushing defeat on it.
  • Aug 28, 1189

    Battle of Acre

    was one of the key events of the Third Crusade, the siege was a counterattack of the Crusader forces after having lost Jerusalem to Saladin. The siege was a major victory for the Crusaders who were able to secure the surrender of the city and gain control of it, but then the city became the new capital of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
  • Apr 12, 1204

    Seige of Constantinople

    The Siege of Constantinople was an event of the Fourth Crusade, and resulted in the capture of Constantinople by the Crusader forces, However the city was then pillaged and plundered. The Byzantine Empire itself was broken down into smaller states and divided up between the crusaders, Although the Empire was restored later, it remains significantly weaker.
  • May 24, 1337

    100 Year War

    From May 24, 1337 to October 14, 1453 there were many wars between England and France because the French king took over the English held area of Guyenne. Also the reason why they fought was because they wanted the more power our of the regions.
  • 1347

    Plague Doctors

    These people who wore these outfits were not trained in the medical field instead volunteers and filled the beak of the inside with medicines and flowers. They also wore this outfits in the hopes of being safe and not getting infected with the plague, but soon to realize they weren't safe at all.
  • Period: 1347 to 1353

    The Black Death

    The Black Death (The Bubonic Plague) was a dangerous virus that traveled through rats and fleas, and eventually a humans was bit by a flea than it traveled through humans. The Black Death killed 60% of the population of Europe.
  • Sep 2, 1348

    The Death of King Edward the Third's Daughter

    The Black Death hit on people and took people from the society. King Edward III was the king of England at a terrible period of the plague. His favorite daughter Joan Plantagenet was arranged a marriage by him. Once the virus hit Joan watched many fall sick and die. Joan was then scared to lose her life and was moved probably to a small village named Loremo, where she remained alive for some time. She was the first victim in the camp that suffered from the disease and failed to escape it.
  • Nov 1, 1348

    Black Death in England

    The Black Death soon reached England by the year of 1348. Bristol was believed to be the city that Black Death first reached in England. It was an important European port and city in England during the Medieval time. The church recorded that the actual deaths in London were around approximately 20,000. Between the years of 1348 and 1350, the disease killed about 30 to 40% of England’s population which was estimated to be about five to six million.
  • Period: 1400 to 1495

    The Early Renaissance

    The Early Renaissance was a revolutionary time in culture and the visual arts. New techniques emerged that changed the shape literally and figuratively of how art related to the world. The word "Renaissance" is the Italian word for rebirth.
  • Jan 1, 1413

    Brunelleschi creates Linear Perspective

    The Italian architect Filippo Brunelleschi reintroduced a means of rendering the recession of space, called linear perspective. In Brunelleschi's technique, lines appear to converge at a single fixed point in the distance.
  • Jan 1, 1439

    The Gutenburg Press

    The Gutenburg Press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink. It marked a dramatic improvement on earlier printing methods in which the cloth, paper or other medium was brushed or rubbed repeatedly to achieve the transfer of ink, and accelerated the process. Typically used for texts, the invention and used to send messages globley.
  • Aug 1, 1464

    Cosimo de' Medici Dies

    Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici was an Italian banker and politician who established the Medici family as effective rulers of Florence during much of the Italian Renaissance. His power derived from his wealth as a banker, and he was a patron of arts, learning and architecture.
  • Nov 1, 1478

    The Spanish Inquisition

    Christians feared that the Jewish population rose and they would eventually take over the Christians. Also since the Jews didn't want to gain "salvation" the Christian way they were executed or kicked out of Spain.
  • 1488

    Bartolomeu Dias Sets Sail for South Africa

    When Dias’ two ships sailed off the coast of South Africa, storms blew them away from the coast. Dias is thought to have ordered a turn to the south of about 28 degrees, probably because he had prior knowledge of southeasterly winds that would take him around the tip of Africa and keep his ships from being dashed on the notoriously rocky shoreline. João and his predecessors had obtained navigational intelligence,
  • Period: 1488 to

    The Age of Exploration

    The Age of Exploration was a significant portion of the unknown world was mapped during this short period. Also, many advances were made in navigation and mapping which helped future explorers and travelers.
  • Oct 12, 1492

    Christopher Columbus Discovers the West Indies

    After sailing across the Atlantic Ocean for 10 weeks, land was sighted by a sailor called Rodrigo Bernajo (although Columbus himself took the credit for this). He landed on a small island in the Bahamas, which he named San Salvador. He claimed the island for the King and Queen of Spain, although it was already populated.
  • Period: 1495 to 1527

    The High Renaissance

    There was extensive innovation and development in painting, architecture, and sculpture during this period, from new painting media like oils to new techniques in perspective. Some of the great High Renaissance artists also include Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael, known as the “Big Three."
  • Jan 1, 1510

    Raphael paints the School of Athens

    School of Athens, fresco was painted by artist Raphael, in the Stanza della Segnatura, a room in Pope Julius II's private apartments in the Vatican. It is perhaps the most famous of all of Raphael's paintings and one of the most significant artworks of the Renaissance.
  • Jan 1, 1512

    Michelangelo paints the Sistine Chapel

    Michelangelo completed the Sistine Chapel in 1512. Its importance in the history of art cannot be overstated. It turned into a veritable academy for young painters, a position that was cemented when Michelangelo returned to the chapel twenty years later to execute the Last Judgment fresco on the altar wall.
  • Oct 31, 1517

    Martin Luther and the 95 Theses

    The 95 Theses stated that the bible was the central religous authority and people don't get their salvation through indulgences produced by the church. These 95 Theses was nailed to the churches door (High Renaissance)
  • Feb 18, 1519

    Hernando Cortes Sets Sail for Mexico

    was a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century. Cortés was part of the generation of Spanish explorers and conquistadors who began the first phase of the Spanish colonization of the Americas. He also captures Montezuma to exploit him for gold and glory. (Age of Exploration)
  • Period: 1521 to

    The Reformation

    The Reformation became the basis for the founding of Protestantism, one of the three major branches of Christianity. The Reformation led to the reformulation of certain basic tenets of Christian belief and resulted in the division of Western Christendom between Roman Catholicism and the new Protestant traditions.
  • Jan 1, 1524

    The European Wars of Religion

    The European wars of religion were a series of wars waged in Europe during the 16th, 17th and early 18th centuries. Fought after the Protestant Reformation began in 1517, the wars disrupted the religious and political order in the Catholic countries of Europe, or Christendom. Other motives during the wars involved revolt, territorial ambitions and great power conflicts. (High Renaissance)
  • Period: 1527 to

    The Late Renaissance

    The late Renaissance marked the diffusion of the Italian Renaissance to other parts of Europe. it also saw the creation of more complex and elaborate works, such as those made by Titian and Tintoretto.
  • Oct 1, 1529

    The Marburg Colloquy

    was a meeting at Marburg Castle, Marburg, Hesse, Germany, which attempted to solve a disputation between Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli over the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist. The leading Protestant reformers of the time attended at the behest of Philip I of Hessen. Philip's primary motivation for this conference was political; he wished to unite the Protestant states in political alliance, and to this end, religious harmony was an important consideration.
  • Nov 3, 1534

    The Act of Supremacy

    are two acts passed by the Parliament of England in the 16th century that established the English monarchs as the head of the Church of England; two similar laws were passed by the Parliament of Ireland establishing the English monarchs as the head of the Church of Ireland. The 1534 Act declared King Henry VIII and his successors as the Supreme Head of the Church, replacing the pope. This first Act was repealed during the reign of the Catholic Queen Mary I.
  • Jan 1, 1543

    The Heliocentric Theory

    Nicolaus Copernicus proposed the heliocentric model in his work published in 1543, according to NASA Earth Observatory(opens in new tab). While the theory of the sun being central was correct, the model in its entirety held many inaccuracies. Because the heliocentric model was initially pieced together without a telescope, all observations had to be made with the naked eye and simple instruments.
  • Period: 1543 to

    The Scientific Revolution

    The Scientific Revolution was the discovery of a new view of nature emerged during the Scientific Revolution, replacing the Greek view that had dominated science for almost 2,000 years. Science became an autonomous discipline, distinct from both philosophy and technology, and it came to be regarded as having utilitarian goals.
  • 1545

    Council of Trent

    was the 19th ecumenical council of the Catholic Church.[1] Prompted by the Protestant Reformation, it has been described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation. The Council issued condemnations of what it defined to be heresies committed by proponents of Protestantism, and also issued key statements and clarifications of the Church's doctrine and teachings, including scripture, the Biblical canon, sacred tradition.
  • 1555

    Peace of Augsburg

    It was a treaty between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and the Schmalkaldic League, signed in September 1555 at the imperial city of Augsburg. It officially ended the religious struggle between the two groups and made the legal division of Christianity permanent within the Holy Roman Empire, allowing rulers to choose either Lutheranism or Roman Catholicism as the official confession of their state.
  • 1557

    Spanish declares bankruptcy

    Charles V had left his son Philip with a debt of about 36 million ducats and an annual deficit of 1 million ducats. This debt caused Philip II to default on loans in 1557, 1560, 1575, and 1596 (including debt to Poland, known as Neapolitan sums).Lenders had no power over the King and could not force him to repay his loans. These defaults were just the beginning of Spain's economic troubles as its kings would default six more times in the next 65 years.
  • Jan 15, 1559

    Coronation of Queen Elizabeth 1st

    Mary had reversed the Protestant Reformation which had been started by her two predecessors, so this was the last coronation in Great Britain to be conducted under the authority of the Roman Catholic Church. Historians view Elizabeth's coronation as a statement of her intention to restore England to Protestantism, but to allow the continuation of some Catholic customs, a compromise known as the Elizabethan Settlement.
  • Aug 23, 1572

    Saint Bartholomew Massacre

    was a targeted group of assassinations and a wave of Catholic mob violence, directed against the Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants) during the French Wars of Religion. Traditionally believed to have been instigated by Queen Catherine de' Medici, the mother of King Charles IX,[2] the massacre started a few days after the marriage on 18 August of the king's sister Margaret to the Protestant Henry of Navarre (the future Henry IV of France).
  • Edict of Nantes

    was signed in April 1598 by King Henry IV and granted the Calvinist Protestants of France, also known as Huguenots, substantial rights in the nation, which was in essence completely Catholic. In the edict, Henry aimed primarily to promote civil unity.[a] The edict separated civil from religious unity, treated some Protestants for the first time as more than mere schismatics and heretics and opened a path for secularism and tolerance.
  • The Triangular Trade

    Triangular Trade across the Atlantic was a series of trade routes that linked Europe, Africa, and the Americas.First, merchant ships brought European goods to Africa. Then, the goods were exchanged for slaves and the slaves were sailed to the Americas. In the Americas, the slaves were traded for raw materials which were shipped to Europe, completing the process. (Age of Exploration)
  • Galileo Galilei's invention of the telescope

    While Galileo did not invent the telescope, he did design and build telescopes with increasingly higher magnifying power for his own use and to present to his patrons. He was a skilled instrument maker, and his telescopes were known for their high quality.n
    Galileo's first telescope was basically a tube containing two lenses.
  • The trial of Galileo Galilei

    began around 1610 and culminated with the trial and condemnation of Galileo Galilei by the Roman Catholic Inquisition in 1633. Galileo was prosecuted for his support of heliocentrism, the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the centre of the universe.
  • The discovery of Gravity

    Newton formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that formed the dominant scientific viewpoint until it was superseded by the theory of relativity. Newton used his mathematical description of gravity to derive Kepler's laws of planetary motion, account for tides, the trajectories of comets, the precession of the equinoxes and other phenomena, eradicating doubt about the Solar System's heliocentricity.