French rev of 1848

Reform, Reaction, and Revolution

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    Frederick William III of Prussia

    King of Prussia from 1797, the son of Frederick William II. Ruled Prussia during the Napoleonic Wars and the end of the Holy Roman Empire.
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    Tsar Alexander I

    Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states. The 1848 revolutions in the Italian states were organized revolts in the states of the Italian peninsula and Sicily, led by intellectuals and agitators who desired a liberal government. As Italian nationalists they sought to eliminate reactionary Austrian control.
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    Louis XVIII

    Louis XVIII, known as "The Desired", was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days. He was the king to follow after Napoleon. During his rule he was as influential as many of the kings before him. He died in 1824, from bad health conditions.
  • Germanic Confederation Established

    Created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.
  • Unoin of Netherlands and Belgium

    The polity collapsed in 1830 with the outbreak of the Belgian Revolution. With the de facto secession of Belgium, the Netherlands was left as a rump state and refused to recognise Belgian independence until 1839 when the Treaty of London was signed, fixing the border between the two states and guaranteeing Belgian independence and neutrality as the Kingdom of Belgium.
  • Peterloo Massacre

    Peterloo Massacre
    An armed cavalry charged a peaceful crowd of around 60,000 people gathered to listen to anti-poverty and pro-democracy speakers. It is estimated that 18 were killed, and nearly 700 seriously injured.
  • Karlsbad Decrees

    Karlsbad Decrees
    A set of reactionary restrictions introduced in the states of the German Confederation by resolution of the Bundesversammlung on 20 September 1819 after a conference held in the spa town of Carlsbad, Bohemia.
  • Revolts in southern Italy and Sardinia crushed

    Revolts in southern Italy and Sardinia crushed
    The revolts started against King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies in Naples and Sicily. The revolt resulted in the King promising to implement a constitutional monarchy. The success of the revolt inspired Carbonari to attempt the same thing in the Kingdom of Sardinia. The king of Sardinia forcefully put down the revolt with the help of the Austrian Empire.
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    Charles X

    Charles X was King of France from 16 September 1824 until 2 August 1830. For most of his life he was known as the Count of Artois. His rule of almost six years ended in the July Revolution of 1830, which resulted in his abdication and the election of Louis Philippe I as King of the French. Exiled once again, Charles died in 1836 in Gorizia, then part of the Austrian Empire. He was the last of the French rulers from the senior branch of the House of Bourbon.
  • Decembrist Revolt

    Decembrist Revolt
    The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising took place in Imperial Russia on 26 December 1825. Russian army officers led about 3,000 soldiers in a protest against Tsar Nicholas I's assumption of the throne after his elder brother Constantine removed himself from the line of succession. Because these events occurred in December, the rebels were called the Decembrists
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    Tsar Nicholas I

    Nicholas Pavlovich Romanov came to power amid the Decembrist Revolt of 1825 and died during the Crimean War. Between these two events, Nicholas became known throughout his empire and the world as the quintessential autocrat, and his Nicholaevna system as the most oppressive in Europe.
  • Polish Uprising

    Polish Uprising
    The November Uprising, also known as the Polish–Russian War 1830–31 or the Cadet Revolution, was an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire.
  • July Revolution

    July Revolution
    led to the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch. It marked the shift from one constitutional monarchy, under the restored House of Bourbon, to another, the July Monarchy
  • Belgian independence

    Belgian independence
    The Belgian Revolution (French: Révolution belge, Dutch: Belgische Revolutie/opstand/omwenteling, German: Belgische Revolution) was the conflict which led to the secession of the southern provinces (mainly the former Southern Netherlands) from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the establishment of an independent Kingdom of Belgium.
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    Louis-Philippe

    As a member of the cadet branch of the Royal House of France and a cousin of King Louis XVI of France by reason of his descent from their common ancestors Louis XIII and Louis XIV, he had earlier found it necessary to flee France during the period of the French Revolution in order to avoid imprisonment and execution, a fate that actually befell his father Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans.He spent 21 years in exile after he left France in 1793.
  • Suppression of Polish Revolt

    Suppression of Polish Revolt
    an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire.
  • Reform Act

    Reform Act
    Parliament passes a law changing the British electoral system.This was a response to many years of people criticising the electoral system as unfair.
  • Poor Law

    was designed to reduce the cost of looking after the poor as it stopped money going to poor people except in exceptional circumstances. Now if people wanted help they had to go into a workhouse to get it.
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    Emporer Ferdinand I

    Ferdinand I was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death. As ruler of Austria, he was also President of the German Confederation, King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia.
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    Frederick William IV of Prussia

    He is best remembered for the many buildings he had constructed in Berlin and Potsdam, as well as for the completion of the Gothic Cologne Cathedral.
  • Repeal of Corn Laws

    The Corn Laws were tariffs and restrictions on imports that were enforced in Great Britain between 1815 and 1846. They were designed to keep grain prices high. This tariff was repealed in 1846
  • Revolutions in Italy

    Revolutions in Italy
    Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states. The 1848 revolutions in the Italian states were organized revolts in the states of the Italian peninsula and Sicily, led by intellectuals and agitators who desired a liberal government. As Italian nationalists they sought to eliminate reactionary Austrian control.
  • Revolt in Austrian Empire, Metternich dismissed

     Revolt in Austrian Empire, Metternich dismissed
    Ferdinand I was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death. As ruler of Austria, he was also President of the German Confederation, King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia.
  • Establishment of the Second Republic

    Establishment of the Second Republic
    The French Second Republic was a short-lived republican government of France between the 1848 Revolution and the 1851 coup by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte which initiated the Second Empire.
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    Francis Joseph

    Francis Joseph I was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, and monarch of other states in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 2 December 1848 to his death. From 1 May 1850 to 24 August 1866 he was also President of the German Confederation. He was the longest-reigning Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary.