Period: 1095 to 1299
The CursadesThe Crusades were a series of religious wars between Christians and Muslims. It started primarily to protect or take control of holy sites. In November 1095 the Pope called on Western Christians to take up arms to aid the Byzantines and recapture the Holy Land from Muslim control. This marked the beginning of the Crusades. While the Crusades resulted in defeat for Europeans and a Muslim victory, many argue that they successfully extended the reach of Christianity and Western civilization.
Battle of Chetot-It was fought between the Seljuk forces and the People’s Crusade. This was the first notable armed conflict between Muslim and Christian forces.
Oct 21, 1097
Siege of Antioch-Antioch was on the path to Palestine. The crusaders decided to take control of the city because it had supplies and did so on October 21, 1097.
Jun 7, 1099
Siege of JerusalemThe Siege of Jerusalem was the decisive event of the First Crusade. The Crusader forces finally converged on Jerusalem and enclosed on the city on June 7, 1099.
Sep 7, 1191
Battle of ArsufIt was fought on September 7, 1191, between the forces of Saladin and Richard the Lionheart (King Richard).it was a victory for the Crusaders under king Richard. This ultimately forced Saladin to recognize Crusader control of many coastal regions.
Jun 24, 1340
Sluys 1340: First Battle of the Hundred Years’ War"It was fought at sea off the coast of Flanders and pitted approximately 200 French ships. led by Edward on board the cog Thomas. The English closed the distance but it soon became obvious that the French crossbowmen were no match for the English longbowmen. Most of the French fleet was captured, sunk, or run aground. There were probably around 10,000 French sailors killed, wounded, and captured" https://www.thecollector.com/5-key-battles-of-the-hundred-years-war/
Sep 25, 1340
Siege of Tournai"The siege of Tournai occurred during the Edwardian phase of the Hundred Years' War. The Siege began when a coalition of England, Flanders, Hainaut, Brabant and the Holy Roman Empire under the command of King Edward III of England besieged the French city of Tournai. This siege would end in the Truce of Espléchin, marking the end of the Tournaisis campaign of 1340."
Aug 26, 1346
Crecy 1346: The Longbow AscendantThe English probably had a little over 10,000 men. The French host was undoubtedly larger, 20-30,000, and contained the best heavy cavalry in Europe. the English had one major advantage: the longbow. This would be the first time most of the French had seen such a weapon used in the field. Perhaps as many as 2,000 French nobles died in the battle, along with thousands more foot soldiers and crossbowmen.
Period: 1347 to 1352
The black Death"The Black Death was a devastating global epidemic of bubonic plague that struck Europe and Asia in the mid-1300s. The plague arrived in Europe in October 1347, when 12 ships from the Black Sea docked at the Sicilian port of Messina... Most sailors aboard the ships were dead, and those still alive were gravely ill and covered in black boils that oozed blood and pus."
Jun 20, 1347
Battle of La Roche-Derrien"The Battle of La Roche-Derrien was one of the battles of the Breton War of Succession. When Dagworth's army arrived at La Roche-Derrien They attacked the eastern encampment and fell into the trap laid by Charles. Dagworth's main force was assailed with crossbow bolts from front and rear and after a short time Dagworth himself was forced to surrender."
Period: 1400 to 1495
Early Renaissance" the period from about 1400 to 1500 in European, esp Italian, painting, sculpture, and architecture, when naturalistic styles and humanist theories were evolved from the study of classical sources, notably by Donatello, Masaccio, and Alberti"
Period: 1400 to
The age of exploration"The Age of Exploration, or Age of Discovery, is one of the most important events in the history of the western world. It involved European explorers using their navigational skills to travel the world. In general, the Age of Exploration occurred for several different reasons, particularly in the countries of Portugal, Spain, France and England."
Nov 11, 1400
battle of aleppoAfter the success of his devastating invasion of India, Timur turned his army to the west. His attack on the Syrian domains of Sultan Faraj, Mameluke ruler of Egypt, was an astonishingly bold enterprise. In the event, the renowned Mameluke forces proved no match for Timur at Aleppo. At least 20,000 Syrians reportedly massacred.
May 23, 1430
Joan of Arc is capturedphilip the good, duke of burgundy captured Joan of Arc at the Siege of Compiègne. He then sold her to the English, who tried her for heresy and later executed her.
May 21, 1471
Assassination of Henry VI" York returned to England in September he made his way to London under the royal standard and attempted to take the crown. This appalled even his closest allies, who had recently reaffirmed their loyalty to Henry. However, they could side with York and risk a long civil war by deposing an anointed king After two weeks, Parliament decided on a compromise. After Henry died York or his descendants would take the crown"
Period: 1490 to 1527
High Renaissance"a style of art developed in Italy in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, chiefly characterized by an emphasis on draftsmanship, schematized, often centralized compositions, and the illusion of sculptural volume in painting."
Jan 9, 1493
Columbus mistakes manatees for mermaidsOn January 9, 1493, explorer Christopher Columbus, sailing near what is now the Dominican Republic, sees three “mermaids”—in reality manatees—and describes them as “not half as beautiful as they are painted.”
Period: 1500 to
The Scientific revolution"The Scientific Revolution denotes a series of events that took place in Europe during the 17th century and marked advances in the natural sciences. Scientists also developed the scientific method, used to study and analyze natural phenomena, during this period."
Period: 1517 to
The reformation"The Protestant Reformation was the 16th-century religious, political, intellectual and cultural upheaval that splintered Catholic Europe, setting in place the structures and beliefs that would define the continent in the modern era. "
Period: 1520 to
late renaissance"The art of the Late Renaissance was defined by the Mannerist style, which went beyond the symmetrical ideals of beauty found in High Renaissance art and sought to represent movement, tension, instability, and asymmetry. "