Jan 1, 1338
Bubonic PlagueWithout treatment will kill 2-3 people within four days. Killed 30-60% of European population during the middle ages. Buboes, associated with bubonic plague, situated in armpits and groin and neck region. Medieval doctors thought plague was caused by corrupted air. Plague victims had 50% chance of survival. Symptoms – high fevers, internal bleeding, heavy breathing. Pain caused by decay of skin while person is still alive
Jan 1, 1451
The Council of Chalcedono Oct – Nov 1451AD o Convened by Pope Leo VIII o Dealt with belief in Christ having just one nature o Issued edicts to do with Church administration o Not accepted by the Orthodox Churches
Jan 1, 1513
The ReformationSplit within western Christianity – Protestant reformers and their followers split from the Catholic Church. Initiated by Luther, Calvin, Zwingli, and other Protestant reformers. Led to creation of new national protestant churches. Proceeded by Black Death and Western Schism (a period of the Papacy residing in Avignon, France. When papacy returned to Rome, some Frenchmen didn’t like it, and made their own pope to stay in Avignon), which eroded peoples’ faith.
Jan 1, 1535
The Counter reformationWas a Catholic reformation; preceded by the Council of Trent. A comprehensive effort of four major elements
§ Ecclesiastical reconfiguration
§ Religious orders
§ Spiritual movements
§ Political dimensions (Inquisitions – an investigation into incorrect belief). A new reformed calendar (Gregorian Calendar) was put into effect. Important figures such as St Charles Borromeo greatly pushed for this reform as they saw that it was greatly needed.
Dec 31, 1543
The council of TrentHappened in the 16th century. Considered to be one of the church’s most important councils. Delayed and interrupted several times due to political and religious disputes. Pope Paul III invoked council. The Council of Trent was accepted by the Catholic Church. Called to address the issue of the heresy of Protestantism. Reiterated the biblical canon. It called for the introduction of seminaries
The First Vatican Councilo Convened by Pope Pius IV in 1868 - 1870 o Dealt with contemporary problems with rationalism and materialism o Met at Lateran Basilica o Defined Church Doctrine concerning the Church of Christ § Extra Ecclesia nulla salus (outside of the Church there is no salvation) o Papal Infallibility defined – means the Pope has the authority to declare things to be Dogma when speaking ex cathedra (lit. from the chair – when speaking with the teaching authority of the Pope)
The Second Vatican Councilo Opened under John XXIII 1962 – 1965 (Closed by Paul VI) o Addressed relations between the Church and the modern world o Preparations took more than two years o Several topics were covered during the council § The nature and reform of the liturgy § The Word of God § Role of Priests and Bishops § The Media § The Church and how it relates with the modern world o Ecumenical Council – a meeting of the world’s bishops to discuss an important matter of the time. Most of the time i